List of fake news websites
Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes and disinformation to drive web traffic inflamed by social media. These sites are distinguished from news satire (which is humorous) as they mislead and sometimes profit from readers' gullibility. While most fake news sites are portrayed to be spinoffs of other news sites, some of these websites are examples of website spoofing, structured to make visitors believe they are visiting trusted sources like ABC News or MSNBC. The New York Times pointed out that within a strict definition, "fake news" on the Internet referred to a fictitious article which was fabricated with the deliberate motivation to defraud readers, generally with the goal of profiting through clickbait. PolitiFact described fake news as fabricated content designed to fool readers and subsequently made viral through the Internet to crowds that increase its dissemination.
The New York Times noted in a December 2016 article that fake news had previously maintained a presence on the Internet and within tabloid journalism in the years prior to the 2016 U.S. election. Prior to the election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, fake news had not impacted the election process and subsequent events to such a high degree. Subsequent to the 2016 election, the issue of fake news turned into a political weapon, with supporters of left-wing politics saying those on the opposite side of the spectrum spread falsehoods, and supporters of right-wing politics arguing such accusations were merely a way to censor conservative views. Due to these back-and-forth complaints, the definition of fake news as used for such polemics became more vague.
|70 News||A WordPress-hosted site that published a false news story, stating that Donald Trump had won the popular vote in the 2016 United States presidential election; the fake story rose to the top in searches for "final election results" on Google News.|||
|ABCnews.com.co||Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of ABC News (owned by Disney–ABC Television Group).|||
|American News||Published a false story claiming actor Denzel Washington endorsed Donald Trump for president. The fictional headline led to thousands of people sharing it on Facebook, a prominent example of fake news spreading on the social network prior to the 2016 presidential election.|||
|Before It's News||Cited by US President Donald Trump at his 2016 campaign rallies. Before It's News and Infowars were described as "unabashedly unhinged 'news' sites" in 2014 by The Washington Post following its promotion of conspiracy theories relating to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.|||
|bizstandardnews.com||Its stories have been mistaken as real-news then shared and cited as real-news.
Its disclaimer says the stories "could be true" because "reality is so strange nowadays". But the disclaimer also says it is "a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle."
Its name is similar to the unrelated Indian English-language daily newspaper called Business Standard.
|Bloomberg.ma||Designed to imitate Bloomberg.com. Was used to issue a false report announcing that Twitter had received a USD $31 billion takeover offer, resulting in a brief 8% stock price spike of Twitter. The site is now defunct.|||
|The Boston Tribune||Starting in February 2016, this website's outright hoaxes quickly became popular with its readers.|||
|Breaking-CNN.com||Responsible for publishing numerous death hoaxes, including one for former First Lady Barbara Bush one day after her announcement that she would halt all further medical treatment in 2018. Designed to emulate CNN.|||
|Celebtricity||Has falsely claimed that Barack Obama declared a state of emergency in Chicago, Illinois after more than 300 people were shot in one night; that a Wendy's employee put vaginal discharge on a burger as revenge against a partner; and that Bryshere Y. Gray was Jay-Z's son. Contains a "notorious fauxtire and satire entertainment" disclaimer which used to read "the most notorious urban satirical entertainment website in the world".|||
|cnn-trending.com||Imitated CNN.com, complete with the CNN logo. Pushed the Hawking Code scam|||
|Conservative 101||Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway.|||
|Conservative Frontline||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|CountyNewsroom.info||The fake news website, registered to Tbilisi, Georgia, makes "a minimal attempt to look official" and is used to spread malware on readers' computers.|||
|Daily Buzz Live|||
|Daily USA Update|||
|Denver Guardian||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|DrudgeReport.com.co||Owned by Jestin Coler (mimics the name of the Drudge Report).|||
|Empire Herald||Starting in January 2016, this fake news site had spread many of its hoaxes online in just a few weeks.|||
|Empire News||Many of this website's fake news hoaxes were widely shared on social media, with stories based off social or political controversies, or were simply appalling to readers. The site says that its content is for "entertainment purposes only."|||
|Empire Sports||Includes a disclaimer describing itself as a "satirical and entertainment website." Not to be confused with the legitimate (but long-defunct) Empire Sports Network.|||
|Global Associated News||Described itself as enabling users to produce fake stories using its "fake celebrity news engine."|||
|Globalresearch.ca||Principal website of the Centre for Research on Globalization, which The Economist in April 2017 called "a hub for conspiracy theories and fake stories," and NATO information warfare specialists in November 2017 linked to a concerted effort to undermine the credibility of mainstream Western media.|||
|Gossip Mill Mzansi||A fake news website using Wordpress, targeting South African affairs. Its misinformation is spread on social media including Facebook and Twitter.|||
|Gummy Post||Fake news website that has published claims about President Obama issuing a full pardon for convicted rapper C-Murder, musician Kodak Black getting shot outside a nightclub in Florida, and a Hulk Hogan death hoax.|||
|Hal Turner Show|||
|Houston Chronicle TV|||
|Huzlers||Fake news from this website often involve popular restaurants and brands to disgust readers with its gross-out stories. One story by the site falsely reported that Dong Nguyen, the creator of Flappy Bird, killed himself. Another story made up an incident where a person working at a McDonald's restaurant put his mixtapes in Happy Meals. The site describes itself as "the most infamous fauxtire & satire entertainment website in the world."|||
|InfoWars||Managed by Alex Jones. Has claimed that millions of people have voted illegally in the 2016 presidential election, that the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting was a hoax, that the Boston Marathon bombing was a hoax, and that the Democratic Party was hosting a child sex slave ring out of a pizza restaurant.|||
|KMT 11 News||Falsely reports celebrity appearances and filming locations in random local towns. Before the website went down, it referred to itself as a "fantasy news website".|||
|The Last Line of Defense||This website has a history of publishing fake news articles, especially of the political genre. Notable hoaxes include Donald Trump revoking the press credentials of six major news outlets, Michelle Obama getting ditched by the Secret Service, and Hillary Clinton describing Beyonce's music using racial slurs. Although the website claims to be written by "a group of educated, God-fearing Christian conservative patriots who are tired of Obama’s tyrannical reign and ready to see a strong Republican take the White House," its articles are in fact all written by one person, Christopher Blair, who has written under multiple pen names.|||
|Liberal Society||Published a fake direct quote attributed to Obama, Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway.|||
|Liberty Writers News||Established in 2015 by Paris Wade and Ben Goldman, who told The Washington Post their stories focus on "violence and chaos and aggressive wording" to attract readers. The stories reflect the positions of supporters of Donald Trump.|||
|LinkBeef||Fake news website that has published claims about the pilot of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 reappearing, a billionaire wanting to recruit 1,000 women to bear his children, and an Adam Sandler death hoax.|||
|Naha Daily||This fake news website is now defunct, and was active in a span of five months with popular fake news articles, including a fake quote by Michael Kors.|||
|National Insider Politics|||
|NationalReport.net||Founder Jestin Coler told Columbia Journalism Review: "When it comes to the fake stuff, you really want it to be red meat. [...] It doesn’t have to be offensive. It doesn’t have to be outrageous. It doesn’t have to be anything other than just giving them what they already wanted to hear." In 2013, the nonpartisan FactCheck.org deemed NationalReport.net a satirical site. The site's disclaimer states "All news articles contained within National Report are fiction, and presumably fake news. Any resemblance to the truth is purely coincidental."|||
|Natural News||Formerly NewsTarget, a website for the sale of various dietary supplements, promotion of alternative medicine, controversial nutrition and health claims, and various conspiracy theories, such as "chemtrails", chemophobic claims (including the purported dangers of fluoride in drinking water, anti-perspirants, laundry detergent, monosodium glutamate, aspartame), and purported health problems caused by allegedly "toxic" ingredients in vaccines, including the now-discredited link to autism.|||
|NBCNews.com.co||Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of NBC News.|||
|Neonnettle.com||This fake news website "tried to connect the random deaths of doctors with conspiracy theories around vaccination" in a phony story from 2017.|||
|News Breaks Here|||
|NewsBuzzDaily||This fake news website mostly consists of celebrity gossip and death hoaxes, but a few of its other stories became popular on social media. When the site was up it said that it was "a combination of real shocking news and satire news" and that articles were for "entertainment and satirical purposes" only.|||
|News Examiner||Started in 2015 by Paul Horner, the lead writer of the National Report. This website has been known to mix real news along with its fake news.|||
|The News Nerd||A defunct website which used to have a disclaimer on every page.|||
|NewsWatch33||Began in April 2015 under the name NewsWatch28, later becoming NewsWatch33. The website disguises itself as a local television outlet. It has also been known to mix real news along with its fake news in an attempt to circumvent Facebook’s crackdown on them.|||
|The New York Evening (TheNewYorkEvening.com)||This fake news website has spread numerous false claims, including a fake story claiming that Malia Obama had been expelled from Harvard.|||
|Now 8 News (Now8News.com)||Started in 2015, this fake news website is also designed to look like a local television outlet. Several of the website's fake stories have successfully spread on social media.|||
|Prntly||A politically conservative news site described by Snopes as "a disreputable outlet that has a penchant for publishing both fake news and spurious pro-Trump articles".|||
|React 365||This user-created fake news generator, supposedly for "pranking your friends", had at least two stories that went viral.|||
|Red Flag News|||
|The Reporterz||Starting in early 2016, this fake news website penned several different hoaxes, including one about a murder over a Twitter trend.|||
|St George Gazette|||
|Stuppid||This fake news purveyor specializes in articles with stories that are morally offensive.|||
|Super Station 95|||
|TrueTrumpers.com||This fake news website makes "claims about President Donald Trump, former President Barack Obama and Muslims, in particular, as well as click-baiting claims about porn stars and secret tricks for weight loss and whiter teeth."|||
|UndergroundNewsReport.com||According to PolitiFact, "the site purposely writes outlandish stories to trick readers". Launched on February 21, 2017, the website gained more than 1 million page views in its first two weeks; in less than a month the site was sued by Whoopi Goldberg.|||
|United Media Publishing||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|USA Daily Info|||
|washingtonpost.com.co||Originally registered by Jestin Coler. The Washington Post submitted a complaint against Coler's registration of the site with GoDaddy under the UDRP, and in 2015, an arbitral panel ruled that Coler's registration of the domain name was a form of bad-faith cybersquatting (specifically, typosquatting), "through a website that competes with Complainant through the use of fake news. ... The fake news content misleads readers and serves as 'click bait' to drive readers to other sites, or to share the fake news content with others on social networking websites, to generate advertising revenue."|||
|World Truth TV|||
|World News Daily Report (worldnewsdailyreport.com)[disputed ]||Run by Janick Murray-Hall. Its disclaimer states, "World News Daily Report assumes all responsibility for the satirical nature of it's articles and for the fictional nature of their content. All characters appearing in the articles in this website—even those based on real people—are entirely fictional and any resemblance between them and any person, living, dead or undead, is purely a miracle."|||
|YourNewsWire.com||Founded by Sean Adl-Tabatabai and Sinclair Treadway in 2014. It has published fake stories, such as "claims that the Queen had threatened to abdicate if the UK voted against Brexit."|||
For Philippine audiences
Fake news sites have become rampant for Philippine audiences, especially being shared on social media. Politicians have started filing laws to combat fake news. The Catholic Church in the Philippines has also released a missive speaking out against it.
|24Seven Daily News||24sevendailynews.com|||
|All Things Pinoy||allthingspinoy.com||"www.allthingspinoy.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down.|||
|Asian Policy Press||asianpolicy.press||"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this website...". Now down.|||
|No About Us, no Contact Us.|||
|Duterte News Blog||du30newsblog.blogspot.com|||
|Duterte News Info||du30newsinfo.com||Contains fake articles and satirical news passed off as real news. Publishes fake articles about Rodrigo Duterte's critics|||
|Duterte Trending News||dutertetrendingnews.blogspot.com|||
|Media ni Duterte||dutertedefender.com|||
|FilipiNews PH||filipinewsph.net||"FilipiNews PH does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down.|||
|GMA TV||gma-tv.com||Imitates GMA 7. Now Down.|||
|Hot News Philippines||hotnewsphil.blogspot.com|||
|I Am Pilipino||www.iampilipino.com|||
|International Latest Updates||internationallatestupdates.blogspot.com||Redirect from trendingnewsphfile.net.|||
|Kalye Pinoy||kalyepinoy.com||Now Down/Under Construction.|||
|Leak News PH||www.leaknewsph.com|||
|Minda Nation||mindanation.com||Owned by Carlos Munda|||
|My News TV||mynewstv.newsgenic.com||Down|||
|News 8 Bureau||globalnews.favradio.fm|||
|News Feed Society||www.newsfeedsociety.tk|||
|News Info Learn||newsinfolearn.com||"...www.newsinfolearn.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information...". Now down.|||
|News Media PH||newsmediaph.com||No about Us.|||
|Philippine News Blog||ilikeyouquotes.blogspot.com|||
|Philippine News Courier||philnewscourier.blogspot.com|||
|Philippine News Portal||www.philnewsportal.com|||
|Pilipinas Online Updates||www.pilipinasonlineupdates.com||Takes some of its articles from Balitang Pinas. "Pilipinas Online Updates makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain (sic) onthis website or any sites linked to this site"|||
|Pinas News Portal||pinasnewsportal.blogspot.com|||
|Pinoy Freedom Wall||pinoyfreedomwall.com|||
|Pinoy News Blogger||pinoynewsblogger.blogspot.com|||
|Pinoy Speak||pinoyspeak.info||Posts satirical articles and passes them off as real news.|||
|Pinoy Viral Issues||pinoyviralissues.net||Down.|||
|Pinoy Trending||pinoytrending.altervista.org||No about us, contact info.|||
|Pinoy Trending News||pinoytrendingnews.net
|"...Information on this site may contain errors and inaccuracies..."|||
|Pinoy Viral Issues||pinoyviralissues.net|||
|Public Trending||publictrending.net (down)
|"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site."|||
|So Whats News||sowhatsnews.wordpress.com||Satirical news site|||
|Social News PH||www.socialnewsph.com||Connected to the Facebook pages SNP – Social News Philippines and President Duterte Random Photos. "...does not give assurances as to the accuracy, completeness and currency of its content..." Now down.|||
|Tartey Viral||tartey.com||Contains articles obtained from News Trend PH, which also publishes fake news. No About US, no Contact Us. "makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy or completeness of the content"|||
|The News Feeder||thenewsfeeder.net|||
|Opinion blog founded by RJ Nieto. Posted multiple fake news.|
|Today in Manila||todayinmanila.ga||No About Us, no Contact Us. Now down.|||
|Today's Broadcast||todaysbroadcast.net||Currently empty page.|||
|Trending Balita||trendingbalita.info||Now Down/Under Construction.|||
|Trending News Portal||tnp.ph
|"Trending News Portal makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completenesss of the content contain on this website or and sites linked to this site". Changed URLs multiple times.|||
|Trending News Video||trendingnewsvideo.com||Down.|||
|Trending Viral||trendingviral.tk||"The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site.... will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor the availability of this information...". Now down.|||
- Fake news by country
- Fake news websites in the United States
- List of satirical news websites
- "Watch out for this fake news website masquerading as The New York Times". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Would you believe the pope endorsed Trump? Five tips for spotting fake news". NBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Weisburd, Andrew; Watts, Clint (6 August 2016), "How Russia Dominates Your Twitter Feed to Promote Lies (And, Trump, Too)", The Daily Beast, retrieved 24 November 2016
- LaCapria, Kim (2 November 2016), "Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors - Snopes.com's updated guide to the internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side.", Snopes.com, retrieved 19 November 2016
- Lewis Sanders IV (11 October 2016), "'Divide Europe': European lawmakers warn of Russian propaganda", Deutsche Welle, retrieved 24 November 2016
- Ben Gilbert (15 November 2016), "Fed up with fake news, Facebook users are solving the problem with a simple list", Business Insider, retrieved 16 November 2016,
Some of these sites are intended to look like real publications (there are false versions of major outlets like ABC and MSNBC) but share only fake news; others are straight-up propaganda created by foreign nations (Russia and Macedonia, among others).
- Tavernise, Sabrina (7 December 2016), "As Fake News Spreads Lies, More Readers Shrug at the Truth", The New York Times, p. A1, retrieved 9 December 2016,
Narrowly defined, 'fake news' means a made-up story with an intention to deceive, often geared toward getting clicks.
- Kertscher, Tom (13 December 2016), "PolitiFact's Lie of the Year 2016: Fake news", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, retrieved 14 December 2016
- Jennifer Earl (November 14, 2016). "Google's top search result for "final election numbers" leads to fake news site/". CBS News.
a fake news blog called '70news,' which falsely claimed that Trump had won both the popular vote and the Electoral College. ... Google acknowledged the error in surfacing the fake news on Monday
- Madison Malone Kircher (November 14, 2016). "Donald Trump Didn't Win the Popular Vote, Despite What Google Says". New York.
a fake-news piece from a WordPress blog called 70News
- Jack Murtha (May 26, 2016). "How fake news sites frequently trick big-time journalists". Columbia Journalism Review.
- Louis Jacobson (November 17, 2016). "No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump". PolitiFact.
- Iannelli, Jerry (28 February 2017). "There's Reportedly a Gigantic #FakeNews Operation Run From Miami (and It's Not New Times!)". Miami New Times.
- Silverman, Craig (27 February 2017). "This Is How Your Hyperpartisan Political News Gets Made". Buzzfeed News.
- Bump, Philip (14 November 2016). "Denzel Washington endorsed Trump, according to AmericaNews, Breitbart, USANewsHome — and Facebook". The Washington Post.
- Dewey, Caitlin (July 18, 2014). "A comprehensive guide to the web’s many MH17 conspiracy theories". The Washington Post. (subscription required)
- Dicker, Rachel (November 14, 2016). "Avoid These Fake News Sites at All Costs". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Triest, Vincent; Grim, Ryan (2017-04-26). "Bernie-backing Albanian fake news site proprietor closes up shop". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- "About". The Business Standard News. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
The Business Standard News is a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle. The stories are outlandish, but reality is so strange nowadays they could be true.
- Lueders, Bill (22 Feb 2017). "Truth-Testing in the Post-Truth Era". The Progressive. The Progressive Inc.
The poll [from Business Standard News] ... was cited in an opinion piece submitted to The Progressive.
- "Not Pat's Place". Snopes.com. 25 Oct 2016.
the “interview” was still picked up by at least one actual news site, with no mention of its satirical bent. To further muddy the waters, there actually is a site called the Conservative Chronicle, in which Buchanan’s syndicated columns appear.
- "Moral Tissues". Snopes.com. 26 April 2016.
Stories about the Mormon Church's attempt to limit the sales of tissues and emollients in an effort to curb masturbation came from a fake news web site.
- "Minimum Rage". Snopes.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
Reports that New Jersey Governor Chris Christie said that teachers should be paid minimum wage plus bonuses came from a fake news web site.
- "Coulter Wars". Snopes.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
An article reporting that the pundit had been arrested for using the women's bathroom came from a fake news site
- "Breaking News". Snopes.com. 20 August 2015.
- Merced, Michael J. De La; Goldstein, Matthew (2015-07-14). "Twitter Shares Jump After Faked Bloomberg Report". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Fake Bloomberg News Report Drives Twitter Stock Up 8%". Fortune. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- LaCapria, Kim. "Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors". snopes. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- Yemi, Frank (2018-04-17). "Barbara Bush Dies After Cruel Death Hoax Is Spread By Website Purporting To Be CNN". Inquisitr. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
- Oremus, Will (2016-11-04). "Facebook is fuelling an international boom in pro-Trump propaganda". Slate. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
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- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-08-28). "What was fake on the Internet this week: Selfie lice, Joey Fatone and James Earl Jones RIPs". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-11-06). "What was fake on the Internet this week: amazing cows, the KKK and a 'Secret Sister' gift exchange". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-09-25). "What was fake on the Internet this week: Casey Anthony's death and Chipotle's 9/11 ad". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- "Fake News Site Uses Stephen Hawking To Sell Get-Rich-Quick Scheme". BuzzFeedNews. January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
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- Sydell, Laura (23 November 2016). "We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator In The Suburbs. Here's What We Learned". All Things Considered. NPR.
- Joshua Gillin, Fake news site alters real story of fiery car crash, tries to spread malware on your computer, PolitiFact (April 11, 2017).
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- LaCapria, Kim (2017-05-22). "Was Bill O'Reilly found dead at his Long Island home?". Snopes. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
- "About / Disclaimer". Empire News.
- "Disclaimer". Empire Sports.
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- McElroy, Damien (2018-01-18). "Fox News 24 site is latest ploy in fake news". The National. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
- "Fake news prompts Foreign Affairs Ministry denial". Times of Malta. 2017-06-18. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
- "How a pair of self-publicists wound up as apologists for Assad". The Economist. 2017-04-15. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
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- "Ten fake news sites to be wary of". www.enca.com. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
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- "Pardon for the Course". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
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- "Hulk Hogan Death Hoax". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
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- Garcia, Arturo (2017-11-22). "Were U.S. Marine helicopters spotted over CIA headquarters?". Snopes. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
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- MacGuill, Dan (2017-07-12). "Is pastor and gospel singer Don Moen dead after a short illness?". Snopes. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
- LaCapria, Kim (2017-08-31). "Floyd Mayweather Jr. Donates a 'Whopping Sum of Money' to Houston After Hurricane?". Snopes. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Booth, Dominic (2017-05-04). "Legendary rugby star takes to social media to quash bizarre rumours that he is dead". Wales Online.
- "Huzlers". Huzlers.
- Campbell, Jon (12 February 2014). "Flappy Bird Game Creator Dead? Dong Nguyen Suicide Death Rumors Confirmed as Malicious Hoax". www.christianpost.com. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
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- Goldman, Adam (2016-12-07). "The Comet Ping Pong Gunman Answers Our Reporter's Questions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
- "No, a new 'Harry Potter' movie will not be filmed in Arizona". KTAR.com. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Cataldo, Laurie (14 June 2016). "'The Notebook 2' Not Filming in Atlantic City...or Anywhere Else". WJLK. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Paulson, Dave (30 June 2016). "Sorry, Forrest Gump 2 NOT filming in Brentwood". The Tennessean. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Gillin, Joshua (January 6, 2017). "No, a celebrity's car didn't break down in your hometown". Politifact. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- Gillin, Joshua (May 31, 2017). "If you're fooled by fake news, this man probably wrote it". PolitiFact.
- "White House Press Corpse". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Reject and Serve". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Diss Is Unreal". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "5 important stories that aren't fake news". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
- McCoy, Terrence (20 November 2016). "For the 'new yellow journalists,' opportunity comes in clicks and bucks". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "Pilot Sight". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Billionaire Baby". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Unhappy Gilmore". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Herman, Gary (2017-01-09). "Post-truth politics". Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- Newitz, Annalee (2016-08-29). "Facebook fires human editors, algorithm immediately posts fake news". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
- "Disclaimer". National Report. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
- "Free Gas For Low-Income Americans?". FactCheck.org. November 25, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Novella, Steven (2010-12-14). "H1N1 Vaccine and Miscarriages – More Fear Mongering". Neurologica (blog). New England Skeptical Society.
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