List of federal political parties in Canada

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In contrast with the political party systems of many nations, Canadian political parties at the federal level are often only loosely connected with parties at the provincial level, despite having similar names.[citation needed] One exception is the New Democratic Party, which is organizationally integrated with most of its provincial counterparts including a shared membership.

Current parties[edit]

These are all of the political parties registered with Elections Canada as of December 2017.[1]

Name Founded Ideology Leader MPs Most MPs Senators
  Liberal Party of Canada
Parti libéral du Canada
1861 Liberalism, social liberalism Justin Trudeau 183 179 / 245
(1940)
0
  Conservative Party of Canada 
Parti conservateur du Canada
2003 Conservatism, economic liberalism Andrew Scheer 99 166 / 308
(2011)
34
  New Democratic Party
Nouveau Parti démocratique
1961 Social democracy Jagmeet Singh 44 103 / 308
(2011)
0
  Bloc Québécois 1991 Quebec sovereignty, social democracy Martine Ouellet 10 54 / 295
(1993)
0
  Green Party of Canada
Le Parti vert du Canada
1983 Green politics Elizabeth May 1 2 / 308
(2013)
0
  Alliance of the North
Alliance du Nord
2015 Social conservatism François Bélanger 0 0 0
  Animal Protection Party of Canada 2005 Animal rights, environmentalism Liz White 0 0 0
  Christian Heritage Party of Canada
Parti de l'Héritage Chrétien du Canada
1986 Social conservatism, Christian right Rodney L. Taylor 0 0 0
  Communist Party of Canada
Parti communiste du Canada
1921 Marxism–Leninism Liz Rowley 0 3 / 245
(1945)[2]
0
  Libertarian Party of Canada
Parti Libertarien du Canada
1973 Libertarianism Tim Moen 0 0 0
  Marijuana Party
Parti Marijuana
2000 Cannabis legalisation Blair Longley 0 0 0
  Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada
Parti Marxiste–Léniniste du Canada
1970 Marxism–Leninism Anna Di Carlo 0 0 0
  National Advancement Party of Canada
Parti pour le Progrès National du Canada
2015 Canadian nationalism, right-wing populism Stephen J. Garvey 0 0 0
  Progressive Canadian Party
Parti Progressiste Canadien
2004 Red Toryism Vacant 0 0 0
  Rhinoceros Party (II)
Parti Rhinocéros
2006 Satirical party Sébastien Corriveau 0 0 0

The Canadian Senate has two additional parliamentary groups, the Senate Liberal Caucus (consisting of senators who are members of the Liberal Party but not affiliated with the Liberal Party of Canada) and the Independent Senators Group (a group which organizes and funds non-partisan senators). Both are unaffiliated with other Canadian political parties, are not registered with Elections Canada, and do not run candidates in Canadian federal elections. Conservative senators remain formally affiliated with the Conservative Party of Canada.

Name Founded Ideology Leader Senators
  Independent Senators Group
Groupe des sénateurs indépendants
2016 Non-partisan Yuen Pau Woo 39
  Senate Liberal Caucus
Caucus libéral du Sénat
2014 Liberalism, social liberalism Joseph A. Day 15

Historical parties[edit]

Name Founded Dissolved Ideology Most MPs
  Abolitionist Party of Canada 1993 1996 Social credit, monetary reform, social liberalism 0
  Anti-Confederation Party 1867 1867 Opposition to Confederation (membership in Canada), Nova Scotia separatism 18 / 180
(1867)
  Bloc populaire 1943 1949 Anti-conscription, Canadian nationalism, isolationism, French Canadian rights 4 / 245
(1943)
  The Bridge Party of Canada
Parti pour nouer des liens entre Canadiens
2015 31 January 2017[3] Non-partisan 0
  Canada Party 1993 1996 0
  Canada Party (II)
Parti Canada
2015 30 September 2016[4] 0
  Canadian Action Party
Parti action canadienne
1997 31 March 2017[5] Canadian nationalism, anti-globalization 0
  Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
Alliance réformiste-conservatrice canadienne
2000 2003 Conservatism, right-wing populism, social conservatism[6][7][8] 66 / 301
(2001)
  Candidat libéral des électeurs 1962 1963 Social credit & liberalism 0
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
Parti social démocratique du Canada
1932 1961 Social democracy, democratic socialism, agrarianism[9] 31 / 245
(1948)
  Confederation of Regions Party of Canada 1984 1988 Regionalism, conserativism 0
  Conservative Party of Canada (I) and
Progressive Conservative of Canada
1854
1942
2003 Canadian conservatism, Loyalism, Canadian nationalism (particularly under John Diefenbaker), Red Toryism, Economic Liberalism (under Brian Mulroney), moderation, occasional populism 208 / 265
(1958)
  Democratic Party of Canada 1945 1945 0
  Democratic Representative Caucus 2001 2002 Formed when several MPs left the Canadian Alliance due to the leadership of Stockwell Day, rejoined after Day lost leadership to Stephen Harper 13 / 301
(2002)
  Equal Rights 1890 1891 0
  First Peoples National Party of Canada 2005 31 July 2013[10] Aboriginal rights advocacy 0
  Labour Party of Canada 1926 1968 Trade unionism, socialism 4 / 245
(1926)
  Liberal-Progressive 1925 1955 Coalition between the Liberal Party and Progressive Party 8 / 245
(1926)
  Liberal Protectionist 1925 1930 Anti-free trade, protectionism 0
  McCarthyite 1896 1898 Anti-Catholic, anti-French, British imperialism 1 / 213
(1896)
  National Party of Canada (II) 1991 1994 Canadian nationalism, protectionism, progressivism 0
  Nationalist 1873 1963 Various parties and candidates 2 / 215
(1887)
  Nationalist Conservative 1878 1911 1 / 215
(1891)
  Natural Law Party of Canada
Parti de la loi naturelle du Canada
1992 23 January 2004[11] New age 0
  New Capitalist Party 1965 1965 0
  Newfoundland and Labrador First Party 2007 31 January 2011[12] Newfoundland and Labrador advocacy 0
  Non-Partisan League 1917 1917 Agrarianism 0
  Parti de la Démocratisation Économique 1968 1968 0
  Parti Nationaliste du Quebec 1983 1987 Quebec independence 0
  Parti canadien 1942 ???? anti-conscription 1 / 245
(1942)
  Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency 2012 31 July 2016[13] 0
  Party for the Commonwealth of Canada 1984 1993 LaRouchite 0
  Patrons of Industry 1890 1900 Pro-labour 2 / 213
(1896)
  People's Political Power Party of Canada
Pouvoir Politique du Peuple du Canada
2006 13 April 2011[14] Feminist, centrist, populist
  Pirate Party of Canada
Parti Pirate du Canada
2010 2017 Roderick Lim
  Progressive Party of Canada
Parti progressiste du Canada
1921 1948 Agrarian, free trade, progressivism 61 / 235
(1921)
  Progressive-Conservative 1925 1935 1 / 245
(1930)
  Protestant Protective Association 1896 ???? Anti-Catholic 0
  Radical chrétien 1958 1967 0
  Ralliement créditiste 1963 1971 Split from the Social Credit Party; see Social Credit Party of Canada split, 1963. 14 / 264
(1968)
  Reconstruction Party of Canada 1935 1938 Keynesianism, National Conservatism, Isolationism 1 / 245
(1935)
  Reform Party of Canada
Parti réformiste du Canada
1987 2000 Fiscal conservatism, regionalism, social conservatism, democratic reform 60 / 301
(1997)
  Republican Party
Parti republicain
1964 1971 0
  Rhinoceros Party (I)
Parti Rhinocéros
1968 1993 Satirical 0
  Seniors Party of Canada
Parti des aînés du Canada
2014 30 November 2016[15] 0
  Social Credit Party of Canada
Parti Crédit social du Canada
1935 1993 Canadian Social credit, Canadian Conservatism, Right-wing populism, Social conservatism 30 / 265
(1962)
  Socialist Labour Party 1945 1968 Socialism 0
  Socialist Party of Canada (I) 1904 1925 Socialism 0
  Socialist Party of Canada (II) 1931 1961 0
  Strength in Democracy
Forces et Démocratie
2014 30 September 2016[16] Social democracy, regionalism 2 / 308
(2015)
  Union des électeurs 1939 1949 Social Credit 0
  Union Populaire 1979 1981 independentist (precursor of Bloc Québécois) 0
  United Party of Canada
Parti Uni du Canada
2009 31 August 2016[17] Centrism 0
  United Reform 1939 1940 Far left 1 / 245
(1939)
  Western Block Party 2005 31 January 2014[18] western separatist and paleoconservative/libertarian conservative 0
  Work Less Party 2007 31 July 2010[19] labour rights 0

Other designations[edit]

Designations used by single candidates[edit]

Unofficial designations[edit]

The following parties do not appear on the federal election archive.[20] They either did not run candidates in any election or ran candidates as independents.

Pre-confederation political parties[edit]

Name changes[edit]

Communist Party

The Communist Party of Canada changed its name multiple times in its history. It was founded as the Communist Party of Canada in 1921. From 1938 until 1943 its candidates ran under the banner Unity or United Progressive. In 1943 it adopted the name Labor-Progressive Party. It won one seat under this name in 1945. In 1959 it reverted to the name Communist Party of Canada and has kept that name to the present.

The Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada unofficially uses the name "Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist)", but Elections Canada does not allow it to be registered by that name because of potential confusion with the Communist Party of Canada.

Labour Party

Labour Party candidates ran under numerous different designations:

  • Conservative-Labour (1872-1875)
  • Farmer Labour
  • Farmer-United Labour
  • Labour-Farmer
  • Liberal-Labour (1926-1968)
  • National Labour (1940)
  • United Farmers-Labour (1920)
  • United Farmers of Ontario-Labour (1919-1940)
Liberal Party

During Robert Borden's coalition government of 1917-1920, the Liberal Party of Canada split into two groups: the Liberal–Unionist who supported the coalition and the Laurier Liberals who opposed it.

Liberal-Progressive

Some Liberal-Progressive candidates used the designations:

  • Liberal-Labour-Progressive or
  • National Liberal Progressive.
New Democratic Party

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation used the name New Party from 1958-1961 while it was transitioning to become the New Democratic Party. In French, the party used a literal translation of its name, Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from until 1955.

Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency

The Party for Accountability, Competency and Transparency was founded as the Online Party of Canada.

Progressive Conservative Party

The first Conservative Party used several different names during its existence:

The second (and current) Conservative Party of Canada was a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party.

Progressive Party and United Farmers

Some candidates for the Progressive Party of Canada used United Farmer designations:

Rhinoceros Party

The first Rhinoceros Party disbanded in 1993. When it was revived in 2006 it used the name "neorhino.ca". The party changed its name to Rhinoceros Party in 2010.

Social Credit Party and Ralliement créditiste

Some Ralliement créditiste used the name Ralliement des créditistes from 1963 to 1967. One candidate used the designation Candidats des électeurs in 1957 and 1958.

In the 1940 election, 17 candidates ran jointly with the Social Credit Party under the name New Democracy.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Template:Http://elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e
  2. ^ Includes members using temporary party names Unity and Labor-Progressive Party.
  3. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#bridge
  4. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#canpar
  5. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#CAP
  6. ^ Howard A. Leeson (2001). Saskatchewan Politics: Into the Twenty-first Century. University of Regina Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-88977-131-4. 
  7. ^ Janet Miron (2009). A History of Human Rights in Canada: Essential Issues. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-55130-356-7. 
  8. ^ Carol Gould; Pasquale Paquino (1 January 2001). Cultural Identity and the Nation-state. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8476-9677-2. 
  9. ^ Seymour Martin Lipset (1971). Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan : a Study in Political Sociology. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02056-6. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  10. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#FPNP
  11. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#Natural
  12. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#nlf
  13. ^ "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada. 
  14. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#ppp
  15. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#senior
  16. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#fordem
  17. ^ http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=pol&dir=par&document=index&lang=e#upc
  18. ^ "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada. January 28, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Deregistration of Western Block Party". Elections Canada. 
  20. ^ http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/FederalRidingsHistory/hfer.asp?Language=E&Search=C

External Links[edit]