List of famines
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This article needs to be updated.(January 2017)
This is a list of famines.
|Date||Event||Location||Death toll (where known; estimated)|
|2200–2100 BCE||The 4.2-kiloyear event caused famines and civilizational collapse worldwide||global|
|441 BCE||The first famine recorded in ancient Rome.||Ancient Rome|
|26 BCE||Famine recorded throughout Near East and Levant, as recorded by Josephus||Judea||20,000+|
|370 CE||Famine in Phrygia||Phrygia|
|372–373||Famine in Edessa||Edessa|
|400–800||Various famines in Western Europe associated with the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and its sack by Alaric I. Between 400 and 800 AD, the population of the city of Rome fell by over 90%, mainly because of famine and plague.||Western Europe|
|535–536||Extreme weather events of 535–536||Global|
|639||Famine in Arabia during the Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab||Arabia|
|750s||Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus)|
|800–1000||Severe drought killed millions of Maya people due to famine and thirst and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization||Mayan areas of Mesoamerica||1,000,000+|
|875–884||Peasant rebellion in China inspired by famine; Huang Chao captured capital||China|
|927–928||Caused by four months of frost||Byzantine Empire|
|1016||Famine throughout Europe||Europe|
|1051||Famine forced the Toltecs to migrate from a stricken region in what is now central Mexico||Mexico (present day)|
|1064–1072||Seven years' famine in Egypt ||Egypt||40,000|
|1069–1070||Harrying of the North||England||100,000|
|1097||Famine and plague ||France||100,000|
|1230||Famine in the Republic of Novgorod||Russia|
|1230–1231||The Kanki famine, possibly the worst famine in Japan's history. Caused by volcanic eruptions.||Japan||2,000,000|
|1235||Famine in England||England||20,000 in London|
|1256–1258||Famine in Italy, Spain, Portugal and England||Europe|
|1275–1299||Collapse of the Anasazi civilization, widespread famine occurred||United States (present day)|
|1302–1303||Famine in Spain and Italy||Europe|
|1315–1317||Great Famine of 1315–1317||Europe||7,500,000|
|1328–1330||Famine in Italy, Spain and Ireland||Europe|
|1333–1337||Chinese famine of 1333–1337||China||6,000,000|
|1339–1340||Famine in Italy, Spain and Ireland||Europe|
|1344–1345||Famine in India, under the regime of Muhammad bin Tughluq||India|
|1346–1347||Famine in France, Italy and Spain||Europe|
|1374–1375||Famine in France, Italy and Spain||Europe|
|1387||After Timur the Lame left Asia Minor, severe famine ensued||Anatolia|
|1396–1407||The Durga Devi famine||India|
|1432–1434||The Hungry Years||Czech Republic (present-day)|
|1437–1438||Famine in France, Holy Roman Empire, and Britain||Europe|
|1441||Famine in Mayapan||Mexico|
|1450–1454||Famine in the Aztec Empire, interpreted as the gods' need for sacrifices.||Mexico (present day)|
|1460–1461||Kanshō famine in Japan||Japan||82,000|
|1518||Venice||Italy (present day)|
|1521–1523||Famine in the Low Countries, Ireland and the Nordic Countries||Europe|
|1528||Famine in Languedoc||France|
|1535||Famine in Ethiopia||Ethiopia|
|1567–1570||Famine in Harar, combined with plague. Emir of Harar died.||Ethiopia|
|1569–1574||Pan-European famine, including Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Low Countries, Nordic Countries, Russia and mostly east off Ukraine||Europe|
|1585–1587||Pan-European famine, including Italy, France, Low Countries, Britain and Ireland||Europe|
|1590–1598||Pan-European famine, including Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Britain and the Nordic countries||Europe|
|1600–1601||Famine in Emilia and southern Lombardy||Italy|
|1601–1603||One of the worst famines in all of Russian history, with as many as 100,000 in Moscow and up to one-third of Tsar Godunov's subjects killed; see Russian famine of 1601–03. The same famine killed about half of the Estonian population.||Russia||2,000,000|
|1618–1648||Famines in Europe caused by Thirty Years' War||Europe|
|1619||Famine in Japan. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious.||Japan|
|1630–1632||Deccan famine of 1630–1632||India||7,400,000|
|1630–1631||Famine in north-west China||China|
|1640–1643||Kan'ei Great Famine||Japan||50,000-100,000|
|1648–1660||Poland lost an estimated 1/3 of its population due to wars, famine, and plague||Poland|
|1649||Famine in northern England ||England|
|1650–1652||Famine in the east of France ||France|
|1651–1653||Famine throughout much of Ireland during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland||Ireland|
|1661||Famine in India, due to lack of any rainfall for two years||India|
|1670s – 1680s||Plague and famines in Spain||Spain|
|1670–1671||Kyungshin Famine||Korea||1,000,000 - 1,500,000|
|1672||Famine in southern Italy||Italy|
|1680||Famine in Sardinia||Italy (present day)||80,000|
|1680s||Famine in Sahel||West Africa|
|1690s||Famine throughout Scotland which killed 5–15% of the population ||Scotland||60,000–180,000|
|1693–1694||Between 1.3 and 1.5 million French died in the fr:grande famine de 1693-1694||France||1,300,000|
|1695–1697||Great Famine of Estonia killed about a fifth of Estonian and Livonian population (70,000–75,000 people). Famine also hit Sweden (80,000–100,000 dead)||The Swedish Empire, of which Swedish Estonia and Swedish Livonia were dominions at that time||150,000–175,000|
|1696–1697||Great Famine of Finland wiped out almost a third of the population||Finland, then part of Sweden proper||150,000|
|1702–1704||Famine in Deccan||India||2,000,000|
|1708–1711||Famine in East Prussia killed 250,000 people or 41% of its population. According to other sources the great mortality was due to plague (disease), which between 1709 and 1711 killed about 200,000 – 250,000 out of 600,000 inhabitants of East Prussia. The Great Northern War plague outbreak of 1708-1712 also affected East Prussia.||East Prussia||250,000|
|1709–1710||The fr:Grande famine de 1709||France||600,000|
|1727–1728||Famine in the English Midlands||England|
|1738–1756||Famine in West Africa, half the population of Timbuktu died of starvation||West Africa|
|1740–1741||Irish Famine (1740–1741)||Ireland||300,000–480,000|
|1750–1756||Famine in the Senegambia region ||Senegal, Gambia (present day)|
|1764||Famine in Naples||Italy (present day)|
|1769–1773||Great Bengal famine of 1770, 10 million dead (one third of population)||India, Bangladesh (present day)||10,000,000|
|1770–1771||Famines in Czech lands killed hundreds of thousands people||Czech Republic (present day)||100,000+|
|1771–1772||Famine in Saxony and southern Germany||Germany|
|1773||Famine in Sweden||Sweden|
|1779||Famine in Rabat||Morocco|
|1780s||Great Tenmei famine||Japan||20,000 – 920,000|
|1783||Famine in Iceland caused by Laki eruption killed one-fifth of Iceland's population||Iceland|
|1784||Widespread famine throughout Egypt||Egypt|
|1784–1785||Famine in Tunisia||Tunisia|
|1788||The two years previous to the French Revolution saw bad harvests and harsh winters, possibly because of a strong El Niño cycle or caused by the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland.||France|
|1789||Famine in Ethiopia afflicted "amhara/tigray north"||Ethiopia|
|1789–1793||Doji bara famine or Skull famine||India||11,000,000|
|1804–1872, 1913||A series of 14 famines in Austrian Galicia||Poland, Ukraine (present day)||400,000-550,000|
|1810, 1811, 1846, and 1849||Four famines in China||China||45,000,000|
|1811–1812||Famine devastated Madrid||Spain||20,000|
|1815||Eruption of Tambora, Indonesia. Tens of thousands died in subsequent famine||Indonesia||10,000|
|1816–1817||Year Without a Summer||Europe||65,000|
|1830–1833||Claimed to have killed 42% of the population||Cape Verde||30,000|
|1832–1833||Guntur famine of 1832||India||150,000|
|1837–1838||Agra famine of 1837–1838||India||800,000|
|1845–1857||Highland Potato Famine||Scotland|
|1845–1849||Great Famine in Ireland killed more than 1 million people. Between 1.5–2 million people forced to emigrate||Ireland||1,000,000+|
|1846||Famine led to the peasant revolt known as "Maria da Fonte" in the north of Portugal||Portugal|
|1846-1848||The Newfoundland Potato Famine, related to the Irish Potato Famine.||Newfoundland,present-day Canada|
|1849–1850||Demak and Grobogan in Central Java, caused by four successive crop failures due to drought.||Indonesia||83,000|
|1850–1873||As a result of the Taiping Rebellion, drought, and famine, the population of China dropped by more than 60 million||China||60,000,000|
|1860–1861||Upper Doab famine of 1860–1861||India||2,000,000|
|1863–1867||Famine in Cape Verde||Cape Verde||30,000|
|1866||Orissa famine of 1866||India||1,000,000|
|1866–1868||Finnish famine of 1866–1868. About 15% of the entire population died||Finland||150,000+|
|1866–1868||Famine in French Algeria||French Algeria||820,000|
|1867–1869||Swedish famine of 1867–1869.||Sweden|
|1869||Rajputana famine of 1869||India||1,500,000|
|1870–1872||Persian famine of 1870–1872||Iran||200,000-3,000,000 Estimates vary |
|1873–1874||Famine in Anatolia caused by drought and floods||Turkey (present day)|
|1873–1874||Bihar famine of 1873–1874||India|
|1876–1879||Famine in India, China, Brazil, Northern Africa (and other countries). Famine in northern China killed 9–13 million people. 5.5 million died in the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India. 500,000 died in Brazil. British policies and drought were responsible for the deaths in India. The famine in China was a result of drought influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In Brazil, Grande Seca killed probably more than 400.000 people.||India, China, Brazil, Northern Africa (and other countries).||15,000,000–19,000,000 in Northern China, India and Brazil.|
|1878–1880||St. Lawrence Island famine, Alaska||United States||1,000|
|1879||1879 Famine in Ireland. Unlike previous famines, this famine mainly caused hunger and food shortages but little mortality.||Ireland|
|1888–1889||Famine in Orrisa, Ganjam and Northern Bihar||India||150,000|
|1888–1892||Ethiopian Great famine. About one-third of the population died. Conditions worsen with cholera outbreaks (1889–92), a typhus epidemic, and a major smallpox epidemic (1889–90).||Ethiopia||1,000,000|
|1891–1892||Russian famine of 1891–1892. Beginning along the Volga River and spreading to the Urals and the Black Sea.||Russia||375,000–500,000|
|1895–1898||Famine during the Cuban War of Independence||Cuba||200,000–300,000|
|1896–1897||Famine in northern China leading in part to the Boxer Rebellion||China|
|1896–1902||Indian famine of 1896–1897 and Indian famine of 1899–1900 due to drought and British policies.||India||2,000,000 (British territories), mortality unknown in princely states|
|1900–1903||Famine in Cape Verde||Cape Verde||11,000–20,000|
|1904–1906||Famine in Spain.||Spain|
|1907, 1911||Famines in east-central China||China||25,000,000 |
|1914–1918||Mount Lebanon famine during World War I which was caused by an Entente powers and Ottoman Turk blockade of food and to a swarm of locusts which killed up to 200,000 people, estimated to be half of the Mount Lebanon population||Lebanon||200,000|
|1914–1919||Famine caused by the Allied blockade of Germany during World War I until Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles.||Germany||763,000|
|1917||Famine in German East Africa||German East Africa||300,000|
|1917–1919||Persian famine of 1917–1919||Iran||2,000,000, but estimates range as high as 10,000,000|
|1918–1919||Rumanura famine in Ruanda-Burundi, causing large migrations to the Congo||Rwanda and Burundi (present day)|
|1919–1922||Kazakh famine of 1919–1922. A series of famines in Turkestan at the time of the Bolshevik revolution killed about a sixth of the population||Turkestan|||
|1920–1921||Famine in northern China||China||500,000|
|1920–1922||Famine in Cape Verde||Cape Verde||24,000–25,000|
|1921||Russian famine of 1921–1922||Russia||5,000,000|
|1921–1922||1921–1922 famine in Tatarstan||Russia||500,000–2,000,000|
|1924–1925||Famine in Volga German colonies in Russia. One-third of the entire population perished[unreliable source?]||Russia|
|1924–1925||Minor famine in Ireland due to heavy rain||Irish Free State|
|1928–1929||Famine in Ruanda-Burundi, causing large migrations to the Congo||Rwanda and Burundi (present day)|
|1928–1930||Chinese famine of 1928–1930 in northern China. The drought resulted in million of deaths||China||3,000,000-10,000,000|
|1932–1933||Soviet famine of 1932–1933, including famine in Ukraine, caused by deliberate Soviet collectivization of scarce food resources.||Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR||7,000,000|
|1936||Famine in China||China||5,000,000|
|1940–1943||Famine in Cape Verde||Cape Verde||20,000|
|1940–1945||Famine in Warsaw Ghetto, as well as other ghettos and concentration camps (note: this famine was the result of deliberate denial of food to ghetto residents on the part of Nazis).||Occupied Poland|
|1940–1948||Famine in Morocco between 1940 and 1948, because of refueling system installed by France.||Morocco||200,000|
|1941–1944||Leningrad famine caused by a 900-day blockade by German troops. About one million Leningrad residents starved, froze, or were bombed to death in the winter of 1941–42, when supply routes to the city were cut off and temperatures dropped to −40 °C (−40 °F). According to other estimates about 800,000 out of an immediate pre-siege population of about 2.5 million perished.||Soviet Union||800,000–1,000,000|
|1941–1944||Famine in Greece caused by the Axis occupation.||Greece||300,000|
|1941–1942||Famine in Kharkiv (Kharkov). In a city with a population of about 450,000 while under German occupation, there was a famine starting in the winter of 1941/42 that lasted until the end of September 1942. The local administration recorded 19,284 deaths between the second half of December 1941 and the second half of September 1942, thereof 11,918 (59.6%) from hunger. The Foreign Office representative at Army High Command 6 noted on 25.03.1942 that according to reports reaching municipal authorities at least 50 people were dying of hunger every day, and that the true number might be much higher as in many cases the cause of death was stated as "unknown" and besides many deaths were not reported. According to Soviet sources about 70-80,000 people died of starvation in Kharkov during the occupation by Nazi Germany.||Soviet Union||11,918–80,000|
|1941-1943||Famine in Kyiv (Kiev). On April 1, 1942, well after the first winter of famine, Kiev officially had about 352,000 inhabitants. In the middle of 1943—more than four months before the end of German rule—the city officially had about 295,600.Death by starvation was not the only reason for the rapid decline in population: deportation to Germany and Nazi shootings also played their part. Nevertheless, starvation was an important factor.||Soviet Union|
|1942–1943||Chinese famine of 1942–1943||Henan, China||2,000,000–3,000,000|
|1942–1943||Iranian famine of 1942–1943||Iran||3,000,000[better source needed]|
|1943||Bengal famine of 1943||Bengal, India, Bangladesh||2,100,000|
|1943–1944||Ruzagayura famine in Ruanda-Urundi, causing emigrations to Congo||Rwanda and Burundi (present day)||36,000–50,000|
|1943–1945||Famine in Hadhramaut||Yemen (present day)||10,000|
|1944–1945||Java under Japanese occupation||Java, Indonesia||2,400,000|
|1944||Dutch famine of 1944 during World War II||Netherlands||20,000|
|1945||Vietnamese Famine of 1945||Vietnam||600,000–2,000,000|
|1945-1947||Famine in Königsberg (Kaliningrad)||Soviet Union||57,000−76,500|
|1946-1947||German "Hungerwinter"||Germany||> 100,000|
|1946–1947||Soviet famine of 1946–1947||Soviet Union||1,000,000–1,500,000|
|1946–1948||Famine in Cape Verde||Cape Verde||30,000|
|1949||Nyasaland Famine 1949||Malawi||200|
|1950||1950 Canadian caribou famine||Canada||60|
|1958||Famine in Tigray||Ethiopia||100,000|
|1959–1961||The Great Chinese Famine Some researchers also include the year 1958 or 1962.||China (mainland)||15,000,000–55,000,000|
|1966–1967||Lombok, drought and malnutrition, exacerbated by restrictions on regional rice trade||Indonesia||50,000|
|1967–1970||Biafran famine caused by Nigerian blockade||Nigeria||2,000,000|
|1968–1972||Sahel drought created a famine that killed a million people||Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger and Burkina Faso||1,000,000|
|1972–1973||Famine in Ethiopia caused by drought and poor governance; failure of the government to handle this crisis led to the fall of Haile Selassie and to Derg rule||Ethiopia||60,000|
|1973||Darfur drought||Darfur, Sudan||Thousand|
|1974||Bangladesh famine of 1974||Bangladesh||27,000-1,500,000|
|1975–1979||Khmer Rouge. A maximum estimate of 500,000 Cambodians lost their lives to famine||Cambodia||500,000|
|1980–1981||Caused by drought and conflict||Uganda||30,000|
|1982–1985||Famine caused by the Mozambican Civil War||Mozambique||100,000|
|1983–1985||1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia||Ethiopia||400,000–600,000|
|1984–1985||Famine caused by drought, economic crisis and the Second Sudanese Civil War||Sudan||240,000|
|1988||Famine caused by the Second Sudanese Civil War||Sudan||100,000|
|1991–1992||Famine in Somalia caused by drought and civil war||Somalia||300,000|
|1992–1997||Cuban "Special Period" caused by the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe||Cuba|
|1993||1993 Sudan famine||Sudan|
|1994–1998||North Korean famine. Scholars estimate 600,000 died of starvation (other estimates range from 200,000 to 3.5 million).||North Korea||200,000–3,500,000|
|1998||1998 Sudan famine caused by war and drought||Sudan||70,000|
|1998||1998 Afghanistan famine||Afghanistan||Thousand|
|1998–2000||Famine in Ethiopia. The situation worsened by Eritrean–Ethiopian War||Ethiopia|
|1998–2004||Second Congo War. 2.7 million people died, mostly from starvation and disease||Democratic Republic of the Congo||2,700,000|
|2003–2005||Famine during the War in Darfur||Sudan||200,000|
|2005–2006||2005–2006 Niger food crisis. At least three million were affected in Niger and 10 million throughout West Africa||Niger and West Africa|
|2011–2012||Famine in Somalia, brought on by the 2011 East Africa drought||Somalia||285,000|
|2012||Famine in West Africa, brought on by the 2012 Sahel drought||Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso|
|2016–present||Famine in Yemen, arising from the Yemeni Civil War and the subsequent blockade of Yemen by Saudi Arabia||Yemen||85,000 children Unknown number of adults.|
|2017–present||Famine in South Sudan Famine in Somalia, due to 2017 Somalian drought. Famine in Nigeria||South Sudan, Unity State, Somalia, and Nigeria.|
|2020–present||Famine in the Tigray War||Tigray, Ethiopia|
Main article lists
- Bengal famine
- Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union
- Famine in India
- Famines in Czech lands
- Famines in Ethiopia
- Famines, epidemics, and public health in the British Raj
- Great Bengal famine of 1770
- Great Famine of 1876–78
- Great Chinese Famine
- Khmer Rouge
- List of famines in China
- North Korean famine
- Timeline of major famines in India during British rule
- 2007–08 world food price crisis
- Famine Early Warning Systems Network
- Famine events
- Famine relief
- Famine scales
- Food security
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
- Live Aid
- Medieval demography
- Population decline
- Potato famine
- Theories of famines
- World population
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- Carr, Raymond (2001), Spain: a history, Oxford University Press, p. 203, ISBN 978-0-19-280236-1
- Reader, John (2005), Cities, Atlantic Monthly Press, p. 243, ISBN 978-0-87113-898-9
- Cormac O'Grada, Famine. A Short History (2009 Princeton University Press), p. 22.
- "The Great Famine in Ireland, 1845–1849". Ego4u.com. 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
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- O'Grada, as above.
- Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502), Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. pp. 486–87, 1 map, 552.
- Seyf, Ahmad (2010), "Iran and the Great Famine, 1870–72", Middle East Studies, Taylor & Francis, 46 (2): 289–306, doi:10.1080/00263201003616584, S2CID 143872685
- Zürcher, Erik Jan (2004), Turkey: a modern history (3 ed.), I. B.Tauris, p. 72, ISBN 978-1-85043-399-6
- Mitchell, Stephen (1995), Anatolia: land, men, and Gods in Asia Minor (reprint ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 145, ISBN 978-0-19-815029-9
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009). Famine: A Short History. Princeton University Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- Roy, Tirthankar (2006), The Economic History of India, 1857–1947, 2nd edition, New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 361
- Dutt, Romesh Chunder (1900). "Famines and Land Assessments in India by RC Dutt".
- "Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History Archived 2016-01-12 at the Wayback Machine", Princeton University Press; accessed June 22, 2018.
- The St. Lawrence Island Famine and Epidemic, 1878–80, Arctic Anthropology
- Serrill, Michael S. (1987-12-21). "Famine Hunger stalks Ethiopia once again – and aid groups fear the worst". Time.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
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- Dyson 1991a, p. 15 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDyson1991a (help)
- "The terrible drought and famine of 1905 brought the strikes to an end….After the famine of 1905 anarchism seemed to disappear in the south of Spain. Only a few groups remained in the towns." Gerald Brenan, The Spanish Labyrinth.Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1990 (pp. 175, 178).
- R. J. Harrison, "The Spanish Famine of 1904–1906". Agricultural History Vol. 47, No. 4 (Oct., 1973), pp. 300–07
- "A debilitating famine, caused by a persistent drought which lasted from the spring of 1904 until summer 1906, bringing death and starvation to the South, raised the expectations of agrarian reformers that the Madrid authorities would vote additional funds for that region." Joseph Harrison and Alan Hoyle; Spain’s 1898 Crisis: Regenerationism, Modernism, Post-Colonialism. Manchester University Press; Manchester, UK, 2000, pg. 58
- "Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief". SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2015-09-08.
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- Abrahamian, Ervand (2013). The Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the roots of modern U.S.–Iranian relations. New York: New Press, The. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-59558-826-5.
- Katouzian, Homa (2013). Iran: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications. p. 1934. ISBN 9781780742731.
- Rubin, Barry (2015). The Middle East: A Guide to Politics, Economics, Society and Culture. Routledge. p. 508. ISBN 9781317455783.
- Majd, Mohammad Gholi (2003). The Great Famine and Genocide in Persia, 1917–1919. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0761826330.
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- "Joint statement by the delegations of Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Egypt, Georgia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Nauru, Pakistan, Qatar, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America on the seventieth anniversary of the Great Famine of 1932–1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor) to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General"
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- In the Warsaw Ghetto about 83,000 out of 470,000 inhabitants died between the end of 1940 and September 1942 (Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Revised and Definitive Edition, 1985 by Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc. New York, page 269). On August 24, 1942, after having decided that of the 1.5 Jews still alive in the General Government all but 300,000 working for the Germans would no longer be fed at all, Hans Frank noted by the way that 1.2 million Jews had been sentenced to die of hunger and that should the Jews not starve to death he hoped for a speeding up of anti-Jewish measures (Christian Gerlach, Krieg, Ernährung, Völkermord, Hamburger Edition, 1998, p. 220). The Belzec extermination camp, the Sobibor extermination camp and the Treblinka extermination camp were at the height of their activity in the months August, September and October 1942. In these three months alone, according to German historian Sara Berger (Experten der Vernichtung: Das T4-Reinhardt-Netzwerk in den Lagern Belzec, Sobibor und Treblinka, Hamburger Edition 2013, Table 2 on p. 254), at least 897,500 Jews were killed in these three camps – 352,100 in August, 255,500 in September and 289,900 in October.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2015-09-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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- This order of magnitude is mentioned in Harrison E. Salisbury, The 900 Days. The Siege of Leningrad. (Avon Books, New York, 1970), pp. 590ff.; Anna Reid, Leningrad. The Epic Siege of World War II, 1941-1944 (2011 Bloomsbury, London), Appendix I (pp. 417-418); various sources cited in Blockade Leningrads 1941-1944. Dossiers (a publication of the Museum Berlin Karlshorst in German and Russian), pp. 110-113.
- "Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941–1944". Cup.cam.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
- Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: daily life in occupied Europe, by Robert Gildea, Anette Warring, Olivier Wieviorka, Berg Publishers 2007
- Document USHMM, RG-31.010M, R.7, 2982/4/390a, transcribed in Verbrechen der Wehrmacht. Dimensionen des Vernichtungskriegs, Hamburger Institut für Sozialforschung, p. 346.
- Document PAAA, R60763, transcribed in Verbrechen der Wehrmacht, p. 345.
- Alexander Werth, Russia at War 1941-1945, 2000 Carroll & Graf Publishers New York, pages 607/608
- Karel C. Berkhoff, Harvest of Despair. Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusets and London, England, 2004. P. 186.
- Mohammad Gholi Majd: Iran Under Allied Occupation In World War II: The Bridge to Victory & A Land of Famine; University Press of America, 2016.
- Mary Fletcher: Famine in Arabia
- Ulrike Freitag: Indian Ocean Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut: Reforming the Homeland; BRILL, 2003. (p. 406)
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008). "Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950. (MPRA Paper No. 8852) pp. 35–38". Mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de.
- Geoffrey Gunn, The Great Vietnamese Famine of 1944-45 Revisited, The Asia-Pacific Journal Volume 9 | Issue 5 | Number 4 | Article ID 3483 | Jan 24, 2011. The demographics vary from French estimates of 600,000-700,000 dead, to official Vietnamese numbers of 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 victims.
- According to German historian Andreas Kossert, there were about 100,000 to 126,000 German civilians in the city at the time of Soviet conquest in early April 1945, and of these only 24,000 survived to be deported in 1947/48. Hunger accounted for 75 % of the deaths, epidemics (especially typhoid fever) for 2.6 % and violence for 15 % (Andreas Kossert, Ostpreuβen. Geschichte und Mythos, 2007 Pantheon Verlag, PDF edition, p. 347). This would mean 76,000 - 102,000 deaths and 57,000 - 76,500 thereof (75 %) from hunger. Peter B. Clark (The Death of East Prussia. War and Revenge in Germany’s Easternmost Province, Andover Press 2013, PDF edition, p. 326) refers to Professor Wilhelm Starlinger, the director of the city’s two hospitals that cared for typhus patients, who estimated that out of a population of about 100,000 in April 1945, some 25,000 had survived by the time large-scale evacuations began in 1947. This estimate is also mentioned by Richard Bessel, "Unnatural Deaths", in: The Illustrated Oxford History of World War II, edited by Richard Overy, Oxford University Press 2015, pp. 321 to 343, (p. 336).
- The number of excess deaths from hunger and cold has been estimated by historians at several hundred thousand, based on extrapolations from partial data (Der "weiße Tod" im Hungerwinter 1946/47, Norddeutscher Rundfunk, 07.05.2020).
- The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines, Cambridge Journal of Economics
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- MENG, XIN; QIAN, NANCY; YARED, PIERRE (2015). "The Institutional Causes of China's Great Famine, 1959–1961" (PDF). Review of Economic Studies. 82 (4): 1568–1611. doi:10.1093/restud/rdv016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Branigan, Tania (2013-01-01). "China's Great Famine: the true story". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
- Wemheuer, Felix (2011). Dikötter, Frank (ed.). "SITES OF HORROR: MAO'S GREAT FAMINE [with Response]". The China Journal (66): 155–164. doi:10.1086/tcj.66.41262812. ISSN 1324-9347. JSTOR 41262812. S2CID 141874259.
- Peng Xizhe (彭希哲), "Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's Provinces," Population and Development Review 13, no. 4 (1987), 639–70.
For a summary of other estimates, please refer to this link
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2012) "All Lies? Famines in Indonesia during the 1950s and 1960s?" Archived 2014-02-23 at the Wayback Machine, Asian Historical Economics Conference, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo (Japan), September 13–15, 2012.
- Famine Casts Its Grim Global Shadow, TIME
- Ó Gráda 2009, p. 24 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFÓ_Gráda2009 (help)
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970–1979". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 9780309073349.
Food supply remained deficient for most of 1979 and the famine could not be completely avoided. The most dramatic estimates of its toll are around 500,000 deaths (Ea, 1987; Banister and Johnson, 1993; Sliwinski, 1995) but those are again contested as much too high (Kiernan, 1986).
- de Waal, Alex (1991). Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. New York & London: Human Rights Watch;ISBN 1-56432-038-3
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- Alfani, Guido; Ó Gráda, Cormac (2017), Famine in European History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-84123-5.
- Alfani, Guido; Mocarelli, Luca; Strangio, Donatella (January 2016). "Italian Famines: An overview (ca. 1250-1810)". Dondena Centre, Bocconi University.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
Media related to famines at Wikimedia Commons