List of extraterrestrial orbiters

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List of extraterrestrial orbiters is a listing of spacecraft that achieved an extraterrestrial orbit.

Sun[edit]

First artificial object on heliocentric orbit was Luna 1 (1959).

Mercury[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
MESSENGER United States USA 18 March 2011 Deliberately crashed into surface 30 April 2015. Impact probably around 54.4° N, 149.9° W, near the crater Janáček. First Mercury orbiter

Venus[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
Venera 9 Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1975 First Venus orbiter
Venera 10 Soviet Union USSR 23 October 1975
Pioneer Venus Orbiter United States USA 4 December 1978 Contact lost 8 October 1992; atmospheric entry disintegration on 22 October 1992.
Venera 15 Soviet Union USSR 10 October 1983 Contact lost July 1984
Venera 16 Soviet Union USSR 11 October 1983 Contact lost July 1984
Magellan United States USA 7 August 1990 Deliberately deorbited into Venus' atmosphere. Contact lost 13 October 1994.
Venus Express Not the esa logo.png ESA 11 April 2006 Mission ended December 2014
Akatsuki Japan Japan 7 December 2015 Active

Moon[edit]

The Apollo 17 CSM seen in lunar orbit from the ascent stage of the Lunar Module
Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current status Notes
Luna 10[1] Soviet Union USSR 3 April 1966 Contact lost 30 May 1966 First moon orbiter
Lunar Orbiter 1 United States USA 14 August 1966 Impacted lunar surface 29 October 1966 First U.S. extraterrestrial orbiter
Luna 11[2] Soviet Union USSR 27 August 1966 1 October 1966
Luna 12 Soviet Union USSR 25 October 1966 19 January 1967
Lunar Orbiter 2 United States USA Launched 6 November 1966 Impacted lunar surface 11 October 1967
Lunar Orbiter 3 United States USA 8 February 1967 Impacted lunar surface 9 October 1967
Lunar Orbiter 4 United States USA Launched 4 May 1967 Contact lost 17 July 1967, impacted lunar surface 6 October 1967
Explorer 35 United States USA Launched 19 July 1967 Deactivated 24 June 1973; impacted lunar surface in the middle to late 1970s
Lunar Orbiter 5 United States USA 5 August 1967 Deorbited; impacted lunar surface 31 January 1968
Luna 14 Soviet Union USSR 10 April 1968
Luna 19 Soviet Union USSR 2 October 1971 Mission terminated 20 October 1972
Explorer 49 United States USA Launched 10 June 1973 Contact lost August 1977
Luna 22 Soviet Union USSR 2 June 1974 Mission terminated November 1975
Apollo 8 United States USA Launched 21 December 1968; entered orbit after 69 hrs Left orbit after 10 orbits; splashdown on Earth First crewed lunar orbit
Apollo 10 United States USA Launched 18 May 1969 Left orbit 26 May 1969
Apollo 11 United States USA July 19, 1969 July 21, 1969; Lunar module ascent stage abandoned in orbit, impact site unknown Human Moon landing
Apollo 12 United States USA November 18, 1969 November 21, 1969 Human Moon landing
Apollo 14 United States USA February 4, 1971 February 7, 1971 Human Moon landing
Apollo 15 United States USA July 29, 1971 August 4, 1971 Human Moon landing
Apollo 15 subsatellite (PFS-1) United States USA August 4, 1971 January 1973
Apollo 16 United States USA April 19, 1972 April 25, 1972; Lunar module ascent stage abandoned in orbit, impact site unknown Human Moon landing
Apollo 16 subsatellite (PFS-2) United States USA April 24, 1972 May 29, 1972
Apollo 17 United States USA December 11, 1972 December 14, 1972 Human Moon landing
Hiten and Hagoromo Japan Japan Hiten: 15 February 1993 Hiten was deliberately deorbited and impacted the lunar surface 10 April 1993 First Japanese lunar orbiter
Clementine United States USA Launched 25 January 1994 Left lunar orbit and entered heliocentric orbit; contact lost June 1994
Lunar Prospector United States USA Launched 7 January 1998 Deliberately deorbited; impacted lunar surface 31 July 1999
SMART-1 Not the esa logo.png ESA 11 November 2004 Deliberately deorbited; impacted lunar surface 3 September 2006
SELENE (Kaguya, Okina & Ouna) Japan Japan 3 October 2007 Deliberately deorbited; impacted lunar surface 10 June 2009
Chang'e 1 China PRC 5 November 2007 Deliberately deorbited 1 March 2009; impacted the Moon's surface. First Chinese lunar orbiter
Chang'e 2 China PRC 6 October 2010 Left lunar orbit 8 June 2011; currently in deep-space orbit
Chandrayaan-1 India India 8 November 2008 Contact lost 29 August 2009 First Indian lunar orbiter
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter[3] United States USA 23 June 2009 Active
ARTEMIS P1 United States USA 2 July 2011 Active
ARTEMIS P2[4] United States USA 17 July 2011 Active
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) United States USA 31 December 2011 / 1 January 2012 Both spacecraft were deliberately deorbited and impacted on the lunar surface 17 December 2012
LADEE United States USA 6 October 2013 Deliberately deorbited 18 April 2014
Chang'e 3 China PRC 6 December 2013 Landed on lunar surface 14 December 2013 First Chinese lunar landing
Chang'e 5-T1 China PRC 13 January 2015 Active
Chang'e 4 China PRC 12 December 2018 Landed on lunar surface 3 January 2019 First lunar far-side landing
Beresheet Israel Israel 4 April 2019 Crashed onto lunar surface 11 April 2019 If it were successful, first private lunar lander.
Chandrayaan-2 India India 20 August 2019 orbiter is active.Lander

Vikram failed to soft land on lunar south pole on 7 September 2019, but the lander is found to be in one piece but is in tilted position without active communication[5]

If communication establishes with the lander, India will become the fourth country to land on moon and first to land on lunar south pole.

Mars[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
Mariner 9 United States USA 14 November 1971 Deactivated 27 October 1972. In derelict orbit around Mars, expected to decay no sooner than 2022.[6] First spacecraft to orbit another planet
Mars 2 orbiter Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 [7] Mission terminated 22 August 1972; spacecraft in derelict orbit First Soviet spacecraft to orbit Mars
Mars 3 orbiter Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971[7]
Mars 5 orbiter[8] Soviet Union USSR 12 February 1974
Viking 1 orbiter United States USA 19 June 1976 Mission terminated 17 August 1980, spacecraft in derelict high altitude orbit.
Viking 2 orbiter United States USA 7 August 1976 Mission terminated 25 July 1978, spacecraft in derelict high altitude orbit.
Phobos 2[9] Soviet Union USSR 29 January 1989 Contact lost 27 March 1989
Mars Global Surveyor United States USA 11 September 1997 Contact lost 2 November 2006; mission officially ended January 2007
2001 Mars Odyssey United States USA 24 October 2001 Active Longest-surviving, continuously active spacecraft in orbit around another planet
Mars Express Not the esa logo.png ESA 20 December 2003 Active
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter United States USA 10 March 2006 Active
MAVEN United States USA 22 September 2014 Active
Mars Orbiter Mission India ISRO 24 September 2014 Active India's first interplanetary mission
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter European Space Agency ESA 19 October 2016 Active Carried Schiaparelli EDM lander

Minor planets and comets[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Object Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
NEAR Shoemaker United States USA 433 Eros 14 February 2000 (Valentine's Day) Landed 12 February 2001 on the surface of Eros. First spacecraft to orbit an asteroid
Dawn United States USA 4 Vesta 16 July 2011 Left Vesta orbit 5 September 2012
Dawn United States USA Ceres 9 March 2015 Mission concluded 1 November 2018 First spacecraft to achieve orbit around two separate objects and to orbit a dwarf planet.
Rosetta Not the esa logo.png ESA 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 6 August 2014 On 30 September 2016, ended its mission by landing on the comet in its Ma'at region. First spacecraft to orbit a comet. Philae lander module successfully landed on 12 November 2014
Hayabusa2 Japan Japan 162173 Ryugu 27 June 2018 Active
OSIRIS-REx United States USA 101955 Bennu 31 December 2018 Active Smallest body to be orbited by spacecraft and closest ever orbit[10][11]

Jupiter[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
Galileo United States USA 8 December 1995 Intentionally deorbited and incinerated in Jupiter's atmosphere 21 September 2003 First Jupiter orbiter
Juno United States USA 4 July 2016 Active

Saturn[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Orbital insertion Current Status Notes
Cassini-Huygens United States USA /
Not the esa logo.png ESA
1 July 2004 Intentionally deorbited and incinerated in Saturn's atmosphere 15 September 2017 First Saturn orbiter

References[edit]

  1. ^ NSSDC - Luna 10
  2. ^ NSSDC - Luna 11
  3. ^ Where is LRO?
  4. ^ Hendrix, Susan. "Second ARTEMIS Spacecraft Successfully Enters Lunar Orbit". The Sun-Earth Connection: Heliophysics. NASA.
  5. ^ Sep 9, PTI | Updated:; 2019; Ist, 16:23. "Chandrayaan-2: Isro, not losing hope, continues to make all-out efforts to restore link with lander 'Vikram' | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-09-09.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  6. ^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9 Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, November 29, 2011 — Vol. 4, Issue 9
  7. ^ a b NASA Mars log
  8. ^ Historic Spacecraft - Mars Probes
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica Fobos 1F Archived 2011-10-10 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "NASA'S OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Arrives at Asteroid Bennu". NASA. 2018-12-03. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  11. ^ "NASA's OSIRIS-REx Mission Breaks Another Orbit Record". NASA. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-06-22.

See also[edit]