List of female heads of government in Australia
A total of twelve women have served, or are serving, as the head of an Australian government. Of these, one has served as the prime minister of Australia, six as the premier of a state and four as the chief minister of a territory. Fifteen women have also served, or are serving, as the deputy head of government in Australian states and territories; one has served as the deputy prime minister of the country, eight as the deputy premier of a state, and six as the chief minister of a territory.
The first female head of government in Australia, was Rosemary Follett in 1989, who was the 1st Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory. Carmen Lawrence became the first female premier of a state in 1990, by serving as the 25th Premier of Western Australia. In 2010, Julia Gillard became the first, and to date, only female Prime Minister of Australia.
Today, every Australian state and territory has had at least one female government head, except for South Australia; the Australian Capital Territory has had the most, with three serving throughout its 27-year history; both New South Wales and Queensland have also a second female premier serving in their respective jurisdiction. The most female heads to serve concurrently was four, during the 315 days of 16 May 2011 to 26 March 2012. Annastacia Palaszczuk, who has served as 39th Premier of Queensland since 14 February 2015, has the longest–serving tenure of any female head of government in Australia. The shortest tenure of a female head of government belongs to Kristina Keneally, who served as the 42nd Premier of New South Wales for a little over a year, from December 2009 to March 2011.
There are currently two serving female heads of government in Australia, Annastacia Palaszczuk (39th Premier of Queensland) who was elected on 14 February 2015, and Gladys Berejiklian (45th Premier of New South Wales) who was appointed on 23 January 2017. Three women currently serve as deputy heads of government in Australia; Nicole Manison (Deputy Chief Minister of the Northern Territory) since 12 September 2016, Yvette Berry (Deputy Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory) since 31 October 2016 and Vickie Chapman (Deputy Premier of South Australia) since 19 March 2018. The tenures of these incumbents are accurate as of 11 September 2021.
Female heads of government
|State or Territory||Term start||Term end||Elections||Duration||Party||Notes|
|Chief Minister||Rosemary Follett
|Australian Capital Territory||11 May 1989||5 December 1989||1989,
|4 years, 122 days||Labor||[a]|
|6 June 1991||2 March 1995|
|Western Australia||12 February 1990||16 February 1993||1993||3 years, 4 days||Labor||[b]|
|Victoria||10 August 1990||6 October 1992||1992||2 years, 57 days||Labor||[c]|
|Chief Minister||Kate Carnell
|Australian Capital Territory||2 March 1995||18 October 2000||1995,
|5 years, 230 days||Liberal||[d]|
|Chief Minister||Clare Martin
|Northern Territory||18 August 2001||26 November 2007||2001,
|6 years, 100 days||Labor||[e]|
|Queensland||13 September 2007||26 March 2012||2009,
|4 years, 195 days||Labor||[f]|
|New South Wales||4 December 2009||28 March 2011||2011||1 year, 114 days||Labor||[g]|
|Prime Minister||Julia Gillard
|24 June 2010||27 June 2013||2010||3 years, 3 days||Labor||[h]|
|Tasmania||24 January 2011||31 March 2014||2014||3 years, 66 days||Labor||[i]|
|Chief Minister||Katy Gallagher
|Australian Capital Territory||16 May 2011||11 December 2014||2012||3 years, 209 days||Labor||[j]|
|Queensland||14 February 2015||Incumbent||2015,
|6 years, 209 days||Labor||[k]|
|New South Wales||23 January 2017||Incumbent||2019||4 years, 231 days||Liberal||[l]|
|Term Start||Term End||Duration|
|Joan Kirner||Victoria||Labor||John Cain II||7 February 1989||10 August 1990||1 year, 184 days|
|Joan Sheldon||Queensland||Liberal||Rob Borbidge||19 February 1996||26 June 1998||2 years, 127 days|
|Sue Napier||Tasmania||Liberal||Tony Rundle||18 March 1996||14 September 1998||2 years, 180 days|
|Anna Bligh||Queensland||Labor||Peter Beattie||28 July 2005||13 September 2007||2 years, 47 days|
|Katy Gallagher||Australian Capital Territory||Labor||Jon Stanhope||20 April 2006||16 May 2011||5 years, 26 days|
|Marion Scrymgour||Northern Territory||Labor||Paul Henderson||26 November 2007||8 February 2009||1 year, 74 days|
|Julia Gillard||Australia||Labor||Kevin Rudd||3 December 2007||24 June 2010||2 years, 203 days|
|Lara Giddings||Tasmania||Labor||David Bartlett||26 May 2008||24 January 2011||2 years, 243 days|
|Carmel Tebbutt||New South Wales||Labor||Nathan Rees,
|5 September 2008||28 March 2011||2 years, 204 days|
|Delia Lawrie||Northern Territory||Labor||Paul Henderson||9 February 2009||29 August 2012||3 years, 202 days|
|Robyn Lambley||Northern Territory||Country Liberal||Terry Mills||29 August 2012||6 April 2013||251 days|
|Jackie Trad||Queensland||Labor||Annastacia Palaszczuk||14 February 2015||10 May 2020||5 years, 86 days|
|Liza Harvey||Western Australia||Liberal||Colin Barnett||16 February 2016||17 March 2017||1 year, 29 days|
|Nicole Manison||Northern Territory||Labor||Michael Gunner||12 September 2016||Incumbent||4 years, 364 days|
|Yvette Berry||Australian Capital Territory||Labor||Andrew Barr||31 October 2016||Incumbent||4 years, 315 days|
|Vickie Chapman||South Australia||Liberal||Steven Marshall||19 March 2018||Incumbent||3 years, 176 days|
Female opposition leaders
|State or Territory||Term start||Term end||Elections||Duration||Party||Notes|
|Australian Capital Territory||5 December 1989||6 June 1991||1 year, 183 days||Labor|
|Victoria||6 October 1992||22 March 1993||167 days||Labor|
|Western Australia||16 February 1993||7 February 1994||356 days||Labor||[m]|
|Australian Capital Territory||21 April 1993||9 March 1995||1995||1 year, 322 days||Liberal|
|Australian Capital Territory||9 March 1995||5 March 1996||362 days||Labor|
|Northern Territory||16 April 1996||2 February 1999||1997||2 years, 292 days||Labor|
|New South Wales||8 December 1998||28 March 2002||1999||3 years, 110 days||Liberal||[n]|
|Northern Territory||2 February 1999||27 August 2001||2001||2 years, 206 days||Labor|
|Tasmania||2 July 1999||20 August 2001||2 years, 49 days||Liberal||[o]|
|Northern Territory||18 June 2005||29 January 2008||2 years, 225 days||Country Liberal||[p]|
|South Australia||8 July 2009||31 January 2013||2010||3 years, 207 days||Liberal|
|Queensland||28 March 2012||14 February 2015||2015||2 years, 323 days||Labor|
|Northern Territory||29 August 2012||20 April 2015||2 years, 234 days||Labor||[q]|
|Tasmania||17 March 2017||15 May 2021||2018, 2021||4 years, 59 days||Labor||[r]|
|Queensland||12 December 2017||12 November 2020||2020||2 years, 336 days||Liberal National||[s]|
|Western Australia||13 June 2019||24 November 2020||1 year, 194 days||Liberal|
|New South Wales||29 June 2019||28 May 2021||1 year, 333 days||Labor|
|Northern Territory||1 February 2020||Incumbent||1 year, 222 days||Country Liberal|
|Australian Capital Territory||27 October 2020||Incumbent||319 days||Liberal|
|Western Australia||14 April 2021||Incumbent||150 days||National|
- Women and government in Australia
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government
- Elected 1st Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory in May 1989, after her party formed government following the inaugural general election in March 1989. Defeated in a vote-of-no-confidence in December 1989, to Trevor Kaine. Returned to power in June 1991, following a vote-of-no-confidence against Kaine. Led Labor to victory at the 1992 general election. Defeated by the Liberals under Kate Carnell at the 1995 general election. First woman to become Chief Minister of a Territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. Only female government head to serve non-consecutive terms.
- Appointed 25th Premier of Western Australia in February 1990, following the resignation of Peter Dowding. Defeated at the state election in February 1993, by Richard Court (Liberal). First woman to become Premier of Western Australia, and hence, of a State within the Commonwealth of Australia.
- Appointed 42nd Premier of Victoria in August 1990, following the resignation of John Cain II. Defeated at the state election in October 1992, by Jeff Kennett (Liberal). First, and to date, only woman Premier of Victoria.
- Elected 3rd Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory in March 1995, after defeating Labor under Rosemary Follett at the general election. Led the Liberals to victory at the 1998 general election. Resigned in October 2000.
- Elected 7th Chief Minister of the Northern Territory in August 2001, after defeating the Country Liberal Party under Denis Burke at the general election. Led Labor to victory at the 2005 general election. Resigned in November 2007. First woman Chief Minister of the Northern Territory, and the longest-serving woman head of government in Australia.
- Appointed 37th Premier of Queensland in September 2007, following the retirement of Peter Beattie. Led Labor to victory at the 2009 state election. Defeated at the 2012 state election in March 2012, by Campbell Newman (Liberal). First woman Premier of Queensland.
- Appointed 42nd Premier of New South Wales in December 2009, following a Labor Party leadership challenge against Nathan Rees. Defeated at the state election in March 2011, by Barry O'Farrell (Liberal). First woman Premier of New South Wales.
- Appointed 27th Prime Minister of Australia in June 2010, following a Labor Party leadership challenge against Kevin Rudd. Led Labor to victory at the 2010 federal election. Defeated in a leadership challenge by Rudd, in June 2013. First, and to date, only woman Prime Minister of Australia.
- Appointed 44th Premier of Tasmania in January 2011, following the resignation of David Bartlett. Defeated at the state election, in March 2014. First, and to date, only woman Premier of Tasmania.
- Appointed 6th Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory in May 2011, following the resignation of Jon Stanhope. Led Labor to victory at the 2012 general election. Resigned in December 2014.
- Elected 39th Premier of Queensland in February 2015, after defeating the Liberals under Campbell Newman at the state election. Led Labor to victory at the 2017 state election and the 2020 state election. Only woman head of government to win three elections.
- Appointed 45th Premier of New South Wales in January 2017, following the resignation of Mike Baird. Led the Liberals to victory at the 2019 state election.
- Resigned in order to enter federal politics at the 1994 Fremantle by-election.
- Challenged for the leadership by John Brogden, lost by one vote.
- Challenged for the leadership by Bob Cheek.
- Challenged for the leadership by Terry Mills. Resigned in favour of Mills after vote was tied.
- Resigned as leader following a successful spill motion.
- Resigned as leader following electoral defeat.
- Resigned as leader following electoral defeat.
- Profile. womenaustralia.info. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
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- "Katy Gallagher resigns as Chief Minister, declares for Senate". The Canberra Times. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
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- Beaumont, Adrian (31 October 2020). "Labor wins Queensland election, as Greens could win up to four seats". The Conversation. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- Blumer, Clare. (23 January 2017). "Gladys Berejiklian is Premier of New South Wales, replacing Mike Baird". ABC. Retrieved 23 January 2017
- AAP. (13 March 2017). "WA election: Alannah MacTiernan seeks cabinet role in McGowan government". The Australian. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Lawson, Kirsten. (17 October 2016). "ACT election 2016: Yvette Berry backed for Labor deputy as Greens weigh up coalition or crossbench". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- AAP. (13 March 2017). "SA election: Jay Weatherill to resign as Labor leader after loss to Liberals". ABC News. Retrieved 18 March 2018.