List of female United States presidential and vice-presidential candidates

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In 1872, Victoria Woodhull became the first female presidential candidate. Her candidacy preceded suffrage for women in the U.S.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first female presidential candidate nominated by a major party, namely the Democratic Party.

There has never been a female U.S. president or vice president. The following is a list of female U.S. presidential and vice presidential nominees and invitees. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed as nominees or nomination candidates are those women who achieved ballot access in at least one state (or, before the institution of government-printed ballots, had ballots circulated by their parties). They each may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the two major parties or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.

There has been one female major party presidential nominee in U.S. history: Democrat Hillary Clinton in 2016.

There have been three female major party vice presidential nominees: Democrat Geraldine Ferraro in 1984, Republican Sarah Palin in 2008, and Democrat Kamala Harris in 2020.

History[edit]

While many historians and authors agree that Victoria Woodhull was the first woman to run for president, some have questioned the legality of her run. They disagree with classifying it as a true candidacy because she was younger than the constitutionally mandated age of 35, but election coverage by contemporary newspapers does not suggest age was a significant issue. The presidential inauguration was in March 1873. president.[1]

The first woman to receive votes at a national political convention for president or vice president was Quaker activist and orator Lucretia Coffin Mott who received 6% of the votes in the first ballot for the vice president nomination at the 1848 convention of the Liberty Party.

Margaret Chase Smith announced her candidacy for the Republican Party nomination in 1964, becoming the first female candidate for a major party's nomination. She qualified for the ballot in six state primaries, and came in second in the Illinois primary, receiving 25% of the vote. She became the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for the presidency at a major political party's convention.[2]

Charlene Mitchell was the first African American woman to run for president, and the first to receive valid votes in a general election, in 1968. She qualified for the ballot in two states as the nominee of the Communist Party USA, winning 1,075 votes.[3]

In 1972, Shirley Chisholm became the first black candidate for a major party's presidential nomination, and the first woman to run for the Democratic Party's nomination.[4] During this primary, Chisholm won the New Jersey primary, becoming the first woman or African American to win a primary in any state. This would not be repeated by another woman for 36 years, in 2008.

Also in 1972, Tonie Nathan, the Libertarian Party's vice-presidential candidate, became the first woman to receive an electoral vote, via faithless elector Roger MacBride.[5] In the 1988 presidential election, Lenora Fulani became the first woman to achieve ballot access in all fifty states.[6] Fulani was also the first African American to do so. Three of her running mates, Joyce Dattner, Mamie Moore (also African American), and Wynonia Burke, also achieved ballot access separately in varying numbers out of the 50 states.

In the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries, Senator Hillary Clinton of New York became the first woman to win a presidential primary, and the first to be listed as a presidential candidate in every primary and caucus nationwide.[7] Despite losing the nomination in a close race against Barack Obama, Clinton won more votes in 2008 than any primary candidate in American history.

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton became the first woman nominated for president by a major party after winning a majority of pledged delegates in the 2016 Democratic Party primaries, and was formally nominated at the Democratic National Convention on July 26, 2016.[8][9] As a major party nominee, Clinton became the first woman to participate in a presidential debate, and later the first to carry a state in a general election. Despite losing the election, Clinton became the first woman to win the popular vote, receiving nearly 66 million votes to Donald Trump's 63 million.[10]

The Green Party has run a female candidate three times, Cynthia McKinney in 2008 and Jill Stein in 2012 and 2016. Stein is currently the female candidate with the second-most votes in a general election, having received nearly 1.5 million votes in 2016.

Prior to the 2020 United States presidential election cycle, only five women throughout history had made it to a major party's primary debate stage: Democrats Shirley Chisholm (in 1972), Carol Moseley Braun (in 2004), and Hillary Clinton (in 2008 and 2016), and Republicans Michele Bachmann (in 2012) and Carly Fiorina (in 2016); there had never been more than one woman on the debate stage at one time, and there had never been more than two women running per party at one time.[11] In the 2020 presidential election cycle, a record-breaking six women ran for president in the Democratic Party: Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, Senator Kamala Harris of California, Senator Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota, Senator Kirsten Gillibrand of New York, Representative Tulsi Gabbard of Hawaii, and author Marianne Williamson. The initial night of the first Democratic primary debate, which took place on June 26–27, 2019, marked a major milestone, as it featured three women: Warren, Klobuchar, and Gabbard; Harris, Gillibrand, and Williamson participated on the second night.[12]

Jo Jorgensen is the Libertarian Party's presidential candidate for the 2020 election, and is the first woman to be nominated by that party.

Kamala Harris is currently the 2020 Democratic nominee for vice president. She is the third female major party vice presidential nominee in United States history, following Democrat Geraldine Ferraro in 1984 and Republican Sarah Palin in 2008. Harris also the first African American and Asian American vice presidential nominee.

Presidential candidates[edit]

Candidates who received electoral college votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running mate Electoral
votes
Total
electoral
votes
Winner
2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic Party Tim Kaine 227 538 Donald Trump
Faith Spotted Eagle Not applicable[13] Not applicable 1

General election candidates by popular vote[edit]

This list, sorted by the number of votes received, includes female candidates who have competed for President of the United States in a general election and received over 40,000 votes.

Year Picture Name Party Votes Elected President
2016 Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg Hillary Clinton Democratic Party 65,853,516 Donald Trump
2016 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg Jill Stein Green Party 1,457,044[14] Donald Trump
2012 JillStein Tar Sands Blockade (cropped).jpg Jill Stein Green Party 468,907[15] Barack Obama
1988 Lenora Fulani.jpg Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party 217,219[16] George H. W. Bush
2008 Cynthia McKinney.jpg Cynthia McKinney Green Party 161,797[17] Barack Obama
1972 Jenness for President pin.jpg Linda Jenness Socialist Workers Party 83,380[18] Richard Nixon
1992 Lenora Fulani.jpg Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party 73,714[19] Bill Clinton
1984 Sonia Johnson.jpg Sonia Johnson Citizens Party 72,200[20] Ronald Reagan
2012 Roseanne barr cropped.jpg Roseanne Barr Peace and Freedom Party 67,326[21] Barack Obama
1976 Margaret Wright 76.jpg Margaret Wright People's Party 49,024[22] Jimmy Carter
1940 Gracie Allen (cut).JPG Gracie Allen Surprise Party 42,000[23] Franklin D. Roosevelt

Primary election candidates[edit]

This list, sorted by the number of votes received, includes female candidates who have sought their party's presidential nomination in at least one primary or caucus and received over 5,000 votes.
  Party nominee

Year Picture Name Party Votes Contests Won Party Nominee
2008 Hillary Rodham Clinton-cropped.jpg Hillary Clinton Democratic Party 17,857,501[24] 23 Barack Obama
2016 Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg Hillary Clinton Democratic Party 16,914,722[25] 34 Hillary Clinton
2020 Elizabeth Warren by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg Elizabeth Warren Democratic Party 2,780,679[26] 0 Joe Biden
2020 Amy Klobuchar by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg Amy Klobuchar Democratic Party 524,375[26] 0 Joe Biden
1972 Shirley Chisholm.jpg Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 430,703[27] 1[28] George McGovern
1964 Margaret Chase Smith.jpg Margaret Chase Smith Republican Party 227,007[29] 0 Barry Goldwater
2020 Tulsi Gabbard (48011616441) (cropped).jpg Tulsi Gabbard Democratic Party 261,253[26] 0 Joe Biden
2004 Sen. Carol Moseley Braun.jpg Carol Moseley Braun Democratic Party 103,189[30] 0 John Kerry
1996 Elvena Lloyd-Duffie Democratic Party 91,929[31] 0 Bill Clinton
2012 Bachmann2011.jpg Michele Bachmann Republican Party 41,170[32] 0 Mitt Romney
2016 Carly Fiorina (16669797001) (cropped).jpg Carly Fiorina Republican Party 40,666[32] 0 Donald Trump
1996 Heather Anne Harder Democratic Party 29,156[33][34][35] 0 Bill Clinton
2020 Marianne Williamson November 2019.jpg Marianne Williamson Democratic Party 22,334[26] 0 Joe Biden
1972 Patsy Mink 1970s.jpg Patsy Mink Democratic Party 8,286[36] 0 George McGovern
1964 Fay T. Carpenter Swain Democratic Party 7,140[37] 0 Lyndon B. Johnson
2020 Jo Jorgensen by Gage Skidmore 3 (50448627641) (crop 2).jpg Jo Jorgensen Libertarian Party 5,110[38] 2 Jo Jorgensen

All candidates[edit]

Party nominees[edit]

Year Name Party Running mate Votes Ballot access
1872 Victoria Woodhull Equal Rights Party Frederick Douglass [39] 0 states
1884 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party Marietta Stow[40] 4,149 6 states [41]
1888 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party First: Alfred Love Second: Charles Stuart Wells[42] [43]
1940 Gracie Allen Surprise Party Not applicable 42,000
1952 Ellen Linea W. Jensen Washington Peace Party
Mary Kennery[44] American Party
Agnes Waters American Woman's Party
1968 Charlene Mitchell Communist Party Michael Zagarell 1,075 2 states [45]
1972 Linda Jenness Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 83,380[18] 25 states
Evelyn Reed Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 13,878
1976 Margaret Wright People's Party Benjamin Spock 49,024
1980 Ellen McCormack Right to Life Party Carroll Driscoll 32,327
Maureen Smith Peace and Freedom Party Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 18,116
Deirdre Griswold Workers World Party Gavrielle Holmes.[46] 13,300
1984 Sonia Johnson Citizens Party Richard Walton 72,200 19 states [47]
Gavrielle Holmes[48] Workers World Party Gloria La Riva[49] 2,656[50] 2 states
1988 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Joyce Dattner 217,219 34 states
Wynonia Burke 4 states
Mamie Moore 9 states
Willa Kenoyer Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Ron Ehrenreich 3,928
1992 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Maria Elizabeth Muñoz 73,714
Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Fred Mazelis 3,050
Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Walter Masters 327
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Larry Holmes 181
1996 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 29,083
Marsha Feinland Peace and Freedom Party Kate McClatchy 25,332
Mary Cal Hollis Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Eric Chester 4,766
Diane Beall Templin The American Party Gary Van Horn 1,847
Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Shirley Jean Masters 752
2000 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 4,795
Cathy Gordon Brown Independent Sabrina R. Allen 1,606
2004 Diane Beall Templin The American Party Albert B. "Al" Moore (lost ballot status)
2008 Cynthia McKinney Green Party Rosa Clemente 161,797 32 states
Gloria La Riva Party for Socialism and Liberation Eugene Puryear[51] 7,427
Diane Beall Templin The American Party Linda Patterson (lost ballot status)
2012 Jill Stein Green Party Cheri Honkala 468,907 36 states
Roseanne Barr Peace and Freedom Party Cindy Sheehan 67,326
Peta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Yari Osorio 9,388
2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic Party Tim Kaine 65,853,516 50 states + DC
Jill Stein Green Party Ajamu Baraka 1,457,044 43 states + DC
Gloria La Riva Peace and Freedom Party[52] Dennis Banks 43,742 8 states[53]
Alyson Kennedy Socialist Workers Party Osborne Hart 10,348 7 states[54]
Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Lamont Lilly 3,722
Lynn S. Kahn Independent Kathleen Monahan 5,610
Khadijah Jacob-Fambro Revolutionary Party Milton Fambro 748
2020 Jo Jorgensen Libertarian Party Spike Cohen TBC 50 states + DC[55]
Alyson Kennedy Socialist Workers Party Malcolm Jarrett TBC 6 states
Gloria La Riva Party for Socialism and Liberation Sunil Freeman[56] TBC
Khadijah Jacob-Fambro Unaffiliated Khadijah Jacob Sr. TBC Colorado
Ricki Sue King Genealogy Know Your Family History Dayna R. Chandler TBC Iowa
Jade Simmons[57] Independent Claudeliah Roze Becoming TBC Louisiana, Texas
Sheila "Samm" Tittle Constitution Party David Carl Sandige TBC New Mexico
Year Name Party Running mate Votes Ballot access

Not nominated by party[edit]

Candidates who failed to receive their parties' nomination.

Year Name Party Details Party nominee
1884 Abigail Scott Duniway Equal Rights Party Rejected nomination. Belva Ann Lockwood
1920 Laura Clay Democratic Party James M. Cox
Cora Wilson Stewart
1924 Cora Wilson Stewart Democratic Party 1 vote on 1st and 15th ballots John W. Davis
1940 Anna Milburn[58] National Greenback Party Declined nomination John Zahnd
1964 Margaret Chase Smith[59] Republican Party Received 227,007 votes in Republican Primary and won 27 delegates at the 1964 Republican Convention Barry Goldwater
Fay T. Carpenter Swain Democratic Party 7,140 votes in Indiana primary[37] Lyndon B. Johnson
1972 Shirley Chisholm[59] Democratic Party 152 votes at National convention George McGovern
Patsy Takamoto Mink[59]
Bella Savitzky Abzug[59]
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 1 vote at National convention Jimmy Carter
Ellen McCormack[59] 22 votes at national convention
1980 Koryne Kaneski Horbal Democratic Party 5 votes at National convention Jimmy Carter
Alice Tripp 2 votes at National convention
1984 Martha Kirkland Democratic Party 1 vote at National convention Walter Mondale
Mary Ruwart Libertarian Party 77 votes at convention (1st ballot); 99 votes at convention (2nd ballot; 3rd place overall) David Bergland
Tonie Nathan 53 votes at convention (1st ballot; 4th place)
1988 Patricia Schroeder Democratic Party Michael Dukakis
1992 Tennie Rogers Republican Party 754 votes in Texas primary[33] George H. W. Bush
Georgiana Doerschuck 58 votes in New Hampshire primary[60]
Caroline Killeen Democratic Party 96 votes in New Hampshire primary[61] Bill Clinton
1996 Elvena E. Lloyd-Duffie Democratic Party 13,025 votes in Arkansas primary;[35] 10,876 votes (6th place) in Texas primary;[33] 40,758 in Oklahoma primary (3rd place);[62] 11,620 votes (3rd place) in Louisiana primary;[63] 15,650 votes (2nd place) in Illinois primary[63] Bill Clinton
Dr. Heather Anne Harder 28,772 votes (3rd place) in Texas primary;[33] 376 votes in New Hampshire primary[64] and two write-in votes as a Republican; 6 votes in Illinois primary[35]
Caroline Killeen 118 votes in New Hampshire primary[61]
Susan Gail Ducey Republican Party 539 votes in (9th place) at Arizona primary;[35] 152 votes (12th place) at New Hampshire primary;[65] 1,092 votes (8th place) at Texas primary[33] Bob Dole
Isabell Masters 1052 votes (7th place) at Oklahoma primary[66]
Mary "France" LeTulle 650 votes (9th place) at Texas primary;[33] 290 votes in Nevada primary[63]
Georgiana Doerschuck 140 votes in New Hampshire primary[60]
Tennie Rogers 35 votes at Mississippi primary; 12 votes inNew Hampshire primary[35]
2000 Dr. Heather Anne Harder Democratic Party 1,358 votes in AZ primary; 192 votes (8th place) in New Hampshire primary, 1 Republican write-in vote [67][68] Al Gore
Elizabeth Dole Republican Party 231 write-in votes in NH primary[67] George W. Bush
Dorian Yeager 98 votes (10th place) in New Hampshire primary[69]
Angel Joy Chavis Rocker[70] 6 votes in Alabama straw poll[71]
2004 Lorna Salzman Green Party 40 votes at National convention (5th place) David Cobb
JoAnne Bier Beeman 14 votes at national convention
Carol A. Miller 10 votes at national convention
Sheila Bilyeu 2 votes at national convention
Florence Walker Democratic Party 246 votes (6th place) in Washington, D.C. primary[72] John Kerry
Katherine Bateman 68 votes (14th place) in New Hampshire primary[72]
Jeanne Chebib 43 votes (12th place) in the Washington, D.C. primary[72]
Caroline Killeen 31 votes (19th place) in New Hampshire primary[72]
Mildred T. Glover 11 votes (22nd place) in New Hampshire primary; 4,039 votes (8th place) in Maryland primary[72]
Carol Moseley Braun Withdrew in January 2004; 103,189 votes[30]
Millie Howard Republican Party 239 votes (13th place) in New Hampshire primary George W. Bush
2008 Hillary Clinton Democratic Party Second place in the Democratic Party primaries, winning 1,726½ Delegate votes and more primaries than any other woman in history. Barack Obama
Caroline Killeen 11 votes in New Hampshire primary
Mary Ruwart Libertarian Party 152 votes at national convention (2nd place; reached 1st place on 5th ballot before being defeated on 6th ballot) Bob Barr
Christine Smith 6 votes at national convention (8th place)
Kat Swift Green Party 38 votes at national convention (3rd place) Cynthia McKinney
Elaine Brown Withdrew in December 2007; 9 pledged delegates (6th place)
Nan Garrett Withdrew in February 2007[73]
Susan Gail Ducey Republican Party 2 votes (3-way tie for 8th place) in Tulsa, Oklahoma straw poll John McCain
2012 Susan Gail Ducey Constitution Party 15 votes at national convention Virgil Goode
Roseanne Barr Green Party 72 votes at national convention (2nd place) Jill Stein
Michele Bachmann Republican Party Withdrew in January 2012. Mitt Romney
2016 Carly Fiorina Republican Party Withdrew in February 2016 with 1 pledged delegate in Iowa (10th place with 40,666 votes)[74][75] Donald Trump
Sedinam Moyowasifza-Curry Green Party 13 votes at national convention (3rd place) Jill Stein
2020 Elizabeth Warren Democratic Party Withdrew in March 2020 with 83 pledged delegates.[76] Joe Biden
Amy Klobuchar Withdrew in March 2020 with 7 pledged delegates.[77]
Tulsi Gabbard Withdrew in March 2020 with 2 pledged delegates.
Kamala Harris Withdrew in December 2019, despite qualifying for the sixth Democratic primary debate. Harris later became the 2020 Democratic nominee for vice president.
Kirsten Gillibrand Withdrew in August 2019 after failing to qualify for the third Democratic primary debate.
Marianne Williamson Withdrew in January 2020 after failing to qualify for the third and all subsequent Democratic primary debates.
Cherie DeVille Withdrew in January 2019.[78]
Sorinne Ardeleanu Libertarian Party 2 write-in votes at convention (1st ballot); 1 write-in vote at convention (4th ballot) Jo Jorgensen
Laura Ebke 1 write-in vote at convention (3rd ballot)
Souraya Faas Withdrew in May 2020 after failing to qualify in the nomination round.
Kim Ruff 11 votes in the nomination round.
Susan Buchser Lochocki Green Party 1 vote at national convention Howie Hawkins
Sedinam Moyowasifza-Curry 11.5 votes at national convention (3rd place)
Year Name Party Details Nomination winner

Vice-presidential candidates[edit]

Candidates who received electoral college votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running mate Electoral
votes
Total
electoral
votes
Winner
1972 Tonie Nathan Libertarian Party John Hospers 1 538 Spiro Agnew
1984 Geraldine Ferraro Democratic Party Walter Mondale 13 George H. W. Bush
2008 Sarah Palin Republican Party John McCain 173 Joe Biden
2016 Maria Cantwell Not applicable[79] Not applicable 1 Mike Pence
Susan Collins Not applicable[80] Not applicable
Carly Fiorina Not applicable[81] Not applicable
Winona LaDuke Not applicable[82] Not applicable
Elizabeth Warren Not applicable[83] Not applicable
2020 Kamala Harris Democratic Party Joe Biden TBD TBD TBD

By popular vote[edit]

This list includes female candidates who have run for Vice President of the United States and received over 100,000 votes. Note that the vote for vice president is not separate in the United States and is identical to the presidential nominees'.[84]

No. Year Picture Name Party Running Mate Votes Elected Vice President
1 2008 Palin1crop.JPG Sarah Palin Republican Party John McCain 59,948,323 Joe Biden
2 1984 GeraldineFerraro.jpg Geraldine Ferraro Democratic Party Walter Mondale 37,577,352 George H. W. Bush
3 2000 Winona LaDuke.jpg Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 2,883,105 Dick Cheney
4 1996 Winona LaDuke.jpg Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 596,780 Al Gore
5 1996 Jo Jorgensen by Gage Skidmore 3 (50448627641) (crop 2).jpg Jo Jorgensen Libertarian Party Harry Browne 485,798 Al Gore
6 2012 Cheri Honkala.jpg Cheri Honkala Green Party Jill Stein 469,628 Joe Biden
7 2000 Ezola Foster Reform Party Pat Buchanan 449,225 Dick Cheney
8 1992 Nancy Lord Libertarian Party Andre Marrou 290,087 Al Gore
9 1980 LaDonnaHarris.png LaDonna Harris Citizens Party Barry Commoner 233,052 George H. W. Bush
10 2008 NLN Rosa Clemente.jpg Rosa Clemente Green Party Cynthia McKinney 161,797 Joe Biden
11 1988 Joyce Dattner New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 143,858 Dan Quayle
12 1952 Charlotta Bass-52.jpg Charlotta Bass Progressive Party Vincent Hallinan 140,023 Richard Nixon
13 2004 Pat LaMarche Green Party David Cobb 119,859 Dick Cheney

All candidates[edit]

Party nominees[edit]

Year Name Party Running mate Votes
1884 Marietta Stow[40] National Equal Rights Party Belva Ann Lockwood 4,149
1924 Marie Brehm Prohibition Party Herman P. Faris 56,289
1932 Florence Garvin National Party John Zahnd 1,645
1936 Florence Garvin Greenback Party John Zahnd
1948 Grace Carlson Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 13,614
1952 Charlotta Bass Progressive Party Vincent Hallinan 140,023
Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 10,312
Vivien Kellems[85][86] Constitution Party*[87] Douglas MacArthur 943*[88][89][90]
1956 Georgia Cozzini Socialist Labor Party Eric Hass 44,300
Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 7,797
Ann Marie Yezo American Third Party Henry B. Krajewski 1,829
1960 Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 60,166
Georgia Cozzini Socialist Labor Party Eric Hass 47,521
1968 Peggy Terry[91] Peace and Freedom Party Eldridge Cleaver
1972 Genevieve Gundersen Socialist Labor Party Louis Fisher 53,814
Tonie Nathan Libertarian Party John Hospers 3,674
1976 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Peter Camejo 90,986
Constance Blomen Socialist Labor Party Jules Levin 9,616
1980 La Donna Harris Citizens Party Barry Commoner 233,052
Wretha Hanson[92] Citizens Party Barry Commoner 8,564[93]
Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 43,871
Eileen Shearer American Independent Party John Rarick 41,268
Matilde Zimmermann Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley[94] 40,105
Elizabeth Cervantes Barron Peace and Freedom Party Maureen Smith 18,106
Gavrielle Holmes Workers World Party Deirdre Griswold 13,213
Naomi Cohen Workers World Party Deirdre Griswold 3,790[95]
Diane Drufenbrock Socialist Party David McReynolds 6,898
1984 Geraldine Ferraro Democratic Party Walter Mondale 37,577,352
Maureen Kennedy Salaman Populist Party Bob Richards 66,168
Nancy Ross New Alliance Party Dennis L. Serrette 46,852
Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 36,386
Andrea Gonzales[96] Socialist Workers Party Melvin T. Mason 24,672
Matilde Zimmermann Socialist Workers Party Melvin T. Mason
Gloria La Riva[49] Workers World Party Larry Holmes/Gavrielle Holmes 15,329
Helen Halyard[97] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 10,801
Jean T. Brust[98] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn
Emma Wong Mar Peace and Freedom Party Sonia Johnson
1988 Joyce Dattner[99] New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 143,858
Mamie Moore[100] New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 26,487
Florence M. Rice Consumer Party Eugene McCarthy 25,109
Joan Andrews Right to Life Party William A. Marra 20,504
Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 18,693
Kathleen Mickells Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren 15,604
Wynonia Burke[101] New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 11,888
Vikki Murdock Peace and Freedom Party Herbert G. Lewin 10,370
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Larry Holmes 7,846
Alpha Sunde Smaby[102] Minnesota Progressive Party Eugene McCarthy 5,403
Maureen Smith[103] Peace and Freedom Party Eugene McCarthy 243
Emma Wong Mar Peace and Freedom Party/Ind. Socialist Herbert G. Lewin 219
Debra Freeman National Economic Recovery Party Lyndon LaRouche
Susan Gardner Independent Eugene McCarthy
1992 Nancy Lord Libertarian Party Andre Marrou 290,087
Maria Elizabeth Muñoz New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 73,714
Asiba Tupahache Peace and Freedom Party Ronald Daniels 27,961
Barbara Garson Socialist Party J. Quinn Brisben 3,057
Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
Estelle DeBates Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
Doris Feimer The American Party Robert J. Smith 292
Joann Roland Third Party Eugene Arthur Hem
1996 Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 596,780[104]
Muriel Tillinghast[105] Green Party Ralph Nader 75,956[106]
Anne Goeke[107] Green Party Ralph Nader 12,135[108]
Jo Jorgensen Libertarian Party Harry Browne 485,798
Kate McClatchy Peace and Freedom Party Marsha Feinland 25,332
Rosemary Giumarra Independent Charles E. Collins 8,952
Laura Garza Socialist Workers Party James Harris 8,476
Rachel Bubar Kelly Prohibition Party Earl Dodge 1,298
Connie Chandler Independent Party of Utah A. Peter Crane 1,101
Shirley Jean Masters Looking Back Party Isabell Masters 752
Anne Northrop AIDS Cure Party Steve Michael 408
2000 Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 2,883,105
Ezola B. Foster Reform Party Pat Buchanan 449,225
Margaret Trowe Socialist Workers Party James Harris 7,378
Mary Cal Hollis Socialist Party David McReynolds 5,602
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Monica Moorehead 4,795
Sabrina R. Allen Independent Cathy Gordon Brown 1,606
2004 Pat LaMarche Green Party David Cobb 119,859
Janice Jordan Peace and Freedom Party Leonard Peltier 27,607
Mary Alice Herbert Socialist Party Walt Brown 10,837
Margaret Trowe[109] Socialist Workers Party James Harris 7,102
Arrin Hawkins Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 3,689
Karen Sanchirico[110] Independent Ralph Nader 6,168[111]
Jennifer A. Ryan Christian Freedom Party Thomas J. Harens 2,387
Teresa Gutierrez Workers World Party John Parker 1,646
Marilyn Chambers Personal Choice Party Charles Jay 946
Irene M. Deasy Independent Stanford Andress 804
2008 Sarah Palin Republican Party John McCain 59,948,323
Rosa Clemente Green Party Cynthia McKinney 161,797
Alyson Kennedy Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 7,197
Andrea Marie Psoras[112] Vote Here Party Jeffrey H. Boss 604
Patricia Rubacky New American Independent Party Frank McEnulty [113]
2012 Cheri Honkala Green Party Jill Stein 469,628
Cindy Sheehan Peace and Freedom Party Roseanne Barr 67,326
Maura DeLuca Socialist Workers Party James Harris 4,117
Virginia Abernethy American Third Position Party Merlin Miller 2,701
Phyllis Scherrer Socialist Equality Party Jerry White 1,279
2016 Mindy Finn Independent Evan McMullin 449,640
Angela Nicole Walker Socialist Party USA Mimi Soltysik 2,540
Hannah Walsh United States Pacifist Party Bradford Lyttle 334
Kathleen Monahan Independent Lynn S. Kahn 5,610
2020 Dawn Neptune Adams Oregon Progressive Party Dario Hunter TBC
Karla Ballard Independent Brock Pierce TBC
Dayna Chandler Genealogy Know Your Family History Ricki Sue King TBC
Kamala Harris Democratic Party Joe Biden TBC
Khadijah Jacob Sr. Unaffiliated Khadijah Jacob-Fambro TBC
Tiara Lusk Life and Liberty Party J. R. Myers TBC
Cynthia McKinney Green Party of Alaska Jesse Ventura TBC
Claudeliah Roze Becoming Independent Jade Simmons TBC
Elizabeth Storm Independent Joe McHugh TBC
Norissa Santa Cruz Socialist Equality Party Joseph Kishore TBC
Jennifer Tepool Unaffiliated Jordan "Cancer" Scott TBC
Michelle Tidball Birthday Party Kanye West TBC
Angela Nicole Walker Green Party/Socialist Party USA Howie Hawkins TBC
Year Name Party Running mate Votes

Not nominated by party[edit]

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1848 Lucretia Mott[114] Liberty Party 5 of 84 votes Charles C. Foote
1884 Clemence S. Lozier Equal Rights Party Declined nomination. Marietta Stow
1924 Lena Springs Democratic Party several to 50 votes in National convention Charles W. Bryan
1928 Nellie Tayloe Ross Democratic Party 31 votes in National convention Joseph T. Robinson
1952 India Edwards Democratic Party John Sparkman
Sarah T. Hughes
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 20 votes in National convention Thomas Eagleton
Frances Farenthold 405 votes in National convention
Martha Griffiths 1 vote in National convention
Patricia Harris 1 vote in National convention
Eleanor McGovern 1 vote in National convention
Martha Mitchell 1 vote in National convention
Maggie Kuhn People's Party declined nomination Benjamin Spock
1976 Anne Armstrong Republican Party subject of draft campaign; 6 votes in National convention Bob Dole
Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 17 votes in National convention Walter Mondale
Nancy Palm Republican Party 1 vote in National convention Bob Dole
1984 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 3 votes in National convention Geraldine Ferraro
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Republican Party 1 vote in primary George H. W. Bush
1992 Susan K.Y. Shargal Democratic Party 1,097 votes (2nd place) in New Hampshire primary Al Gore
Mary Ruwart Libertarian Party 129 votes at convention (1st ballot); 64 votes at convention (2nd ballot) Nancy Lord
2000 Gail Lightfoot[115] Libertarian Party 7 votes at convention (1st ballot; 6th place) Art Olivier
2004 Tamara Millay[116] Libertarian Party 220 votes at convention (2nd place) Richard Campagna
2008 Mary Alice Herbert Socialist Party Stewart Alexander
2012 Susan Gayle Ducey Constitution Party 8 votes at convention (5th place) Darrell Castle
2016 Alicia Dearn Libertarian Party 29 votes at convention (5th place) William Weld
Carly Fiorina Republican Party Joined the ticket of Ted Cruz; campaign suspended six days later Mike Pence
2020 Sorinne Ardeleanu Libertarian Party 3 write-in votes at convention in 3 ballots (1 per ballot) Spike Cohen
Laura Ebke 1 write-in vote at convention (1st ballot)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Don Lawson (1985). Geraldine Ferraro. J. Messner. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-671-55041-7.
  2. ^ https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/the-unfavored-daughter-when-margaret-chase-smith-ran-in-the-new-hampshire-primary
  3. ^ Ballot Access News » Blog Archive » Women Running for President in the General Election
  4. ^ Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. Archived from the original on 2015-01-26.
  5. ^ Doherty, Brian (March 20, 2014). "Tonie Nathan, R.I.P. (The First Woman to Receive an Electoral Vote for Vice President)". Reason. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  6. ^ Lenora Fulani bio Archived 2006-02-07 at the Wayback Machine, Speakers Platform. Retrieved February 20, 2006
  7. ^ "Hillary Rodham Clinton, First Woman to Be a Presidential Candidate in Every Primary and Caucus". Findingdulcinea.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  8. ^ Why Sanders Will Ultimately Back Clinton Archived August 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Hillary's Woman Problem". Politico. February 12, 2016.
  10. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/11/clintons-popular-vote-lead-will-grow-and-grow/507455/
  11. ^ "Women running for president is the new normal". Vox. March 12, 2019.
  12. ^ "The 2019 Democratic debate shows how striking it is to have more representation onstage". Vox. June 28, 2019.
  13. ^ Faith Spotted Eagle was not a candidate for president in 2016, but received one electoral vote from a faithless elector.
  14. ^ 2016 Presidential General Election Results
  15. ^ "2012 Presidential Election Results (Updated)". Poliscinews.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  16. ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States". 1990. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  17. ^ "2008 presidential vote" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. December 7, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
  18. ^ a b In 1972 in Arizona, Pima and Yavapai counties had a ballot malfunction that counted many votes for both a major party candidate and Linda Jenness of the Socialist Workers Party. A court ordered that the ballots be counted for both. As a consequence, Jenness received 16% and 8% of the vote in Pima and Yavapai, respectively. 30,579 of her 30,945 Arizona votes are from those two counties. Some sources don't count these votes for Jenness.
  19. ^ Larry J. Sabato, Howard R. Ernst, Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Election, Infobase Publishing, 2014.
  20. ^ "1984 Sonia Johnson". Pressreader.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  21. ^ Sieczkowski, Cavan. "Roseanne Barr Places 6th in Presidential Election", Huffington Post, 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  22. ^ Schulman, Bruce J. (3 June 2008). Student's Guide to Elections. ISBN 9781452267401. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  23. ^ Littleton, Darryl J.; Littleton, Tuezdae (September 2012). Comediennes: Laugh Be a Lady. ISBN 9781480329744. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  24. ^ "Democratic Convention 2008". Thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  25. ^ "Democratic Convention 2016". Thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  26. ^ a b c d "Democratic Convention - Nationwide Popular Vote". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
  27. ^ Glasrud, Bruce A.; Wintz, Cary D. (4 December 2009). African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. ISBN 9781135194345. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  28. ^ Shirley Chisholm won the New Jersey primary in 1972 which was a non-delegate-awarding, presidential preference ballot that the major candidates were not listed in and that the only other candidate who was listed had already withdrawn. At the Democratic convention she won a plurality of delegates from Mississippi and Louisiana, neither of which held primaries. See Presidential Elections 1789–2008 (5th ed.). Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. 2005. pp. 366–369 (primaries), 652–653 (convention).
  29. ^ Newton-Small, Jay (5 January 2016). Broad Influence: How Women Are Changing the Way Washington Works. ISBN 9781618933232. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  30. ^ a b 2004 Presidential Democratic Primary Election Results
  31. ^ Jone Johnson Lewis, "Women Who Ran for President"
  32. ^ a b "Republican Convention 2016". Thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Texas Vote in Presidential Elections, Primaries: 1848–2012
  34. ^ New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  35. ^ a b c d e 1996 Presidential primary election results
  36. ^ "US President - D Primaries Race - Mar 07, 1972". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  37. ^ a b MARK BENNETT: The Indiana Primary carries an interesting background into this » Mark Bennett Opinion » News From Terre Haute, Indiana. Tribstar.com. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  38. ^
  39. ^ Victoria Woodhull's votes don't appear to have been counted. See, e.g. Victoria Woodhull, the Spirit to Run the White House for more information.
  40. ^ a b Belva Ann Lockwood's 1884 running mate's name is variously given as Marietta Stow, Marietta L. B. Stow, Marietta Lizzie Bell Stow, Marietta Snow, Marietta Snowman, and Harriet Stow.
  41. ^ Steven Seidman, "First Women to Run for U.S. President", Ithaca College Blog, April 16, 2009.
  42. ^ Lockwood first ran with Love, but when he dropped out of the race, she ended up choosing Wells as the final candidate.
  43. ^ Belva Ann Lockwood won an unspecified number of votes in 1888 that was fewer than her 1884 total of 4,149. See Frances A. Cook, Belva Ann Lockwood: For Peace, Justice, and President.
  44. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1952, p. 583.
  45. ^ Ballot Access News » Blog Archive » Women Running for President in the General Election
  46. ^ Naomi Cohen appeared on the ballot in Ohio in place of Deirdre Griswold's running mate Gavrielle Holmes
  47. ^ "Sonia Johnson and Richard Walton, Petitioners, v. Federal Communications Commission...". Justia.
  48. ^ Gavrielle Holmes was an alternate candidate for Larry Holmes.
  49. ^ a b Milton Vera was an alternate candidate for Gloria La Riva in some states, including Iowa and Ohio.
  50. ^ The vote total is for the Gavrielle Holmes ticket only.
  51. ^ Robert Moses was on the ballot in some states.
  52. ^ "2016 Elections: Growing support for socialism, people prepare to fight Trump". Gloria La Riva for President 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  53. ^ Chris Powell (August 3, 2016). "Who is on the presidential ballot where?". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  54. ^ Powell, Chris (August 3, 2016). "Who is on the presidential ballot where?". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  55. ^ Johnston, Bob (September 16, 2020). "LP Presidential Nominee On The Ballot in All 50 States Plus DC". Libertarian Party of the United States. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  56. ^ Freeman replaced the original vice-presidential nominee, Leonard Peltier of Peace and Freedom, who withdrew for health reasons. Winger, Richard (August 2, 2020). "Party for Socialism & Liberation Alters its Vice-Presidential Nominee". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  57. ^ "Native Charlestonian Jade Simmons Running For President 2020". The Charleston Chronicle. July 9, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  58. ^ Facts about the States By Joseph Nathan Kane
  59. ^ a b c d e "Female presidential candidates 1870-1990", Guide To Women Leaders. Retrieved 1/11/08.
  60. ^ a b New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  61. ^ a b New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  62. ^ 2008 presidential primaries. Tulsa World (2008-01-07). Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  63. ^ a b c Ballot Access News - April 3, 1996. Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  64. ^ New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  65. ^ 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates (P2008) Archived 2008-06-12 at the Wayback Machine. Politics1. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  66. ^ [1] Archived July 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ a b Federal Elections 2000: Presidential Primary Election Results by State. Fec.gov. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  68. ^ [2] Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ [3] Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
  71. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2009-05-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  72. ^ a b c d e [4] Archived May 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ Nan Garrett for President, 2008 Archived 2009-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. Nangarrett.org (2007-02-05). Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  74. ^ Bradner, Eric (2016-02-10). "Carly Fiorina ends presidential bid". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  75. ^ Republican Convention
  76. ^ "Democratic Delegate Count". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  77. ^ "Democratic Delegate Count". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  78. ^ "Porn star ends 2020 presidential bid after 17 months, endorses 'my love, Bernie'". Fox News. January 31, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  79. ^ Maria Cantwell was not a candidate for vice president in 2016, but she received one electoral vote from a faithless elector.
  80. ^ Susan Collins was not a candidate for vice president in 2016, but she received one electoral vote from a faithless elector.
  81. ^ Carly Fiorina was not a candidate for vice president in the general election in 2016, but she received one electoral vote from a faithless elector.
  82. ^ Winona LaDuke was not a candidate for vice president in 2016, but she received one electoral vote from a faithless elector.
  83. ^ Elizabeth Warren was not a candidate for vice president in 2016, but she received two electoral votes from faithless electors.
  84. ^ "Let's Go Back to a Separate Vice President Vote".
  85. ^ Austin Bureau (September 10, 1952). "MacArthur, Mrs. Kellems Put on Ballot". Dallas Morning News. p. 14.
  86. ^ Richardson, Darcy G. (September 3, 2012). "Time Capsule: Promising a 'Hard War but a Happy Peace,' Clare Boothe Luce Declares for Congress". Uncovered Politics. was nominated for the vice presidency against her wishes on the right-wing Constitution Party ticket headed by an equally reluctant Gen. Douglas MacArthur in 1952.
  87. ^ The candidates of the Constitution Party varied by state; Harry F. Byrd seems to have been considered the main vice-presidential candidate.
  88. ^ The candidates of the Constitution Party varied by state; the votes included here are ones known to be for the MacArthur-Kellems ticket specifically and not the MacArthur-Byrd ticket. The MacArthur-Kellems ticket's total might have been higher than 943.
  89. ^ "Final Texas Election Count Shows Ike Won by 138,479". Dallas Morning News. November 13, 1952. p. 2. This final report includes complete returns from all 254 counties of Texas [...] MacArthur-Kellems....... 765
  90. ^ Herbert L. Phillips (November 12, 1952). "5,209,692 Vote In November Set California High". Sacramento Bee. p. 1. Here is the secretary of state's official tabulation of the votes for president: [...] Constitution Party (MacArthur-Kellems writein)—178
  91. ^ Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd was Cleaver's running mate in some states, and Jerry Rubin had also been nominated. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2008-12-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  92. ^ Wretha Hanson appeared on a ballot line in Ohio in place of Barry Commoner's official running mate La Donna Harris.
  93. ^ The vote total is for the Commoner-Hanson ticket in Ohio only."General Election, November 4, 1980" Ohio Secretary of State Archived November 20, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  94. ^ Richard H. Congress or Clifton DeBerry were the Socialist Workers Party's Presidential candidate in some states, but Zimmerman was on all three tickets as the Vice-Presidential candidate.
  95. ^ The vote total is for the Griswold-Cohen ticket in Ohio only."General Election, November 4, 1980" Ohio Secretary of State Archived November 20, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  96. ^ Matilde Zimmerman was an alternate candidate for Andrea Gonzales in some states, including Ohio.
  97. ^ Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
  98. ^ [5]
  99. ^ Three male candidates were alternates for Dattner in three states, including California and Oregon.
  100. ^ Mamie Moore was an alternate candidate for Dattner in nine states, including Hawaii.
  101. ^ Burke was an alternate candidate for Dattner in four states, including Alaska.
  102. ^ Smaby was on the ballot only in Minnesota.
  103. ^ Smith was on the ballot as a write-in only in California.
  104. ^ Excludes votes for Nader in Iowa, New York, and Vermont.
  105. ^ Muriel Tillinghast appeared on a ballot line in New York in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Winona LaDuke.
  106. ^ Vote total for the Nader-Tillinghast ticket for New York only.
  107. ^ Anne Goeke appeared on a ballot line in Iowa and Vermont in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Winona LaDuke.
  108. ^ Vote total for the Nader-Goeke ticket in Iowa and Vermont only.
  109. ^ Margaret Trowe was an alternate for Arrin Hawkins.
  110. ^ Karen Sanchirico appeared on a ballot line in Montana in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Peter Camejo.
  111. ^ The vote total is for the Nader-Sanchirico ticket in Montana only.
  112. ^ Andrea Psoras’ “Bio”.
  113. ^ Rubacky was McEnulty's running mate in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine, though the party had no ballot access in any state except Colorado. McEnulty had nine other running mates."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-11-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  114. ^ "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y." Archived 2009-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  115. ^ "Libertarian Party National Convention". C-SPAN. July 2, 2000. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  116. ^ Eason, Brian (October 22, 2008). "Libertarian's Congressional bid nothing new for her". Retrieved November 24, 2017.

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