List of federal political parties in Canada

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In contrast with the political party systems of many nations, Canadian political parties at the federal level are often only loosely connected with parties at the provincial level, despite having similar names. One exception is the New Democratic Party, which is organizationally integrated with most of its provincial counterparts including a shared membership.

Current parties[edit]

These are all of the political parties registered with Elections Canada as of October 2015.[1]

Name Founded Ideology Leader MPs Most MPs
  Liberal Party of Canada
Parti libéral du Canada
1867 liberalism Justin Trudeau 183 179 / 245
(1940)
  Conservative Party of Canada (II)
Parti conservateur du Canada
2003 conservatism, economic liberalism Rona Ambrose (Interim) 99 166 / 308
(2011)
  New Democratic Party
Nouveau Parti démocratique
1961 social democracy Thomas Mulcair 44 103 / 308
(2011)
  Bloc Québécois 1991 Quebec sovereignty, social democracy Rheal Fortin (Interim) 10 54 / 295
(1993)
  Green Party of Canada
Le Parti vert du Canada
1983 Green politics Elizabeth May 1 2 / 308
(2013)
  Alliance of the North
Alliance du Nord
2015 social conservatism François Bélanger 0
  Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada 2005 environmentalism, animal rights Liz White 0
  The Bridge Party of Canada
Parti pour nouer des liens entre Canadiens
2015 non-partisan David Berlin 0
  Canada Party (II)
Parti Canada
2015 Jim Pankiw 0
  Canadian Action Party
Parti action canadienne
1997 populism, anti-globalization Jeremy E. Arney 0
  Christian Heritage Party of Canada
Parti de l'Héritage Chrétien du Canada
1986 social conservative, Christian right Rodney L. Taylor 0
  Communist Party of Canada
Parti communiste du Canada
1921 communism Liz Rowley 0 3 / 245
(1945)[2]
  Democratic Advancement Party of Canada
Parti pour l'Avancement de la Démocratie au Canada
2014 Stephen J. Garvey 0
  Libertarian Party of Canada
Parti Libertarien du Canada
1973 libertarianism Tim Moen 0
  Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada
Parti Marxiste–Léniniste du Canada
1970 Marxism–Leninism Anna Di Carlo 0
  Marijuana Party
Parti Marijuana
2000 cannabis Blair Longley 0
  Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency
Parti pour la Responsabilisation, la Compétence et la Transparence
2010 direct democracy Michael Nicula 0
  Pirate Party of Canada
Parti Pirate du Canada
2009 copyright law reform Roderick Lim 0
  Progressive Canadian Party
Parti Progressiste Canadien
2004 Red toryism Sinclair Stevens 0
  Rhinoceros Party (II)
Parti Rhinocéros
2006 satirical party Sébastien Corriveau 0
  Seniors Party of Canada
Parti des aînés du Canada
2014 Margaret Fairbairn 0
  Strength in Democracy
Forces et Démocratie
2014 social democracy, regionalism Jean-François Fortin 0 2 / 308
(2014)
  United Party of Canada
Parti Uni du Canada
2009 centrism Bob Kesic 0

Past names of current parties[edit]

The second Conservative Party of Canada was a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party. The Progressive Conservative Party was, in turn, a renaming of the first Conservative Party of Canada.

During Robert Borden's coalition government of 1917-1920, the Liberal Party of Canada split into two groups: the Liberal–Unionist who supported the coalition and the Laurier Liberals who opposed it.

The Communist Party of Canada changed its name multiple times in its history. It was founded as the Communist Party of Canada in 1921. From 1938 until 1943 its candidates ran under the banner Unity or United Progressive. In 1943 it adopted the name Labor-Progressive Party. It won one seat under this name in 1945. In 1959 it reverted to the name Communist Party of Canada and has kept that name to the present.

The Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada unofficially uses the name "Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist)", but Elections Canada does not allow it to be registered by that name because of potential confusion with the Communist Party of Canada.

The first Rhinoceros Party disbanded in 1993. When it was revived in 2006 it used the name "neorhino.ca". The party changed its name to Rhinoceros Party in 2010.

The Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency was originally called the Online Party of Canada.

Historical parties[edit]

Name Founded Dissolved Ideology Most MPs
  Abolitionist Party of Canada 1993 1996 social credit, monetary reform, social liberalism 0
  Anti-Confederation Party 1867 1867 Opposition to Confederation (membership in Canada), Nova Scotia separatism 18 / 180
(1867)
  Bloc populaire 1943 1949 anti-conscription, Canadian nationalism, isolationaism, French Canadian rights 4 / 245
(1943)
  Canada Party 1993 1996 0
  Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
Alliance réformiste-conservatrice canadienne
2000 2003 Conservatism, Right-wing populism, social conservatism[3][4][5] 66 / 301
(2001)
  Candidat libéral des électeurs 1962 1963 social credit & liberalism 0
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
Parti social démocratique du Canada
1932 1961 Social democracy, democratic socialism, agrarianism[6] 31 / 245
(1948)
  Confederation of Regions Party of Canada 1984 1988 Regionalism, conserativism 0
  Conservative Party of Canada (I) and
Progressive Conservative of Canada
1854
1942
2003 Canadian conservatism, Loyalism, Canadian nationalism (particularly under John Diefenbaker), Red Toryism, Economic Liberalism (under Brian Mulroney), moderation, occasional populism 208 / 265
(1958)
  Democratic Party of Canada 1945 1945 0
  Equal Rights 1890 1891 0
  First Peoples National Party of Canada 2005 2013 Aboriginal rights advocacy 0
  Labour Party of Canada 1926 1968 trade unionism, socialism 4 / 245
(1926)
  Liberal-Progressive 1925 1955 coalition between the Liberal Party and Progressive Party 8 / 245
(1926)
  Liberal Protectionist 1925 1930 Anti-free trade, protectionism 0
  McCarthyite 1896 1898 anti-Catholic, anti-French, British imperialism 1 / 213
(1896)
  National Party of Canada (II) 1991 1994 Canadian nationalism, protectionism, progressivism 0
  Nationalist 1873 1963 Various parties and candidates 2 / 215
(1887)
  Nationalist Conservative 1878 1911 1 / 215
(1891)
  National Unity Party 1934 1940 Far Right, National Socialism, Canadian Nationalism, Fascism, Anti-Semitism 0 / 245
(1935)
  Democratic Party of Canada 1945 1945 0
  Natural Law Party of Canada
Parti de la loi naturelle du Canada
1992 2004 New age 0
  New Capitalist Party 1965 1965 0
  Newfoundland and Labrador First Party 2007 2011 Newfoundland and Labrador advocacy 0
  Non-Partisan League 1917 1917 Agrarianism 0
  Parti de la Démocratisation Économique 1968 1968 0
  Parti Nationaliste du Quebec 1983 1987 Quebec independence 0
  Parti canadien 1942 anti-conscription 1 / 245
(1942)
  Republican Party
Parti republicain
1964 1971 0
  Party for the Commonwealth of Canada 1984 1993 LaRouchite 0
  Patrons of Industry 1890 1900 pro-labour 2 / 213
(1896)
  People's Political Power Party of Canada
Pouvoir Politique du Peuple du Canada
2006 2011 feminist, centrist, populist 0
  Progressive Party of Canada
Parti progressiste du Canada
1921 1948 agrarian, free trade, progressivism 61 / 235
(1921)
  Progressive-Conservative 1925 1935 1 / 245
(1930)
  Protestant Protective Association 1896 Anti-Catholic 0
  Radical chrétien 1958 1967 0
  Ralliement créditiste 1963 1971 Split from the Social Credit Party; see Social Credit Party of Canada split, 1963. 14 / 264
(1968)
  Reconstruction Party of Canada 1935 1938 Keynesianism, National Conservatism, Isolationism 1 / 245
(1935)
  Reform Party of Canada
Parti réformiste du Canada
1987 2000 fiscal conservativsm, regionalism, social conservativism, democratic reform 60 / 301
(1997)
  Rhinoceros Party (I)
Parti Rhinocéros
1968 1993 Satirical 0
  Social Credit Party of Canada
Parti Crédit social du Canada
1935 1993 Canadian Social credit, Canadian Conservatism, Right-wing populism, Social conservatism 30 / 265
(1962)
  Socialist Labour Party 1945 1968 socialism 0
  Socialist Party of Canada (I) 1904 1925 socialism 0
  Socialist Party of Canada (II) 1931 1961 0
  Union des électeurs 1939 1949 Social Credit 0
  Union Populaire 1979 1981 independentist (precursor of Bloc Québécois) 0
  United Reform 1939 1940 Far left 1 / 245
(1939)
  Western Block Party 2005 2014[7] western separatist and paleoconservative/libertarian conservative 0
  Work Less Party 2007 2010 Labour rights 0

Past names of historical parties[edit]

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation used the name New Party from 1958-1961 while it was transitioning to become the New Democratic Party. In French, the party used a literal translation of its name, Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from until 1955.

The Conservative Party used several different names during its existence:

Labour Party candidates ran under numerous different designations:

  • Conservative-Labour (1872-1875)
  • Farmer Labour
  • Farmer-United Labour
  • Labour-Farmer
  • Liberal-Labour (1926-1968)
  • National Labour (1940)
  • United Farmers-Labour (1920)
  • United Farmers of Ontario-Labour (1919-1940)

Some Liberal-Progressive candidates used the designations:

  • Liberal-Labour-Progressive or
  • National Liberal Progressive.

Some candidates for the Progressive Party of Canada used United Farmer designations:

Some Ralliement créditiste used the name Ralliement des créditistes from 1963 to 1967. One candidate used the designation Candidats des électeurs in 1957 and 1958.

In the 1940 election, 17 candidates ran jointly with the Social Credit Party under the name New Democracy.

Other designations[edit]

Designations used by single candidates[edit]

Unofficial designations[edit]

The following parties do not appear on the federal election archive.[8] They either did not run candidates in any election or ran candidates as independents.

Pre-confederation political parties[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Registered Political Parties and Parties Eligible for Registration". Elections Canada. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Includes members using temporary party names Unity and Labor-Progressive Party.
  3. ^ Howard A. Leeson (2001). Saskatchewan Politics: Into the Twenty-first Century. University of Regina Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-88977-131-4. 
  4. ^ Janet Miron (2009). A History of Human Rights in Canada: Essential Issues. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-55130-356-7. 
  5. ^ Carol Gould; Pasquale Paquino (1 January 2001). Cultural Identity and the Nation-state. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8476-9677-2. 
  6. ^ Seymour Martin Lipset (1971). Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan : a Study in Political Sociology. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02056-6. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  7. ^ "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada. January 28, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  8. ^ http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/FederalRidingsHistory/hfer.asp?Language=E&Search=C