List of felids

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TigerCanada lynxServalCougarFishing catAsian golden catOcelotEuropean wildcat
Left to right, top to bottom: tiger (Panthera tigris), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), serval (Leptailurus serval, cougar (Puma concolor)), fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and European wildcat (Felis silvestris)

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is called a felid.[1][2] The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to domestic cats. The characteristic features of cats have evolved to support a carnivorous lifestyle, with adaptations for ambush or stalking and short pursuit hunting. They have slender muscular bodies, strong flexible forelimbs and retractable claws for holding prey, dental and cranial adaptations for a strong bite, and often have characteristic striped or spotted coat patterns for camouflage.[3][4]

Felidae comprises two extant subfamilies, the Pantherinae and the Felinae. The former includes the five Panthera species tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the two Neofelis species clouded leopard and Sunda clouded leopard.[2] The subfamily Felinae includes 12 genera and 34 species, such as the bobcat, caracal, cheetah, cougar, ocelot, and common domestic cat.[5]

Traditionally, five subfamilies have been distinguished within the Felidae based on phenotypical features: the Felinae, the Pantherinae, the Acinonychinae (cheetahs), the extinct Machairodontinae, and the extinct Proailurinae.[6] Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that living (extant) felids fall into eight lineages (clades).[7][8] The placement of the cheetah within the Puma lineage invalidates the traditional subfamily Acinonychinae, and recent sources use only two subfamilies for extant genera.[5] The number of accepted species in Felidae has been around 40 since the 18th century, though research, especially modern molecular phylogenetic analysis, has over time adjusted the generally accepted genera as well as the divisions between recognized subspecies, species, and population groups.[9] In addition to the extant species listed here, over 30 fossil genera have been described; these are divided into the subfamilies Felinae, Pantherinae, Proailurinae, and Machairodontinae. This final subfamily includes the genus Smilodon, known as the saber-toothed tiger, which went extinct around 10,000 years ago. The earliest known felid genus is Proailurus, part of Proailurinae, which lived approximately 25 million years ago in Eurasia.[10]

Conventions[edit]

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (0 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (0 species)
 EN Endangered (5 species)
 VU Vulnerable (13 species)
 NT Near threatened (7 species)
 LC Least concern (14 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (0 species)
 NE Not evaluated (2 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the cat's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Extinct".

Classification[edit]

Range of Felidae. Blue is the range of Felinae (excluding the domestic cat), green is the range of Pantherinae.

The family Felidae consists of 41 extant species belonging to 14 genera and divided into 92 subspecies. This does not include hybrid species (such as liger) or extinct prehistoric species (such as Smilodon). Modern molecular studies indicate that the 14 genera can be grouped into 8 lineages.[9]

Subfamily Felinae: small and medium-sized cats

Subfamily Pantherinae: large cats

  Felidae  
Panthera lineage
  Pantherinae  

Panthera

Neofelis

  Felinae  
Bay cat lineage

Catopuma

Pardofelis

Caracal lineage

Caracal

Ocelot lineage

Leopardus

Lynx lineage

Lynx

Puma lineage

Puma

Herpailurus

Acinonyx

Leopard Cat lineage

Prionailurus

Otocolobus

Felis

Domestic Cat lineage

Felids[edit]

The following classification is based on the most recent proposals, as codified in 2017 by the Cat Specialist Group of the IUCN.[9] Range maps are based on IUCN range data.

Subfamily Felinae[edit]

Bay Cat lineage[edit]

Genus Catopuma (Severtzov, 1858) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Asian golden cat

Tawny cat facing the viewer

C. temminckii
Vigors & Horsfield, 1827

Scattered areas of Southeast Asia
Distibution map of Asian Golden Cat.svg
Size: 71–105 cm (28–41 in) long, 40–56 cm (16–22 in) tail[11]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, grassland, and shrubland[12]

Diet: Mostly unknown, with evidence of preying on rodents, squirrels, and snakes[12]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[12]

Bay cat

Dark brown cat in a cage

C. badia
Gray, 1874
The island of Borneo
BayCat distribution.jpg
Size: 53–67 cm (21–26 in) long, 32–40 cm (13–16 in) tail[13]

Habitat: Forest[14]

Diet: Unknown[14]
 EN 


2,200 Population declining[14]

Genus Pardofelis (Severtzov, 1858) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Marbled cat

Marbled cat face-down on a tree trunk

P. marmorata
Martin, 1836

Parts of Southeast Asia
Marbled Cat area.png
Size: 45–62 cm (18–24 in) long, 36–55 cm (14–22 in) tail[15]

Habitat: Forest[16]

Diet: Likely preys on rodents, squirrels, and birds[16]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[16]

Caracal lineage[edit]

Genus Caracal (Gray, 1843) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African golden cat

Drawing of dark spotted cat

C. aurata
Temminck, 1827

Central Africa
Distribution P. aurata.svg
Size: 65–90 cm (26–35 in) long, 28–35 cm (11–14 in) tail[17]

Habitat: Forest[18]

Diet: Preys mainly on rodents and squirrels, along with antelope and primates[18]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[18]

Caracal

Brown cat with tufted ears

C. caracal
Schreber, 1776

Most of non-desert Africa and Middle East
Caracal distribution.png
Size: 80–100 cm (31–39 in) long, 20–34 cm (8–13 in) tail[19]

Habitat: Forest, desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[20]

Diet: Preys mainly on rodents, as well as antelope, birds, reptiles, and fish[20]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[20]

Genus Leptailurus (Severtzov, 1858) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Serval

Spotted Serval on a path

L. serval
Schreber, 1776

Non-rainforest sub-Saharan Africa
Serval range IUCN.svg
Size: 59–100 cm (23–39 in) long, 20–38 cm (8–15 in) tail[21]

Habitat: Grassland, inland wetlands, forest, and savanna[22]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals and rodents, as well as birds, reptiles, and arthropods[22]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[22]

Ocelot lineage[edit]

Genus Leopardus (Gray, 1842) – eight species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Andean mountain cat

Gray Andean mountain cat on a rock

L. jacobita
Cornalia, 1865
Andes mountains
Leopardus jacobita distribution.svg
Size: 57–65 cm (22–26 in) long, 41–48 cm (16–19 in) tail[23]

Habitat: Rocky areas, shrubland, and grassland[24]

Diet: Primarily preys on rodents, as well as other small mammals[24]
 EN 


1,400 Population declining[24]

Geoffroy's cat

Spotted Geoffroy's cat by some rocks

L. geoffroyi
d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844
Southern and central regions of South America
Leopardus geoffroyi range map.png
Size: 43–88 cm (17–35 in) long, 23–40 cm (9–16 in) tail[25]

Habitat: Savanna, forest, shrubland, and grassland[26]

Diet: Primarily preys on small rodents, birds, and rabbits[26]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[26]

Kodkod

Spotted Kodkod in front of grass

L. guigna
Molina, 1782

Central and southern Chile
Oncifelis guigna dis.png
Size: 37–56 cm (15–22 in) long, 20–25 cm (8–10 in) tail[27]

Habitat: Shrubland and forest[28]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals, especially rodents, and also small marsupials, birds, reptiles, and carrion[28]
 VU 


6,000–92,000 Population declining[28]

Margay

Spotted margay on a branch

L. wiedii
Schinz, 1821

Most of South America and Central America
Margay area.png
Size: 46–69 cm (18–27 in) long, 23–52 cm (9–20 in) tail[29]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and savanna[30]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals, as well as lizards and birds[30]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[30]

Ocelot

Streaked ocelot in a zoo

L. pardalis
Linnaeus, 1758

Most of South and Central America
Ocelot area.png
Size: 50–102 cm (20–40 in) long, 30–50 cm (12–20 in) tail[31]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and savanna[32]

Diet: Primarily preys on small and medium mammals, birds and reptiles[32]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[32]

Oncilla

Spotted oncilla walking through grass

L. tigrinus
Schreber, 1775

Most of South America
Oncilla area.png
Size: 38–59 cm (15–23 in) long, 20–42 cm (8–17 in) tail[33]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[34]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals, birds and reptiles[34]
 VU 


9,000–10,000 Population declining[34]

Pampas cat

Gray Pampas cat by some wood

L. colocola
Molina, 1782

West coast of South America and parts of Brazil
Leopardus colocolo range map.png
Size: 42–79 cm (17–31 in) long, 22–33 cm (9–13 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and desert[36]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals and ground-dwelling birds[36]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[36]

Southern tiger cat L. guttulus
Hensel, 1872
Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay
Leopardus guttulus range map.png
Size: 38–59 cm (15–23 in) long, 20–42 cm (8–17 in) tail[37]

Habitat: Forest and savanna[38]

Diet: Preys primarily on small mammals, birds and lizards[38]
 VU 


6,000 Population declining[38]

Lynx lineage[edit]

Genus Lynx (Kerr, 1792) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Bobcat

Spotted bobcat in the grass

L. rufus
Schreber, 1777

Most of the United States and parts of Canada and Mexico
Bobcat Lynx rufus distribution map.png
Size: 50–120 cm (20–47 in) long, 9–25 cm (4–10 in) tail[39]

Habitat: Desert, shrubland, savanna, forest, and grassland[40]

Diet: Primarily preys on rabbits, along with rodents and small or medium-sized mammals[40]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[40]

Canada lynx

Gray dappled Canada Lynx

L. canadensis
Kerr, 1792
Canada, Alaska, and parts of northern United States
Canada Lynx area.png
Size: 73–106 cm (29–42 in) long, 10–15 cm (4–6 in) tail[41]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[42]

Diet: Preys almost exclusively on hares, especially snowshoe hares[42]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[42]

Eurasian lynx

Spotted tawny Eurasian Lynx on a stump

L. lynx
Linnaeus, 1758

Eastern Europe, Russia, and parts of China
Eurasian Lynx area.png
Size: 90–120 cm (35–47 in) long, 19–23 cm (7–9 in) tail[43]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, desert, rocky areas, and grassland[44]

Diet: Primarily preys on deer, as well as other small or medium-sized mammals and birds[44]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[44]

Iberian lynx

Spotted tawny Iberian Lynx in the dust

L. pardinus
Temminck, 1827
Scattered pockets of Spain and Portugal
Mapa distribuicao lynx pardinus defasado.png
Size: 65–92 cm (26–36 in) long, 11–16 cm (4–6 in) tail[45]

Habitat: Shrubland[46]

Diet: Preys almost exclusively on the European rabbit[46]
 EN 


160 Population increasing[46]

Puma lineage[edit]

Genus Acinonyx (Brookes, 1828) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Cheetah

Spotted cheetah standing at a rock

A. jubatus
Schreber, 1775

Southern Africa, central Africa, and Iran
Cheetah range - 2.png
Size: 113–140 cm (44–55 in) long, 60–84 cm (24–33 in) tail[47]

Habitat: Desert, grassland, savanna, and shrubland[48]

Diet: Preys mainly upon antelopes and gazelles[48]
 VU 


6,700 Population declining[48]

Genus Herpailurus (Saint-Hilaire, 1803) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Jaguarundi

Gray Jaguarundi on a branch

H. yagouaroundi
Saint-Hilaire, 1803
Most of South and Central America
Jaguarundi area.png
Size: 49–78 cm (19–31 in) long, 28–59 cm (11–23 in) tail[49]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, savanna, and forest[50]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals, birds and reptiles[50]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[50]

Genus Puma (Jardine, 1834) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Cougar

Brown Cougar standing on a rock

P. concolor
Linnaeus, 1771

South America and Western North America
Cougar range map 2010.png
Size: 100–150 cm (39–59 in) long, 60–90 cm (24–35 in) tail[51]

Habitat: Forest, desert, grassland, savanna, and shrubland[52]

Diet: Primarily prey on deer, as well as smaller mammals such as feral pigs, raccoons and armadillos[52]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[52]

Leopard Cat lineage[edit]

Genus Otocolobus (Brandt, 1841) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Pallas's cat

Furry Pallas's cat on a stump

O. manul
Pallas, 1776

Central Asia
Manul map.svg
Size: 46–65 cm (18–26 in) long, 21–31 cm (8–12 in) tail[53]

Habitat: Rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and desert[54]

Diet: Preys primarily on small mammals, especially pikas, as well as rodents and birds[54]
 NT 


15,000 Population declining[54]

Genus Prionailurus (Severtzov, 1858) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Fishing cat

Spotted Fishing cat lying on a branch

P. viverrinus
Bennett, 1833

South and Southeast Asia
Prionailurus viverrinus range map.png
Size: 65–85 cm (26–33 in) long, 25–30 cm (10–12 in) tail[55]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, shrubland, grassland, and forest[56]

Diet: Primarily preys on rodents, birds and fish[56]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[56]

Flat-headed cat

Brown Flat-headed cat on a branch

P. planiceps
Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
The Thai-Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra
Plionailurus planiceps former distribution.png
Size: 45–52 cm (18–20 in) long, 13–17 cm (5–7 in) tail[57]

Habitat: Inland wetlands and forest[58]

Diet: Preys primarily on fish, as well as birds and small rodents[58]
 EN 


2,500 Population declining[58]

Leopard cat

Spotted Leopard cat in the brush

P. bengalensis
Kerr, 1792

Eastern Asia
Leopard Cat area.png
Size: 45–65 cm (18–26 in) long, 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail[59]

Habitat: Grassland, inland wetlands, shrubland, and forest[60]

Diet: Primarily preys on rodents, particularly murids, as well as other small mammals, eels, and fish[60]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[60]

Rusty-spotted cat

Brown Rusty-spotted cat crouching on a rock

P. rubiginosus
Saint-Hilaire, 1834

India, Sri Lanka, and Nepal
Prionailurus rubiginosus range map.png
Size: 35–48 cm (14–19 in) long, 20–25 cm (8–10 in) tail[61]

Habitat: Desert, savanna, grassland, shrubland, and forest[62]

Diet: Primarily preys on rodents[62]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[62]

Sunda leopard cat

Spotted Sunda leopard cat on a branch

P. javanensis
Desmarest, 1816

Sundaland islands of Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumatra and the Philippines
Prionailurus javanensis range map.png
Size: 45–65 cm (18–26 in) long, 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail[59]

Habitat: Forest[63]

Diet: Primarily feeds on rodents, as well as amphibians, lizards, and birds[63][64]
 NE 


Unknown

Domestic cat lineage[edit]

Genus Felis (Linnaeus, 1758) – seven species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African wildcat

African Wildcat on a rock in front of a fence

F. lybica
Forster, 1780

Africa, West and Central Asia, northern India and western China
Felis Lybica range map.png
Size: 45–80 cm (18–31 in) long, 30 cm (12 in) tail[65]

Habitat: Forest, desert, shrubland, savanna, and grassland[66]

Diet: Preys on rodents and rabbits, and to a lesser extent birds and other small animals[66]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[66]

Black-footed cat

Dappled Black-footed cat on a branch

F. nigripes
Burchell, 1824
Southern Africa
Black-footed Cat area.png
Size: 37–52 cm (15–20 in) long, 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail[67]

Habitat: Savanna, grassland, and desert[68]

Diet: Primarily preys on small mammals and birds[68]
 VU 


9,700 Population declining[68]

Chinese mountain cat

Chinese mountain cat in a cage

F. bieti
Milne-Edwards, 1892
Northwest China
Felis bieti map.svg
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long, 29–35 cm (11–14 in) tail[69]

Habitat: Grassland and forest[70]

Diet: Unknown[70]
 VU 


10,000 Population declining[70]

Domestic cat

Five images of domestic cats

F. catus
Linnaeus, 1758
Worldwide Size: 46 cm (18 in) long, 30 cm (12 in) tail[71]

Habitat: Domesticated; feral cats have a cosmopolitan distribution in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands[72]

Diet: Preys primarily on birds and small mammals in the wild[72]
 NE 


Over 500 million[73]

European wildcat

European wildcat sitting in the snow

F. silvestris
Schreber, 1777

Spain, the Balkans, and Central Europe
Leefgebied wilde kat 2.JPG
Size: 45–80 cm (18–31 in) long, 30 cm (12 in) tail[74]

Habitat: Shrubland and fores[75]

Diet: Preys on rodents and rabbits, and to a lesser extent birds[75]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[75]

Jungle cat

Gray Jungle cat on a rock

F. chaus
Schreber, 1777

India and parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia
Jungle Cat area.png
Size: 58–76 cm (23–30 in) long, 21–27 cm (8–11 in) tail[76]

Habitat: Forest, wetlands (inland), desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[77]

Diet: Preys primarily on small mammals and rodents, as well as birds and other small animals[77]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[77]

Sand cat

Tawny sand cat on a rock

F. margarita
Loche, 1858

Scattered areas in Western Africa, Saudi Arabia, and near the Caspian Sea
Sand Cat area.png
Size: 39–52 cm (15–20 in) long, 22–31 cm (9–12 in) tail[78]

Habitat: Desert[79]

Diet: Preys primarily on small rodents, as well as small birds and lizards[79]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[79]

Subfamily Pantherinae[edit]

Panthera lineage[edit]

Genus Neofelis (Gray, 1867) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Clouded leopard

Leopard with large spots facing viewer

N. nebulosa
Griffith, 1821
Pockets of China and Southeast Asia
Clouded Leopard area.png
Size: 69–108 cm (27–43 in) long, 61–91 cm (24–36 in) tail[80]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[81]

Diet: Preys primarily on medium-sized and small mammals on the ground and in trees, as well as birds[81]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[81]

Sunda clouded leopard

Leopard crouching under leaves at night

N. diardi
Cuvier, 1823

Parts of Sumatra and Borneo
Neofelis diardi Locator Map.svg
Size: 69–108 cm (27–43 in) long, 61–91 cm (24–36 in) tail[82]

Habitat: Forest[83]

Diet: Preys primarily on medium-sized and small mammals[83]
 VU 


4,500 Population declining[83]

Genus Panthera (Oken, 1816) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Jaguar

Spotted jaguar on a rock

P. onca
Linnaeus, 1758
Large swathes of South and Latin America
Panthera onca distribution.svg
Size: 110–170 cm (43–67 in) long, 44–80 cm (17–31 in) tail[84]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, inland wetlands, savanna, and grassland[85]

Diet: Preys on a variety of mammals, reptiles and birds, preferring ungulates[85]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[85]

Leopard

Spotted leopard walking in front of grass

P. pardus
Linnaeus, 1758

Middle third of Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and Siberia
Leopard distribution.jpg
Size: 91–191 cm (36–75 in) long, 51–101 cm (20–40 in) tail[86]

Habitat: Forest, desert, rocky areas, grassland, savanna, and shrubland[87]

Diet: Primarily preys on ungulates, as well as other mammals, insects, reptiles, and birds[87]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[87]

Lion

Brown male lion lying in tall grass

P. leo
Linnaeus, 1758

Scattered sections of Africa and India
Lion distribution.png
Size: 137–250 cm (54–98 in) long, 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tail[88]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, savanna, and desert[89]

Diet: Primarily preys on ungulates such as antelopes, zebra and wildebeest, as well as other small to large mammals[89]
 VU 


23,000–39,000 Population declining[89]

Snow leopard

Spotted snow leopard standing in the grass

P. uncia
Schreber, 1775
Himalayas reaching north to Mongolia
Snow leopard range.png
Size: 90–120 cm (35–47 in) long, 80–100 cm (31–39 in) tail[90]

Habitat: Shrubland, rocky areas, forest, and grassland[91]

Diet: Primarily preys on caprids such as sheep and goats, as well as small mammals and birds[91]
 VU 


2,700–3,400 Population declining[91]

Tiger

Large orange tiger with black stripes

P. tigris
Linnaeus, 1758

Scattered sections of Southeast Asia, India, and Siberia
Tiger map.jpg
Size: 150–230 cm (59–91 in) long, 90–110 cm (35–43 in) tail[92]

Habitat: Shrubland, forest, and grassland[93]

Diet: Primarily preys on deer and wild pigs, as well as a wide variety of other animals[93]
 EN 


2,200–3,200 Population declining[93]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Population figures rounded to the nearest hundred. Population trends as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Salles, L. O. (1992). "Felid phylogenetics: extant taxa and skull morphology (Felidae, Aeluroidea)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (3047). OCLC 47720325. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Johnson, W. E.; Dratch, P. A.; Martenson, J. S.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Resolution of recent radiations within three evolutionary lineages of Felidae using mitochondrial restriction fragment length polymorphism variation". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 3 (2): 97–120. doi:10.1007/bf01454358.
  3. ^ Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
  4. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1917). "VII.—On the external characters of the Felidæ". Journal of Natural History. 19 (109): 113−136. doi:10.1080/00222931709486916. OCLC 1056258760.
  5. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Felidae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
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