List of fan-owned sports teams

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a partial list of professional or semi-professional sports teams that are owned by fans (via either a collective organisation or where the assumption of majority ownership by a small group is prohibited by the club's constitution or governing documents) from all over the world sorted by home country. Teams playing at every level in each country are shown. In some cases the line is blurry between these teams and teams whose ownership is publicly traded.

Association football[edit]


All association football clubs in Argentina are owned by their members. Every club is organised as not-for-profit organization according to Argentinian law (asociación civil sin fines de lucro).



Protest Clubs[edit]

  • SV Austria Salzburg – The club was formed in 2005, by some of the supporters of the original SV (Austria) Salzburg after it was renamed FC Red Bull Salzburg by new owners, which caused a group of supporters, known as the "Violet-Whites", to want to preserve the 72-year-old traditions of their club, which they felt had been ignored by Red Bull.

Phoenix Clubs[edit]

  • FC Blau-Weiß Linz – Club was founded in 1997 and adopted the traditions of the defunct club FC Linz, which due to financial difficulties had to finally dissolve, by merger with their long-time rivals LASK Linz.
  • Grazer Athletiksport Klub – was refounded in 2012 as Grazer AC after the former Grazer AK was dissolved. On 14 March 2014 Grazer AC was considered to be a continuation of the original "GAK" in agreement with its umbrella association.

Clubs controlled by their members[edit]



Bosnia & Herzegovina[edit]

All football clubs in Bosnia & Herzegovina are registered as not-for-profit associations of citizens. However, in practice, only one club allows its members to democratically participate and vote in its General Assembly.


Although since 1993 Brazilian law allows for privately owned sport clubs, most of the hundreds professional association football clubs in Brazil are owned by their members as not-for-profit organizations. These include all the traditionally considered 12 major clubs in the country:



  • Victoria Highlanders F.C. – majority owner Alex Campbell Jr. publicly announced that the purchase of season tickets will give supporters "an ownership share in the club and a voice in its direction".[2] Season ticket holders are members of the Victoria Highlanders Supporters Society, which owns 30% of the club and holds two seats (of nine) on the club's advisory board.[3] The club however disbanded in 2014 and when it was re-founded a year later in 2015, it did not involve fan-ownership.
  • Valour FC – Began play in 2019 as a charter member of the Canadian Premier League. Indirectly a fan-owned club; owned by the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, a "community-owned" non-profit team (with no owners or shareholders) in the Canadian Football League, the professional league for the country's indigenous gridiron code.

Costa Rica[edit]



Protest clubs[edit]

  • NK Varteks – founded by supporters dissatisfied with the situation in NK Varaždin.
  • NK Zagreb 041 – founded in 2014 as fans were dissatisfied with the situation in NK Zagreb.


Czech Republic[edit]


Community created[edit]

Supporter Buyout[edit]

  • Aylesbury United F.C. – In July 2009, The Aylesbury United Supporters Trust was able to gain control of the club, which thus became a fan-owned football team.
  • Bamber Bridge F.C. – The club is fully owned by a community organisation that represents supporters of the club.[6]
  • Banbury United F.C. – In August 2015, a supporter-led Community Benefit Society took formal control of the club.[7]
  • Chelmsford City F.C. – The club is currently registered as a company limited by guarantee (CLG) and claims to be owned by its members. However, as of 2015, the club intends to convert to a community benefit society.[8]
  • Congleton Town F.C. – The clubs shareholding was passed over to a newly formed supporters Trust in 2014[9]
  • Dorchester Town F.C. – from 2013 the Supporters Trust own a joint majority shareholding in the club.[10]
  • Exeter City F.C. – Following relegation to the Conference in 2003, the club was taken over by the Exeter City Supporters' Trust.
  • Hendon F.C. – Over the summer of 2010, the club was bought out by the Hendon FC Supporters Trust, an Industrial and Provident Society.[11]
  • Hyde United F.C. – Buyout from former owner John Manship occurred on 2015-06-27.[12]
  • Lewes F.C. – On 9 July 2010 "The Rooks" became a member-owned club with six founder members of the new Rooks125 group forming the inaugural Board of the new Lewes Community Football Club ownership body. In April 2011, the club announced details on how fans will be able to become owners of Lewes FC. From July 2011 shares in the club have been available from £30 per annum. Shareholders are entitled to vote and stand for election to the Board of Directors. The first of these elections took place in October 2011. As of December 2011, the club has over 800 shareholders. In 2011, the club introduced the "Support and Save" scheme whereby shareholders are entitled to discounts from participating local businesses.
  • Newark Town F.C. – "Newark Town Football Club Limited was registered under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act 1965. It is known as an Industrial and Provident Society (IPS) or a Community Benefit Society and is regulated by the Financial Services Authority."[13]
  • Newport (IOW) F.C. – in 2008 ownership of the club was fully transferred to the supporter's trust.
  • Peacehaven & Telscombe F.C. – In June 2016, the club was purchased by a community group representing fans of the club.[14]
  • Prescot Cables F.C. – The summer of 2005 saw a change in organisation, with a new football committee formed from the Supporter's Club taking over the reins of the club.
  • Saffron Walden Town F.C. – On 4 July 2012, members voted to convert the club into a Community Benefit Society.[15]
  • Tonbridge Angels F.C. – During the 2014–15 season, steps were taken by supporters to purchase shares in the club to make it majority owned by supporters. They will contest the 2015–16 pre-season Supporters Direct shield, with their first match against Fisher F.C. on 25 July.[16]

Phoenix Clubs[edit]

Protest Clubs[edit]

  • A.F.C. LiverpoolCooperative.[31] Formed as a protest against high ticket prices in the Premier League.
  • AFC Wimbledon – Fully owned by The Dons Trust, a Supporters' Trust.,[32] formed as a breakaway club in the surrounding controversy of the Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes.
  • Bromsgrove Sporting F.C. – Founded in 2009 as a supporters consortium with the plan to buy Bromsgrove Rovers and take them out of administration. When another owner was found for Rovers it was decided to create a new club instead. The Bromsgrove Sporting Supporters' Society, a registered community benefit society, owned 30% of the club as of January 2014.[33] Three supporters serve on the club's board of directors.[34]
  • F.C. United of Manchester – A Community Benefit Society. One member, one vote basis.[35] Formed by disaffected Manchester United fans.
  • Enfield Town F.C. – The club was founded on 23 June 2001 by the Enfield Supporters' Trust due to disaffection with the owners of Enfield F.C..
  • 1874 Northwich F.C. – The club was founded on 15 November 2012 following a vote by former Northwich Victoria supporters, who were members of the Northwich Victoria Supporters Trust. They voted almost unanimously, 141 to 4, in favour of breaking away from the club they supported and forming a new team in their town. The club is fully owned by its supporters, and is run by a democratically elected board.

Minority Supporter Owned[edit]

  • Accrington Stanley F.C. – Accrington Stanley Supporters Fund owns 12%[36]
  • Cambridge City F.C. – As of September 2011, the Cambridge City Supporters' Trust (CCST) owned 10% (a minority) of the club. According to the CCST secretary, CCST now only has appointment power for one director position.
  • Carlisle United F.C. – The United Trust (also known as the Carlisle United Official Supporters' Club) owns a 25.4% stake in the club.[37] At least one elected member of the trust sits on the board of the club.[38]
  • Chesham United F.C. – As of the 2014/15 season, Chesham United Supporters' Trust (CUST) held only a 2.69% shareholding in the club, and has "no direct responsibility for running the parent club."[39] CUST had previously acquired at least 43.25% ownership of the club as of September 2011.[40] CUST's previously-stated ambition was to earn no more than 49.9% of the club, "a safeguard so that no one party has an overall majority stake in the club".[41]
  • Grimsby Town F.C. – Mariners Trust owns 14.13%[42]
  • Wycombe Wanderers F.C. – On 30 June 2012, the Wycombe Wanderers Supporters Trust formally took over the club.[43] which resulted in financial stabilization and ended a transfer embargo. In February 2020 Rob Couhig completed his takeover purchasing a 75% share, leaving the Wycombe Wanderers Supporters Trust with a 25% share and former chairman Trevor Stroud keeping a seat on the club's board.[44]
  • York City F.C. – York City Supporters' Society owns 25%. Became owned by the York City Supporters' Trust in 2002 after a period of insolvency caused by then-Chairman Douglas Craig's separation of the club from ownership of the stadium at Bootham Crescent and subsequent ownership under John Batchelor.[45] The Trust negotiated a deal to buy back their old stadium using a loan provided by the Football Foundation but the strain of Batchelor-era debt servicing and repayments to the Foundation saw the Trust become minority shareholders with the majority stake owned by the McGill Family.

Former Supporter Owned[edit]

  • Brentford F.C. – Bees United (the Brentford FC Supporters Trust) used to own 60.3% of the shares of Brentford FC; Matthew Benham, himself a fan, owned 30.7% of the shares of Brentford FC; with other supporters owning 9.0% of the shares of Brentford FC.[46][47] The Supporters' Trust eventually sold their entire shareholding to Matthew Benham who also acquired all other minority shareholding to own 100% of the shares.[48]
  • Bury F.C. – Came under supporter ownership in 2002 after the club entered administration,[49] split between Save Our Shakers Trust (63.8%) and The Bury F.C. Supporters Society Ltd (Forever Bury) (11%)[50] Property entrepreneur Stewart Day bought the fans' stake in 2013 following financial difficulties for the club, which had necessitated taking out a PFA loan to pay players' wages and the club being placed under a transfer embargo.[51]
  • Chesterfield F.C. – Bought by Chesterfield Football Supporters Society in 2001 from Darren Brown, who had run the club to the brink of insolvency (and was later jailed for crimes committed during his tenure at the club). The CFSS had held a meeting to discuss the parlous state of the club in March 2001, and a collection for funds yielded £6,000, which was used to buy the club several days later. The club entered insolvency as a result of the Brown-era financial mismanagement. CFSS struggled to escape that legacy and lost control of the club to a consortium of former directors in 2003.[52]
  • Portsmouth F.C. – Portsmouth became the largest fan-owned football club in England, after the Pompey Supporters Trust (PST) successfully gained possession of Fratton Park in April 2013. However, in May 2017, the PST members voted in favor to sell its ownership to former Disney chief executive, Michael Eisner; this value estimated to be at £5.67 million euros.[53][54][55]
  • Scarborough Town F.C. – This was a second supporter-owned "phoenix" club formed after the liquidation of Scarborough, and essentially competed with the larger Scarborough Athletic F.C. for former Scarborough F.C. fans, though focused more upon a youth team rather than a senior one. It eventually folded.[56] The club was run on a democratic basis by a management committee. Membership was open to everyone by payment of an annual fee. All adult members had an equal vote and were encouraged to use this vote at every AGM and EGM.[57] It had two complete seasons, the first in the Wearside Football League, then being promoted to the Humber Premier League, Division One.[58] The club were champions of both leagues and were very well attended. Despite this success, financial problems overcame the club during its final year, resulting in its records for that season being expunged.
  • Stockport County F.C. – Purchased in 2005 by the Stockport County Supporters' Co-operative but was sold to an investment group in 2009 after near-bankruptcy. A long-term goal of the Supporters' Co-Operative is to buy the ground and to buy back the club.



In Germany a majority control by a single entity (person, or company) is not permitted by the Deutsche Fußball Liga,[59] and is the German law for clubs. The law suggests a registered club should have minimum 7 members. The league requires that either a club, or a limited company which is controlled by a club with 50% + 1 vote can get a license to participate in the German first or second league. In the lower leagues, it is required to be a club.[60][61]

An exception to the 50+1 rule allows a company or individual investor that has substantially funded a club for at least 20 years to gain a controlling stake in that club. This exception most notably applies to Bayer Leverkusen and VfL Wolfsburg. Both were founded as sports clubs for employees of major corporations (respectively Bayer and Volkswagen) long before the 50+1 rule was established. More recently, SAP co-founder Dietmar Hopp has gained control of 1899 Hoffenheim—where he had been a youth player—after having funded the club's rise from the lowest reaches of German football to the Bundesliga.[62]

RB Leipzig have been accused of bypassing the law through legal loopholes, essentially not being fan-owned and undermining the system.

Shares of Borussia Dortmund, a German Bundesliga Club, are traded on the German stock market and are largely held by fans.

TC Freisenbruch, a club which was founded in Essen in 1902, is managed completely by the fans. The team currently plays in the ninth division of the German football league. Since July 2016, the club is managed via a webpage,[63] where the fans can make their decisions about, for example, the starting line-up or the prices for the jersey.


  • Aris Thessaloniki F.C. – From 2006 to 2014 Aris F.C. was fan-owned through Aris Members club .It went bankrupt and was relegated for the first time in its history to 3rd Division.[64]
  • Panathinaikos F.C.Vardinogiannis family agreed in 2012 to transfer its 54.75% stake of the club to the "Panathinaikos Alliance" group. Each member will have one vote in decision-making procedures, regardless of how many shares each individual holds.[65] As of 2016 Panathinaikos Alliance shares have been reduced to (15,12%).[66]



  • Travancore Royals FC – Travancore Royals FC[68] was formed on 2018 by a group of passionate football lovers of Thiruvananthapuram City.



Protest Clubs[edit]

Phoenix Clubs[edit]

  • Maccabi Kabilio Jaffa – The Club was re-established in 2008 after a period of 8 years since the original club Maccabi Jaffa has gone bankrupt. Since the Club was re-established it won two consecutive Championships (Liga Gimel, Liga Bet) and it currently plays in Liga Alef South- The third league in its importance in Israel. The Club's greatest achievement was qualifying to 'The Round of 16' in the Israel State Cup. A vast majority of the fans are Israeli with Bulgarian roots since the Original club was founded in 1949 by Jews from the Bulgarian community. The club is named after the great Goalkeeper- Herzl Kabilio.
  • F.C. Tzeirei Tamra The Club was re-established in 2013 after a period of 3 years as a successor club, to Hapoel Bnei Tamra, which was dissolved in 2010.



  • Fujieda MYFC – funded by online subscribers and is the first of its kind in Japan.
  • Yokohama F.C. – The club was formed in 1999, following the merger of the city's two J. League clubs, Yokohama Flügels and Yokohama Marinos the previous year. Flügels supporters, whose club was essentially dissolved, rejected the suggestion that they should start supporting Marinos, their crosstown rivals. Instead, with money raised through donations from the general public and an affiliation with IMG, the talent management company, the former Flügels supporters founded the Yokohama Fulie Sports Club. Following the socio model used by FC Barcelona, the Fulie Sports Club created Yokohama F.C., the first professional sports team in Japan owned and operated by its supporters.


  • Jeanne d'Arc FC – At the end of the 2006/07 season, a group of Stade Malien supporters broke away to form their own football club, taking the "Jeanne d'Arc" name with them. The name is a reference to one of two defunct clubs which combined to form Stade Malien, Jeanne d'Arc du Soudan (founded 1938) in 1960. In late 2007 this group formed Jeanne d'Arc FC Bamako, which competed in lower division football during the 2007/08 season.



All association football clubs in Norway are owned by their members.


  • AKS ZŁY – Alternative Sport Club ZŁY was found in summer 2015 by community of independend Warsaw football fans. In 2016 club entered official league competitions of PZPN/MZPN with two teams – male & female – both starting from lowest divisions. Club adopted as its home-stadium infrastracture of DOSiR Praga Północ (ul.Kawęczyńska 44), which is better known among fans of ASK as 'DON PEDRO ARENA'. AKS ZŁY is very unique in sense of equal treatment of male and female football, as well as in sense of fans-culture free of any violence and hatred. In spring 2019 both AKS ZŁY teams are on the top positions in their leagues. The association of fans which own this club has about 200 members (March 2019) and the club has several thousands of sympathisers around the country[73]
  • Górnik 1979 Łęczna – a club founded in 2011 by Górnik Łęczna fans who were unhappy with the name change to GKS Bogdanka. The club eventually changed its name back in 2013 but the fan owned counterpart has continued to operate in amateur football leagues. On 22 August 2014 the club withdrew from all competitions and ceased to operate, the reason cited were the lack of funds and the fact that the original Górnik Łęczna team went to back to its original name scrapping the GKS Bogdanka name.[74]
  • Hutnik Nowa Huta – Hutnik Kraków fans who were unhappy with the club management decided to take the club into their own hands and try to restore the clubs former glory, after the team was dissolved due to its debts. It was refounded as Hutnik Nowa Huta in 2010 and was admitted to the fifth tier.
  • KKS Wiara Lecha – club founded by Lech Poznań supporters in 2011. Only active supporters can play in the team and they have to have made a contribution to the supporter scene in order to be admitted to the squad.
  • KSF Zielona Góra – football club founded by fans of speedway team Falubaz Zielona Góra.
  • TMRF Widzew – club created by Widzew Łódź fanatics. The club was created because fans of the original Widzew have been in a long conflict with the club board. Only Widzew supporters can play in the team.
  • Zawisza Bydgoszcz – After the controversial owner Radosław Osuch disbanded the club after months of warring with the fans, the fans reformed the club in 2016 and had to start the new season from the lowest level on the football pyramid.[75]


Almost all Primeira Liga(First Division) clubs are majority owned (at least 51%) by associated fans who pay a monthly fee.




  • Clyde F.C.
  • Dundee United F.C. – ArabTRUST own the single largest share of the Dundee United Football Club Company LTD. and the majority of seats on the board[76]
  • Dunfermline Athletic F.C. – Taken over by community group Pars United in October 2013.
  • East Stirlingshire F.C.
  • Greenock Morton Football Club - In April 2019 a group of supporters created Morton Club Together (MCT) who would financially contribute to the first team playing budget. An innovative deal was struck with the clubs majority shareholder which resulted in a commitment to link fan funding to a significant debt reduction scheme and also a commitment to transfer shares in the club to the fan group. By autumn 2019, MCT was able to provide sufficient financial input that lead to the clubs majority shareholder and creditor to write off £500,000 in debt and transfer a 15% shareholding in the club to MCT.
  • Gretna F.C. 2008
  • Heart of Midlothian F.C. – In 2014, when the club were in administration, the Edinburgh club was bought over by the Ann Budge fronted Bidco group. Although fans do not control any shares currently, the Bidco group plan to hold the club for a possible five years before the fans backed Foundation of Hearts supporters group take control. The 2014/15 away strip featured Foundation of Hearts as its chief sponsor, and the 2015/16 third strip featured the names of 8000 supporters who donate to the foundation.[77]
  • Hibernian F.C. – 34% owned by fans. In December 2014, the club publicised plans to sell up to 51% ownership of the club to its supporters.[78] The fan shareholding in June 2017 stood at 34%[79]
  • Motherwell F.C. – In March 2016, 76% shareholder Les Hutchison handed his shares over to the Well Society for £1
  • Rangers F.C.Club 1872, a supporter's group, owns 10.71%.[80]
  • Stirling Albion F.C.
  • St Mirren FC In July 2016 former club director Gordon Scott and the St Mirren Independent Supporters Association had a joint bid accepted for a majority stake in the club.[81]

South Korea[edit]


In Spain 99% teams of Third Tier and below are fan-owned. The fan-owned pro teams are:

  • Athletic Bilbao
  • CA Osasuna
  • FC Barcelona – The club is organised as a registered association and its 143,855 members, called socios, form an assembly of delegates which is the highest governing body of the club.
  • Real Madrid C.F. – The club is run by socios, fans that pay an annual membership due, in exchange for benefits, such as the right to vote on issues and more accessibility to tickets. The fans are represented by a Club President. Florentino Pérez is the current Club President.[82]


All sports clubs in Sweden are owned by its members. The Swedish Sports Confederation allows clubs to create limited companies together with investors as long as the club controls a majority of the votes.[83]


Almost all sports clubs in Turkey are owned by its members.


United States[edit]



Australian Rules football[edit]


Of these clubs, six will operate sides in the AFL Women's league in 2019—Carlton, Collingwood, Geelong, Melbourne, North Melbourne and Western Bulldogs. Richmond and St Kilda will add AFL Women's sides in 2020.

State Leagues[edit]


Tasmanian Lower League Clubs[edit]
North West Football League[edit]
  • Circular Head Giants
  • Devonport Magpies
  • East Devonport Swans
  • Latrobe Demons
  • Penguin Two Blues
  • Ulverstone Robins
  • Wynyard Cats
Northern Tasmanian Football Association[edit]

Division One

  • Bracknell
  • Bridgenorth
  • Deloraine
  • George Town
  • Hillwood
  • Longford
  • Rocherlea
  • Scottsdale
  • South Launceston

Division Two

  • Bridport
  • East Coast
  • Evendale
  • Lilydale
  • Meander Valley
  • Old Launcestonians
  • Old Scotch Collegians
  • Perth
  • St Patrick's Old Collegians
  • Tamar Cats
  • University Mowbray
Southern Football League[edit]
  • Brighton
  • Claremont
  • Cygnant
  • Dodges Ferry
  • Hobart
  • Huonville Lions
  • Lindersfarne
  • New Norfolk
  • Sorell
King Island Football Association[edit]
  • Currie
  • Grassy
  • North




Gridiron football[edit]

American football[edit]

Canadian football[edit]

  • Edmonton Eskimos: Ownership shares are sold, but are not available to the general public, requiring approval from existing shareholders to be sold; there are currently 80 individual owners.[87]
  • Saskatchewan Roughriders: Since 2004, the Roughriders have sold shares of the team in four runs of limited share offerings, dubbed as "series".[88] Prior to 2004, the Roughriders operated as a non-profit with no owner or share capital.
  • Winnipeg Blue Bombers: operates as a non-profit with no owner or share capital.

Ice hockey[edit]



Rugby League[edit]



United Kingdom[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Season tickets will mean ownership share in Highlanders". Victoria Times-Colonist. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  3. ^ Jason Gillett, "Victoria Highlanders FC". Victoria Highlanders FC. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Revealed: Plans to create official fan-owned football club to represent Liverpool". 14 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  5. ^ Thomas, Joe (27 February 2018). "Fan-owned City of Liverpool FC take huge step towards securing club's own ground". liverpoolecho. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Supporters Direct Case Study: Bamber Bridge". Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  7. ^ "CBS takeover is completed at Spencer Stadium". Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Proposal to Convert to a Community Benefit Society". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Your town, your team, An exciting new era for Congleton and The Bears". Congleton Town FC. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  10. ^ "Club, DTYFC & Trust Joint Statement". Dorchester Town Football Club. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  11. ^ "Hendon FC – Club History". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  12. ^ "Hyde Fans Buy Out Complete". Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Newark Town Football Club Limited". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Peacehaven becomes a community owned club". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  15. ^ "Saffron Walden Town FC complete move to become Community Benefit Society". Dunmow Broadcast. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Angels to contest the Supporters Direct Shield with another community owned club Fisher FC". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  17. ^ "Rushden expelled from Conference". BBC Sport. 11 June 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  18. ^ a b "Sadness as the Diamonds dream finally dies". Northamptonshire Evening Telegraph. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  19. ^ "Rushden & Diamonds enter administration". BBC Sport. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  20. ^ "Rushden & Diamonds fans plan to set up 'phoenix' club". BBC Sport. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  21. ^ "Supporters Trust". AFC Telford United. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  22. ^ "Membership". Canterbury City Football Club. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  23. ^ "City Fans United Story So Far" (PDF). City Fans United. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Darlington FC CIC Group Structure" (PDF). 1883 Community Interest Company (1883 CIC). Retrieved 26 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ "Constitution". Save Darlo. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  26. ^ "End of line for non-league Fisher". BBC Sport. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  27. ^ "How Hereford FC rose from United's ashes with help from Manchester". The Guardian. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  28. ^ "Trust Information". Runcorn Linnets F.C. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
  29. ^ "Scarborough Athletic confirm kit for the coming season". Scarborough Athletic F.C. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  30. ^ "Scarborough Athletic". Northern Counties East League. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  31. ^ "FAQ". AFC Liverpool. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  32. ^ "What is the Dons Trust?". AFC Wimbledon. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  33. ^ "Budweiser UK: Club Futures | Bromsgrove Sporting FC". YouTube. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  34. ^ "History". Bromsgrove Sporting FC. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  35. ^ "Be part of – FC United of Manchester" (PDF). FC United of Manchester. p. 5. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  36. ^ "Club Details". Accrington Stanley F.C. Archived from the original on 29 October 2005. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  37. ^ "Carlisle United to punish fans who threatened director". News and Star. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  38. ^ "Why should I join?". The United Trust. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  39. ^ "Chesham United Supporters' Trust". Chesham United Football Club. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  40. ^ "Chesham United Supporters' Trust". Chesham United Football Club. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  41. ^ "Supporters Trust AGM Minutes". Chesham United Football Club website forum. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  42. ^ "Connecting Club & Community". Mariners Trust. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  43. ^ Wycombe Wanderers Trust complete club takeover
  44. ^
  45. ^ "David Conn: Struggle starts as supporters assume control of York City". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  46. ^ "Map and chart of supporter-owned football clubs in the English football league system [England & Wales] (32 clubs as of June, 2014) / Plus illustrations for Portsmouth FC (highest-drawing supporter-owned club), and FC United of Manchester (new stadium set for March 2015 opening)". Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  47. ^ "Welcome to the Brentford FC Supporters Trust | BEES UNITED". Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  48. ^ "BENHAM GAINS FULL BRENTFORD SHAREHOLDING – News – Brentford FC". Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  49. ^ "Shakers' fans take control". BBC Sport. 31 May 2002. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  50. ^ "Bury FC Ownership". Bury F.C. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  51. ^ "Bury takeover finally completed and embargo lifted". BBC Sport. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  52. ^ "David Conn: Chesterfield fighting for the right to be the ultimate". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  53. ^ "Tears as Portsmouth fans reclaim football club". 10 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
  54. ^ Mundie, Simon (2 August 2013). "Portsmouth FC begin new era as football league starts". BBC. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  55. ^ Association, Press (3 August 2017). "Portsmouth sold to former Disney chief executive Michael Eisner". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  56. ^ Daniel, Gregory (4 June 2013). "Scarborough Town fold after tough campaign". The Scarborough News. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  57. ^ "Membership". Scarborough Town FC. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  58. ^ "Football Club History Database – SCARBOROUGH TOWN –". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  59. ^ Satzung der Bundesliga Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine, §8.
  60. ^ BGB, Kapitel 2, Eingetragene Vereine (e.V.)
  61. ^ Satzung Fussballverband der Stadt Leipzig, Statute of the Leipzig Football Association.
  62. ^ Hesse, Uli (30 December 2014). "Issues looming for Germany's footballing landscape". ESPN. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  63. ^ "Dein Club – Du entscheidest". Dein Club – Du entscheidest. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  64. ^ "Aris soccer club is relegated to the third division". ekathimerini. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  65. ^ "Fans secure ownership of Panathinaikos". Soccerex. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  66. ^ Αύξησε τις προσωπικές μετοχές ο Αλαφούζος (in Greek). Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  67. ^ "FOKUS: Minim Prestasi, Putra Samarinda Ditinggal Pusamania". 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  68. ^ "Make way for the first fan owned football club".
  69. ^ Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem – Who Are We (in Hebrew)
  70. ^ Who Are We Archived 11 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine (in Hebrew)
  71. ^ Nordia – Who Are We Archived 27 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine (in Hebrew)
  72. ^ "Aquilotto Cavese Launched". Supporters Direct. 7 November 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  73. ^ "AKS ZŁY | Alternatywny Klub Sportowy Zły". 26 October 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  74. ^ "Górnik 1979 Łęczna Archives – Serwis kibiców Górnika Łęczna". Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  75. ^ "Onet – Jesteś na bieżąco". 1 January 1970. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  76. ^ "ARABTRUST – The Dundee United Supporters Society". Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  77. ^ "Foundation of Hearts". Foundation of Hearts. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  78. ^ McLauchlin, Brian (29 December 2014). "Hibernian: Club move a step closer to fan ownership". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  79. ^ "HIBERNIAN FC FINANCIAL STATEMENTS". Hibernian FC. 18 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  80. ^ Jack, Christopher (23 June 2017). "Mike Ashley sells Rangers stake as Club 1872 become second largest Ibrox shareholders". Evening Times. Glasgow: Herald & Times Group.
  81. ^ "St Mirren takeover completed by Gordon Scott and fans – BBC Sport". 22 July 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  82. ^ "Behind the scenes at Real Madrid: How the club is structured and how it functions". 3 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  83. ^ "Sport in Sweden" (PDF). Swedish Sports Confederation. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  84. ^ "Ownership statement". 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  85. ^ "Swansea City fans a major influence as government encourages role of supporters' trusts". WalesOnline. 19 February 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012.
  86. ^ "ACQUISIZIONE VIRTUS". (in Italian). 7 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  87. ^ a b Canoe inc. (23 March 2006). "Local ownership 'fraught with uncertainty'". Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  88. ^ Sask. Roughriders (24 November 2013). "SHARES | Saskatchewan Roughriders". Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2013.