List of federal political parties in Canada
In contrast with the political party systems of many nations, Canadian political parties at the federal level are often only loosely connected with parties at the provincial level, despite having similar names. One exception is the New Democratic Party, which is organizationally integrated with most of its provincial counterparts including a shared membership.
- 1 Current parties
- 2 Historical parties and parliamentary groups
- 3 Other designations
- 4 Name changes
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Non-party parliamentary groups
Both the House of Commons and Senate currently include non-party parliamentary groups or caucuses. These groups are unaffiliated with other Canadian political parties, are not registered with Elections Canada, and do not run candidates in Canadian federal elections. They exist only in a legislative, not electoral, capacity.
House of Commons
On February 28, 2018, seven MPs left the Bloc Québécois caucus and announced they would sit as the Groupe parlementaire québécois, an independent parliamentary group. In May, the MPs announced that they were forming a new political party, Quebec Debout.
|Québec debout||2018||Quebec nationalism, regionalism||Rhéal Fortin||5|
The Senate of Canada has two non-party parliamentary groups: the Senate Liberal Caucus and the Independent Senators Group. The Senate Liberal Caucus is made up of Senators who are personally members of the Liberal Party of Canada, but form a group that is organizationally and politically independent of both the Liberal Party structure and the Liberal caucus in the House of Commons. The Independent Senators Group includes non-partisan senators who, while not sharing a cohesive ideology or platform, have formed a caucus to provide organizational support and better leverage parliamentary resources. Conservative senators remain formally affiliated with the Conservative Party of Canada.
|Independent Senators Group
Groupe des sénateurs indépendants
|2016||Non-partisan||Yuen Pau Woo||44|
|Senate Liberal Caucus
Caucus libéral du Sénat
|2014||Liberalism||Joseph A. Day||11|
Historical parties and parliamentary groups
Designations used by single candidates
- Nationalist Liberal (Fleming Blanchard McCurdy), 1920 — McCurdy won a by-election under the Nationalist Liberal designation, but sat with the National Liberal and Conservative Party causcus
- Protectionist (Joseph-Édouard Moranville), 1926
- Franc Lib (I) (Alfred Edward Watts), 1930
- Prohibition Party (Edwin Clarke Appleby), 1930
- Parti national social chrétien (Robert Rae Manville), 1934-1940
- Anti-Communist (I) (Jean Tissot), 1935
- Verdun (Hervé Ferland), 1935
- Veterans Party (Alloys Reginald Sprenger), 1935
- Technocrat (Joseph McCrae Newman), 1935
- Anti-Conscriptionist (Louis-Gérard Gosselin), 1940
- Social Credit-National Unity (Harry Watson Arnold), 1940
- National-Unity (Robert Rae Manville), 1940
- Trades Union (Nigel Morgan), 1945
- Autonomist candidate (Paul Massé), 1947
- Christian Liberal (Howard A. Prentice), 1953
- Locataire (Louis Seigneur), 1953
- Anti-Communist (II) (Patrick Walsh), 1953
- Canadian Democrat (Gerry Goeujon), 1957
- National Credit Control (John Bernard Ball), 1957
- Capital familial (Henri-Georges Grenier), 1957-1962
- Liberal Conservative Coalition (George Rolland), 1957
- Parti ouvrier canadien (Jean-Jacques Rouleau), 1958
- League for Socialist Action, 1961-1977
- Co-operative Builders of Canada (Edgar-Bernard Charron), 1962
- All Canadian Party (John Darby Naismith), 1962-1962
- Parti humain familial (Henri-Georges Grenier), 1964
- Droit vital personnel (Henri-Georges Grenier), 1965
- Progressive Workers Movement (Jerry Le Bourdais), 1965
- Esprit Social (Henri-Georges Grenier), 1967-1971
- Work Less Party (Betty Krawczyk), 2007–2010
- Franc Lib (II) (Jean-Roger Marcotte), 1968
- Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency (Michael Nicula), 2012–2016
- National Socialist (Martin K. Weiche), 1968
- New Canada Party (Fred Reiner), 1968
- Nationalist Party of Canada (Bob Smith), founded 1977
- Christian Democrat Party of Canada (Sydney Thompson), 1981
The following parties do not appear on the federal election archive. They either did not run candidates in any election or ran candidates as independents.
- Aboriginal Peoples Party of Canada (founded in 2005)
- Absolutely Absurd Party (founded in 2003)
- United Canadian Socialist Party (being launched in 2016)
- Action Canada (founded in 1971)
- Canadian Clean Start Party (founded in 2000)
- Canadian Democratic Movement (founded in 2000)
- Canadian Labour Party, 1917-1929
- Canadian Party for Renewal, 1993
- Canadian Union of Fascists, 1930s
- Christian Credit Party, 1982-1983
- Christian Freedom Party of Canada, c. 1988-c. 1996 (an extension of the Social Credit Party)
- Freedom Party of Canada, founded 2001
- Forward Canada Party, 1997
- Ginger Group 1924-1932
- Grey Party of Canada (founded in 2002)
- Movement for an Independent Socialist Canada, 1974
- National Alternative Party (founded in 2002)
- National Party of Canada (I), 1979-1980s
- New Constitution Party of Canada (an unregistered party founded in 2015)
- North American Labour Party, 1970s
- National Unity Party, 1938-1949
- Parti Populaire des Putes (founded in 2000)
- People's Co-operative Commonwealth Federation 1945
- Ontario Party of Canada (founded in 2002)
- Option Canada (founded in 1991)
- Patriot Party of Canada (founded in 2001)
- Rest of Canada Party (founded in 2002)
- Revolutionary Workers League, 1977-1989
- Revolutionary Workers Party, 1945-1953
- Sex Party, 2005-2012
- Social Democratic Party of Canada, 1911-1920
- Unity Party of Canada (founded in 2001)
- Western Canada Concept (founded in 1980)
- Western Independence Party (founded in 1987)
- Workers' Communist Party of Canada, 1972-1980
Pre-confederation political parties
- Reform Party (pre-Confederation)
- Communist Party
The Communist Party of Canada changed its name multiple times in its history. It was founded as the Communist Party of Canada in 1921. From 1938 until 1943 its candidates ran under the banner Unity or United Progressive. In 1943 it adopted the name Labor-Progressive Party. It won one seat under this name in 1945. In 1959 it reverted to the name Communist Party of Canada and has kept that name to the present.
The Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada unofficially uses the name "Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist)", but Elections Canada does not allow it to be registered by that name because of potential confusion with the Communist Party of Canada.
- Labour Party
Labour Party candidates ran under numerous different designations:
- Conservative-Labour (1872-1875)
- Farmer Labour
- Farmer-United Labour
- Liberal-Labour (1926-1968)
- National Labour (1940)
- United Farmers-Labour (1920)
- United Farmers of Ontario-Labour (1919-1940)
- Liberal Party
Some Liberal-Progressive candidates used the designations:
- Liberal-Labour-Progressive or
- National Liberal Progressive.
- New Democratic Party
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation used the name New Party from 1958-1961 while it was transitioning to become the New Democratic Party. In French, the party used a literal translation of its name, Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from until 1955.
- Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency
The Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency was founded as the Online Party of Canada.
- Progressive Conservative Party
The first Conservative Party used several different names during its existence:
- Liberal-Conservative Party (some MPs until 1911),
- Unionist Party (1917-1921),
- National Liberal and Conservative Party (1920-1921),
- National Government (1940),
- Progressive Conservative Party (1942-2003)
The second (and current) Conservative Party of Canada was a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party.
- Progressive Party and United Farmers
Some candidates for the Progressive Party of Canada used United Farmer designations:
- Farmer (1925 & 1930),
- United Farmers of Canada,
- United Farmers of Alberta, or
- United Farmers of Ontario.
- Rhinoceros Party
The first Rhinoceros Party disbanded in 1993. When it was revived in 2006 it used the name "neorhino.ca". The party changed its name to Rhinoceros Party in 2010.
- Social Credit Party and Ralliement créditiste
Some Ralliement créditiste used the name Ralliement des créditistes from 1963 to 1967. One candidate used the designation Candidats des électeurs in 1957 and 1958.
In the 1940 election, 17 candidates ran jointly with the Social Credit Party under the name New Democracy.
- Includes members using temporary party names Unity and Labor-Progressive Party.
- Howard A. Leeson (2001). Saskatchewan Politics: Into the Twenty-first Century. University of Regina Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-88977-131-4.
- Janet Miron (2009). A History of Human Rights in Canada: Essential Issues. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-55130-356-7.
- Carol Gould; Pasquale Paquino (1 January 2001). Cultural Identity and the Nation-state. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8476-9677-2.
- Seymour Martin Lipset (1971). Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan : a Study in Political Sociology. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02056-6. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada.
- "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada. January 28, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada.