List of directly imaged exoplanets

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Motion interpolation of seven images of the HR 8799 system taken from the W. M. Keck Observatory over seven years, featuring four exoplanets

This is a list of extrasolar planets that have been directly observed, sorted by observed separations. This method works best for young planets that emit infrared light and are far from the glare of the star. Currently, this list includes both directly imaged planets and imaged planetary-mass companions (objects that orbit a star but formed through a binary-star-formation process, not a planet-formation process). This list does not include free-floating planetary-mass objects in star-forming regions or young associations, which are also referred to as rogue planets.

The data given for each planet is taken from the latest published paper on the planet to have that data. In many cases it is not possible to have an exact value, and an estimated range is instead provided. The least massive planet is Fomalhaut b, which has a mass of 2 MJ or less. The coldest and oldest is 59 Virginis b with a mean temperature of 240 °C and age of 100–500 million years.[1] This list includes the four members of the multi-planet system that orbit HR 8799.

Key[edit]

Exoplanets have been discovered using several different methods for collecting or combining direct images to isolate planets from the background light of their star. Non-Redundant Aperture Masking Interferometry is a method of combining the views of multiple telescopes into a single image, while the other methods are algorithms for combining multiple direct images taken from the same telescope.

  • ADI = Angular Differential Imaging
  • LOCI = Locally Optimized Combination of Images
  • NRM = Non-Redundant Aperture Masking Interferometry
  • RSDI = Reference Star Differential Imaging
  • TLOCI = Template Locally Optimized Combination of Images

Exoplanets[edit]

  †   There is no consensus whether these companions of stars should be considered sub-brown dwarfs or planets

Star Exoplanet Mass (MJ) Radius (RJ) Period (yr) Observed separation (AU) Eccentricity Distance to Earth (ly) Year of discovery Imaging technique Ref(s).
Beta Pictoris Beta Pictoris b 12.7±0.3 1.5±0.2 22.47+3.77
−2.26
9 0.08+0.09
−-0.05
63.4±0.1 2008 RSDI [2][3][4][5]
51 Eridani 51 Eridani b 9.1+4.9
−3.3
1.0  ? 13  ? 96 2014 ADI, TLOCI [6]
HR 8799 HR 8799 e 7.0 1.3 49 14.5 0.14 128 2010 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 d 7.0 1.3 100 24.5 0.09 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 c 7.0 1.3 189 37.4 0.24 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 b 5.0 1.2 474 69.2 0.17 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
ROXs 42B ROXs 42Bb 9±3 2.5 Unknown 157 Unknown 440±16 2013 Direct imaging [7]
2M1207 2M1207b 4.2 1.5 1620 40.6 0.37 170 2004 Direct imaging
1RXS J1609 1RXS 1609 b 8–14 1.7 6518 331.1 0.08 470 2008 Direct imaging
2M J044144 2M J044144 b† 5–10 15 456 2010 Direct imaging
Fomalhaut Fomalhaut b < 2.0 872–2000 116.0 25 2008/2012 RSDI
LkCa 15 LkCa 15 b 6.2 1.8 42315 23.5 0.32 477 2011 NRM
WD 0806-661 WD 0806-661 B† 7–13  ?  ? 2500  ? 62 2011 Direct imaging
DT Virginis Ross 458(AB) c† 8.5 1.8 33081 1167.7 0.17 38[8] 2011 Direct Imaging
HD 95086 HD 95086 b 5.0  ?  ? 56  ? 295 2013 ADI, LOCI
59 Virginis Gliese 504 b 4+4.5
−1
 ?  ? 43.5  ? 57.27 2013 ADI, LOCI
FW Tauri FW Tauri b† 10±4  ?  ? 330  ?  ? 2013 Direct imaging
HD 106906 HD 106906 b 11±2  ?  ? 650  ? 300 2013 ADI
GU Piscium GU Piscium b 11±2 163000 2000 155 2014 Direct imaging
VHS 1256-1257 VHS 1256 b 11.2 3900 102 40 2015 Direct imaging
CVSO 30 CVSO 30 c ~4.7 1.63+0.87
−0.34
[9]
27000 660 1200 2016 Direct imaging
HIP 65426 HIP 65426 b 2017 [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Direct Imaging of a Cold Jovian Exoplanet in Orbit around the Sun-like Star GJ 504
  2. ^ Wang et. al. (2016). "The Orbit and Transit Prospects for β Pictoris b Constrained with One Milliarcsecond Astrometry". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (4): 97. arXiv:1607.05272Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...97W. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/4/97. 
  3. ^ Bonnefoy et. al. (2014). "Physical and orbital properties of β Pictoris b". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 567: L9. arXiv:1407.4001Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014A&A...567L...9B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424041. 
  4. ^ Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben (2013). "A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, β Pictoris b". The Astrophysical Journal. 776 (1): 15. arXiv:1306.0610Freely accessible. Bibcode:2013ApJ...776...15C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/15. ISSN 0004-637X. 
  5. ^ Morzinski et. al. (2015). "Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet β Pic b. II. 3-5 μm Direct Imaging with MagAO+Clio, and the Empirical Bolometric Luminosity of a Self-luminous Giant Planet". The Astrophysical Journal. 815: 108. arXiv:1511.02894Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...815..108M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/815/2/108. 
  6. ^ Samland et. al. (2017). "Spectral and atmospheric characterization of 51 Eridani b using VLT/SPHERE". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 603: 57. arXiv:1704.02987Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017A&A...603A..57S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629767. 
  7. ^ Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Daemgen, Sebastian (2014). "A First-Look Atmospheric Modeling Study of the Young Directly-Imaged Planet-Mass Companion, ROXs 42Bb". The Astrophysical Journal. 787: 104. arXiv:1404.0131Freely accessible [astro-ph.SR]. Bibcode:2014ApJ...787..104C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/104. 
  8. ^ "Ross 458(AB) c". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  9. ^ http://exoplanet.eu/catalog/cvso_30_c/%7Ctitle=Planet CVSO 30 c|Retrieved 02 November 2017
  10. ^ "ESO's SPHERE Unveils its First Exoplanet". www.eso.org. Retrieved 29 November 2017. 

External links[edit]