List of female scientists before the 20th century

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This is a historical list, intended to deal with the time period where it's believed women working in science were rare. For this reason, this list ends with the 20th century.

Antiquity[edit]

Marble herm in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasia's name at the base. Discovered in 1777, this marble herm is a Roman copy of a 5th-century BC original and may represent Aspasia's funerary stele.
Hypatia by Julia Cameron.

Middle Ages[edit]

Herrad of Landsbert
  • Abella (11th century), Italian physician.[7]
  • Adelle of the Saracens (12th-century), Italian physician.
  • Adelmota of Carrara (14th-century), Italian physician.
  • Maesta Antonia (1386-1408), Florentine physician.[8]
  • Ameline la Miresse (fl. 1313-1325), French physician.[9]
  • Jeanne d'Ausshure (d. 1366), French surgeon.[10]
  • Brunetta de Siena (fl. 15th-century), Italian-Jewish physician.[11]
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1099–1179), German natural philosopher[1]:126
  • Sibyl of Benevento, Napolitan physician specilizing in the plague buboes.[12]
  • Denice (fl. 1292), French barber-surgeon.[13]
  • Dorotea Bucca (fl. 1390), Italian professor of medicine.[14]
  • Constance Calenda (15th century), Italian surgeon specializing in diseases of the eye.[15][16]
  • Virdimura of Catania (fl. 1276), Jewish-Sicilian physician.[17]
  • Caterina of Florence (fl. 1400s), Florentine physician.[18]
  • Jeanne de Cusey (fl. 1438), French barber-surgeon.[19]
  • Antonia Daniello (fl. 1400), Florentine-Jewish physician.[20]
  • Clarice di Durisio (15th century), Italian physician.
  • Fava (fl. 1322), French-Jewish physician.[21]
  • Jacobina Félicie (fl. 1322), Italian physician
  • Maria Gallicia (fl. 1309), licensed surgeon.[22]
  • Bellayne Gallipapa (fl. 1380), Zaragoza, Spanish-Jewish physician.[23]
  • Dolcich Gallipapa (fl. 1384), Leyda, Spanish-Jewish physician.[24]
  • Na Pla Gallipapa (fl. 1387), Zaragoza, Spanish-Jewish physician.[25]
  • Sarah de St Giles (fl. 1326), French-Jewish physician and medical teacher.[26]
  • Alessandra Giliani (fl. 1318), Italian anatomist.
  • Rebecca de Guarna (fl. 1200), Italian physician[15][16]
  • Magistra Hersend (fl. 1249–1259) French surgeon.
  • Maria Incarnata, Italian surgeon.[16]
  • Isabiau la Mergesse (fl. 1292), French-Jewish physician.[27]
  • Floreta La-Noga (fl. 1374), Aragonese physician.[28]
  • Helvidis (fl. 1176), French physician.[29]
  • Stephanie de Lyon (fl. 1265), French physician.[30]
  • Guillarmette de Luys (fl. 1479), French royal surgeon.[31]
  • Thomasia de Mattio, Italian physician[16]
  • Margherita di Napoli (late 14th century), Napolitan oculist active in Frankfurt-am-Main.[32]
  • Mercuriade (14th century), Italian physician and surgeon[15]
  • Gilette de Narbonne (fl. 1300), French physician.[33]
  • Isabella da Ocre, Napolitan surgeon.[34]
  • Francisca da Romana, Napolitan physician.[35]
  • Dame Péronelle (1292–1319), French herbalist.
  • Perette Peronne (fl. 1411), French surgeon.[36]
  • Lauretta Ponte da Saracena Calabria, Napolitan physician.
  • Trota of Salerno (fl. 1090), Italian physician.[37]
  • Marguerite Saluzzi (fl. 1460), Napolitan licensed herbalist physician.[38]
  • Juana Sarrovia (fl. 1384), Barcelona, Spanish physician.[39]
  • Raymunda da Taberna, licensed Napolitan surgeon.[40]
  • Théophanie (fl. 1291), French barber surgeon.[41]
  • Trotta da Toya (f. 1307), Napolitan physician.[42]
  • Polisena da Troya (fl. 1335), licensed Napolitan surgeon.[43]
  • Margarita da Venosa (fl. 1333), licensed Napolitan surgeon.[44]
  • Francisca di Vestis (fl. 1308), Napolian physician.[45]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

Margaret Cavendish

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

Anthropology[edit]

Archeology[edit]

Astronomy[edit]

Biology or natural history[edit]

Mary Anning

Chemistry[edit]

Engineers[edit]

Geology[edit]

Inventors[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Ada Lovelace)
  • Dorothy Vaughan (1910–2008), American mathematician, worked at NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory

Microbiology[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Nuclear physics[edit]

  • Lise Meitner (1878–1968), Austrian, Swedish, nuclear physicist

Physics[edit]

Psychology[edit]

Science education[edit]

Sociology[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yount 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy (2003-12-16). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives From Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 9781135963439. 
  3. ^ a b Ogilvie 1986
  4. ^ Brown, James Campbell (1920). A History of Chemistry from the Earliest Times. P. Blakiston's Son & Company. pp. 19–24. 
  5. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 28.81-84. Irby-Massie , 'Women in Ancient Science', in Woman's power, man's game: essays on classical antiquity in honor of Joy K. King, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1993. p.366
  6. ^ Gabriele Kass-Simon, Patricia Farnes, Deborah Nash, eds. (1999). Women of science : righting the record (First Midland Book ed.). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780253208132. 
  7. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  8. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  9. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  10. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  11. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  12. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  13. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  14. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  15. ^ a b c Walsh 1911
  16. ^ a b c d Howard 2006
  17. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  18. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  19. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  20. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  21. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  22. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  23. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  24. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  25. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  26. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  27. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  28. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  29. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  30. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  31. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  32. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  33. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  34. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  35. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  36. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  37. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  38. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  39. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  40. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  41. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  42. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  43. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  44. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  45. ^ L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
  46. ^ Alic 1986
  47. ^ "Sarah Whiting". CWP.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Rayner-Canham & Rayner-Canham 2001
  49. ^ Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoff (23 Feb 2009). "Fight for Rights" (PDF). Chemistry World. 6 (3): 56–59. 

References[edit]

  • Alic, Margaret (1986). Hypatia's heritage : a history of women in science from antiquity through the nineteenth century. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807067314. 
  • Byers, Nina. "Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics". UCLA. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  • Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1986). Women scientists from antiquity to the present : an index : an international reference listing and biographical directory of some notable women scientists from ancient to modern times. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press. ISBN 0-933951-01-9. 
  • Howard, Sethanne (2006). The hidden giants. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1430300762. 
  • Howes, Ruth H.; Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1999). Their day in the sun : women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press. ISBN 1-56639-719-7. 
  • Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (1986). Women in science : antiquity through the nineteenth century : a biographical dictionary with annotated bibliography (3. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-15031-X. 
  • Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (2003). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives From Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 9781135963422. 
  • Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey (2001). Women in chemistry : their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-twentieth century. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0941901277. 
  • Stevens, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Sheldon (1982). The women of psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman. ISBN 9780870734434. 
  • Walsh, James J. (2014). "VIII. Medieval Women Physicians". Old-Time Makers of Medicine The Students and Teachers of Medicine During the Middle Ages. Auckland: The Floating Press. pp. 150–169. ISBN 9781776530236. 
  • Yount, Lisa (2007). A to Z of Women in Science and Math (Rev. ed.). New York: Infobase Pub. ISBN 9781438107950. 

External links[edit]