List of exoplanet extremes
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The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.
Extremes from Earth's viewpoint
|Most distant||SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04||–||27,710 light years.||An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy (2.54 ± 0.11 Mly).|
|Least distant||Proxima Centauri b||Proxima Centauri||4.22 light years||Also the closest rocky exoplanet, and closest potentially habitable exoplanet known.|
|Star with the brightest apparent magnitude with a planet||Pollux b||Pollux||Apparent magnitude is 1.14||The evidence of planets around Vega with an apparent magnitude of 0.03 is strongly suggested by circumstellar disks surrounding it. As of 2013[update], no planets had yet been confirmed.|
|Largest angular distance separation from its host star||GU Piscium b||GU Piscium||42 arc seconds||WD 0806-661 b has an angular separation of 130.208333 arc seconds from WD 0806-661. However, its planetary origin is unknown.|
|Most massive||DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b||DENIS-P J082303.1-491201||±1.9 28.5Jupiter masses||Most massive planet in the NASA Exoplanet Archive although, according to most definitions of planet, it may be too massive to be a planet, and may be a brown dwarf instead. It is part of an ultracool binary system.|
|Least massive||PSR B1257+12 A||PSR B1257+12||0.02 MEarth||Mass of PSR B1257+12 A is based on an assumption of coplanarity with the outer two planets. The least massive exoplanet for which a true mass is known is Gliese 581 e with a mass of 2 MEarth.|
|Biggest radius||HAT-P-32b||HAT-P-32||2.04 Jupiter radii||CT Chamaeleontis b is slightly larger at 2.2 Jupiter radii, but may be a brown dwarf star.|
|Smallest radius||Kepler-37b||Kepler-37||0.30 Earth radii||Slightly larger than the Moon.|
|Most dense||K2-22b||K2-22||unknown g/cm3[note 1]||With a mass of at most 445 MEarth and a radius of at most 2.5Earth the density is 0 to ~160 g/cm3.|
|Least dense||Kepler-453b||Kepler-453||0–0.7 g/cm3[note 2]||The density of Kepler-453b has not been accurately measured, and it has a radius of 6.204 Re|
|Highest albedo||Kepler-10b||Kepler-10||0.5–0.6 (geometric albedo)|
|Lowest albedo||TrES-2b||GSC 03549-02811||Geometric albedo < 1%||Best-fit model for albedo gives even 0.04% (0.0004)|
|Youngest||V830 Tau b||V830 Tau||2 Myr|
|Oldest||PSR B1620-26 b||PSR B1620-26||13 Gyr||Orbits in a circumbinary orbit around two stellar remnants – a pulsar and a white dwarf|
|Longest orbital period
|2MASS J2126-8140||TYC 9486-927-1||~1,000,000 years||GU Piscium b previously held record at 163,000 years.|
|Shortest orbital period
|PSR J1719-1438 b||PSR J1719-1438 b||0.092 days (2.2 hours) |
|Most eccentric orbit||HD 20782 b||HD 20782||eccentricity of 0.97±0.01||HD 80606 b has an orbital eccentricity of 0.9349, previously held record|
|Least eccentric orbit||HD 209458 b||HD 209458||eccentricity of 0.014±0.009|
|Largest orbit around a single star||HD 106906 b||HD 106906||~650 AU|
|Smallest orbit||PSR J1719-1438 b||PSR J1719-1438||0.004 AU|
|Smallest orbit around binary star||Kepler-47b||Kepler-47AB||≃0.3 AU|||
|Smallest ratio of semi-major axis of a planet orbit to binary star orbit||Kepler-16b||Kepler-16AB||3.14 ± 0.01|||
|Largest orbit around binary star||DT Virginis c||DT Virginis||1,168 AU||Star system is also known as Ross 458 AB. The planet was eventually confirmed to be below deuterium burning limit but its formation origin is unknown.|
|Largest orbit around a single star in a multiple star system||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||115 AU||The second stellar component of the system, TW Piscis Austrini, has a semi-major axis of 57,000 AU from Fomalhaut and the third stellar component, LP 876-10 orbits 158,000 AU away from Fomalhaut.|
|Largest distance between binary stars with a circumbinary planet||FW Tauri AB b||FW Tau AB||≈11 AU|||
|Closest orbit between stars with a planet orbiting one of the stars||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LB||~12-17 AU
(10 or 14 AU projected distance)
|OGLE-2013-BLG-0341L b's semi-major axis is 0.7 AU.|
|Smallest semi-major axis difference between planets||Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c||Kepler-70||0.0016 AU (about 240,000 km)||During closest approach, Kepler-70c would appear 5 times the size of the Moon in Kepler-70b's sky.|
|Smallest semi-major axis ratio between planets||Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c||Kepler-36||11%||Kepler-36b and c have semi-major axes of 0.1153 AU and 0.1283 AU respectively, c is 11% further from star than b .|
|Highest metallicity||HD 126614 Ab||HD 126614 A||+0.56 dex||Located in a triple star system.|
|Lowest metallicity||Kepler-271b,c||Kepler-271||−0.951 dex||BD+20°2457 may be the lowest metallicity planet host ([Fe/H]=−1.00), however the proposed planetary system is dynamically unstable.  The next lowest-metallicity system is Kepler-271. Planets were announced around even the extremely low metallicity stars HIP 13044 and HIP 11952, however these claims have since been disproven. |
|Highest stellar mass||HD 13189 b||HD 13189||4.5±2.5 M☉||Margin of error means the star Epsilon Tauri with a stellar mass of 2.723 M☉ is potentially the most massive known planet-harboring star.|
|Lowest stellar mass (main sequence)||TRAPPIST-1b, c, and d||TRAPPIST-1||0.08 M☉|
|Lowest stellar mass (brown dwarf)||2M J044144 b||2M J044144||0.02 M☉|
|Largest stellar radius||HD 208527 b||HD 208527||51.1 (± 8.3) R☉||Star is a red giant.|
|Smallest stellar radius (main sequence star)||Kepler-42 b||Kepler-42||0.17 (± 0.05) R☉|
|Smallest stellar radius (brown dwarf)||2M 0746+20 b||2M 0746+20||0.089 (± 0.003) R☉||Planet's mass is very uncertain at 30.0 (± 25.0) Mjup.|
|Smallest stellar radius (pulsar)||PSR J1719-1438 b||PSR J1719-1438||0.04 R☉|
|Oldest star||HD 164922 b||HD 164922||13.4 billion years|
|Hottest star with a planet||NY Virginis b||NY Virginis||33247 K||This star is a subdwarf B star and has a red dwarf companion of 0.14 solar masses with a semi-major axis of slightly under 4 million kilometers from the primary component.|
|Hottest main-sequence star with a planet||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||8590 K||HIP 78530 has a surface temperature of 10500K, but it is uncertain whether the orbiting companion is a brown dwarf or planet.|
|System with most (confirmed) planets||HD 10180||9||1||The planets are HD 10180b, c, ..., h. This system has 2 unconfirmed planets and more data is needed to confirm their existence.|
|System with most stars||Kepler 64||PH1b (Kepler 64b)||4||PH1 has a circumbinary orbit.|
- Extremes on Earth
- List of exoplanets
- List of stars with proplyds
- Methods of detecting exoplanets
- Terrestrial exoplanets
- NASA does not give a direct density value, however both mass and radius values are given. Using the PHL density Calculator the mass value of 445 Me and 2.5 Re were used and gave a result of 157.1 g/cm3 which was far higher than PSR J1719-1438 b's densities. However, because both these values are very much upper bound and the actual mass is likely dramatically lower, the density could be much lower or higher, as the mass is an absolute upper bound.
- NASA does not give a direct density value, however both mass and radius values are given. Using the PHL density Calculator mass value of 0–30 Me and 6.204 Re were used and gave a result of 0–0.7 g/cm which may or may not be lower than Kepler-51d's density depending on the radius of Kepler-52d and the mass of Kepler-453b. The volume of Kepler-51d may be an order of magnitude smaller, or somewhat larger, than that of Jupiter, with possible densities between 10 and about 500 grams per liter.
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