List of female scientists in the 20th century

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Marie Curie (1867–1934), two time Nobel Laureate

This is a historical list, intended to deal with the time period when women working in scientific fields were rare. For this reason, this list deals only with the 20th century. Some women who primarily worked in the 19th or 21st centuries may appear in a different list.

Anthropology[edit]

Margaret Mead
  • Marjorie F. Lambert (1908-2006), American archeologist and anthropologist who studied Southwestern Puebloan peoples
  • Dorothea Leighton (1908–1989), American social psychiatrist, founded the field of medical anthropology
  • Katharine Luomala (1907–1992), American anthropologist
  • Margaret Mead (1901–1978), American anthropologist
  • Grete Mostny (1914–1991), Austrian-born Chilean anthropologist and archaeologist

Archaeology[edit]

  • Sonia Alconini (1965-), Bolivian archaeologist of the Formative Period of the Lake Titicaca basin
  • Birgit Arrhenius (born 1932), Swedish archaeologist
  • Dorothea Bate (1878–1951), British archaeologist and pioneer of archaeozoology.
  • Alex Bayliss British archaeologist
  • Crystal Bennett (1918–1987), British archaeologist whose research focused on Jordan
  • Zeineb Benzina Tunisian archeologist
  • Jole Bovio Marconi (1897–1986), Italian archaeologist and prehistorian
  • Juliet Clutton-Brock (1933–2015), British zooarchaeologist who specialized in domestic animals
  • Dorothy Charlesworth (1927–1981), British archaeologist and expert on Roman glass
  • Lily Chitty (1893–1979), British archaeologist who specialized in the preshistoric history of Wales and the [west of England]
  • Mary Kitson Clark (1905–2005), British archaeologist best known for her work on the Roman-British in Northern England
  • Bryony Coles (born 1946) British prehistoric archaeologist
  • Alana Cordy-Collins (1944–2015), American archaeologist specializing in Peruvian prehistory
  • Rosemary Cramp (born 1929), British archaeologist whose research focuses on Anglo-Saxons in Britain
  • Joan Breton Connelly American classical archaeologist
  • Margaret Conkey (born 1943), American archaeologist
  • Hester A. Davis, (1930–2014), American archaeologist who was instrumental in establishing public policy and ethical standards
  • Frederica de Laguna (1906–2004), American archaeologist best known for her work on the archaeology of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska
  • Kelly Dixon, American archaeologist specializing in the American West
  • Janette Deacon (1939-), South African archaeologist specializing in rock art conservation
  • Elizabeth Eames (1918–2008), British archaeologist who was an expert on medieval tiles
  • Anabel Ford (born 1951), American archaeologist
  • Aileen Fox (1907–2005), British archaeologist known excavating prehistoric and Roman sites throughout the United Kingdom
  • Alison Frantz (1903–1995), American archaeological photographer and Byzantine scholar
  • Honor Frost (1917–2010), Turkish archaeologist who specialized in underwater archaeology
  • Perla Fuscaldo (born 1941), Argentine egyptologist
  • Elizabeth Baldwin Garland, American archaeologist
  • Kathleen K. Gilmore (1914–2010), American archaeologist known for her research in Spanish colonial archaeology
  • *Dorothy Garrod (1892–1968), British archaeologist who specialized in the Palaeolithic period
  • Roberta Gilchrist (born 1965), Canadian archaeologist specializing in medieval Britain
  • Marija Gimbutas (1921–1994), Lithuanian archaeologist (Kurgan hypothesis)
  • Hetty Goldman (1881–1972), American archaeologist and one of the first female archaeologists to conduct excavations in the Middle East and Greece
  • Anna Maria Groot (born 1952), Columbian archaeologist
  • Audrey Henshall (born 1927), British archaeologist and prehistorian
  • Corinne Hofman (born 1959), Dutch archaeologist
  • Cynthia Irwin-Williams (1936–1990), American archaeologist of the prehistoric Southwest
  • Wilhelmina Feemster Jashemski (1910–2007), American archaeologist who specialized in the ancient site of Pompei
  • Margaret Ursula Jones (1916–2001), British archaeologist best known for directing Britain's largest archaeological excavation at Mucking, Essex
  • Rosemary Joyce (born 1956), American archaeologist who uncovered chocolate's archaeological record and studies Honduran pre-history
  • Kathleen Kenyon (1906–1978), British archaeologist known for her research on the Neolothic culture in Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Alice Kober (1906–1950), American classical archaeologist best known for her research that led to the deciphering of Linear B
  • Kristina Killgrove (born 1977), American bioarchaeologist
  • Winifred Lamb (1894–1963), British archaeologist
  • Mary Leakey (1913–1996), British archaeologist known for discovering Proconsul remains which are now believed to be human's ancestor
  • Li Liu (archaeologist) (born 1953), Chinese-American archaeologist specializing in Neolithic and Bronze Age China
  • Anna Marguerite McCann (1933–2017), American archaeologist known for her work in underwater archaeology
  • Isabel McBryde (1934-), Australian archaeologist
  • Betty Meehan (1933-), Australian anthropologist and archaeologist
  • Audrey Meaney (born 1931), British archaeologist and expert on Anglo-Saxon England
  • Margaret Murray (1863–1963), British-Indian Egyptologist and the first woman to be appointed a lecturer in archaeology in the United Kingdom
  • Bertha Parker Pallan (1907–1978), American archaeologist known for being the first female Native American archaeologist
  • Charlotte Roberts (born 1957), British bioarchaeologist
  • Margaret Rule (1928–2015), British archaeologist led the excavation of the Tudor Warship Mary Rose'
  • Elisabeth Ruttkay, (1926–2009), Austrian Neolithic and Bronze Age specialist
  • Hanna Rydh (1891–1964), Swedish archaeologist and prehistorian
  • Elizabeth Slater (1946–2014), British archaeologist who specialized in British archaeologist archaeometallurgy
  • Julie K. Stein, Researches prehistoric humans in the Pacific Northwest
  • Hoang Thi Than (born 1944), Vietnamese geological engineer and archaeologist
  • Birgitta Wallace (born 1944), Swedish–Canadian archaeologist whose research focuses on Norse migration to North America.
  • Zheng Zhenxiang (1929-), Chinese archaeologist and Bronze Age specialist

Astronomy[edit]

Biology[edit]

Barbara McClintock
  • Bertha Cady (1873–1956), American entomologist and educator
  • Audrey Cahn (1905–2008) Australian microbiologist and nutritionist
  • Eleanor Carothers (1882–1957), American zoologist, geneticist and cytologist
  • Rachel Carson (1907–1964), American marine biologist and conservationist
  • Edith Katherine Cash (1890–1992), American mycologist and lichenologist
  • Ann Chapman (1937–2009), New Zealand biologist and limnologist
  • Martha Chase (1927–2003), American molecular biologist

Chemistry[edit]

Alice Ball
  • Maria Abbracchio (1956-) Italian pharmacologist who works with purinergic receptors and identified GPR17. On Reuter's most cited list since 2006.

Geology[edit]

Mathematics or computer science[edit]

  • Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854–1923), British mathematician and electrical engineer (electric arcs, sand ripples, invention of several devices, geometry)
  • Anita Borg (1949–2003), American computer scientist, founder of the Institute for Women and Technology
  • Mary L. Cartwright (1900–1998), British mathematician[6]
  • Amanda Chessell, British computer scientist
  • Ingrid Daubechies (1954–), Belgian mathematician (Wavelets - first woman to receive the National Academy of Sciences Award in Mathematics)

Science education[edit]

Engineering[edit]


Medicine[edit]

  • Helen Mayo (1878–1967), Australian doctor and pioneer in preventing infant mortality
  • Frances Gertrude McGill (1882–1959), Canadian forensic pathologist
  • Eleanor Montague (born 1926), American radiologist and radiotherapist
  • Anne B. Newman (1955- ), US Geriatrics & Gerontology expert
  • Antonia Novello (1944-), Puerto Rican physician and Surgeon General of the United States
  • Dorothea Orem (1914–2007), Nursing theorist
  • Ida Ørskov (1922–2007), Danish bacteriologist
  • May Owen (1892–1988), Texas pathologist, discovered talcum powder used on surgical gloves caused infection and peritoneal scarring
  • Angeliki Panajiotatou (1875–1954), Greek physician and microbiologist
  • Kathleen I. Pritchard (1956-), Canadian oncologist, breast cancer researcher and noted as one of Reuter's most cited scientists.
  • Frieda Robscheit-Robbins (1888–1973), German-American pathologist
  • Ora Mendelsohn Rosen (1935–1990), American medical researcher
  • Una Ryan, (1941) Malaysian born-American, heart disease researcher, biotech vaccine and diagnostics maker/marketer
  • Una M. Ryan, (1966) patented DNA test identifying the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium
  • Velma Scantlebury, (1955) first woman of African descent to become a transplant surgeon in the U.S.
  • Lise Thiry (born 1921), Belgian virologist, senator
  • Helen Rodríguez Trías (1929–2001), Puerto Rican American pediatrician and advocate for women's reproductive rights
  • Marie Stopes (1880–-1958) British paleobotanist and pioneer in birth control
  • Elizabeth M. Ward, American epidemiologist and head of the Epidemiology and Surveillance Research Department of the American Cancer Society
  • Elsie Widdowson (1908–2000), British nutritionist
  • Fiona Wood, (1958–), British-Australian plastic surgeon

Paleoanthropology[edit]

Physics[edit]

Maria Goeppert-Mayer
  • Marietta Blau (1894–1970), German experimental particle physicist
  • Nancy M. Dowdy (1938–), Nuclear physicist, arms control[20]
  • Mildred Dresselhaus (1930–), American physicist, graphite, graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and low-dimensional thermoelectrics[21]
Emmy Noether
  • Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921–2011), American medical physicist (Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977 for radioimmunoassay)
  • Fumiko Yonezawa (born 1938), Japanese theoretical physicist
  • Toshiko Yuasa (1909–1980), Japanese nuclear physicist

Psychology[edit]

Computer[edit]

  • Donna Michelle Bartolome (1910-), Filipino graphics artist.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Janine Connes". CWP.
  2. ^ "Sandra Faber". CWP.
  3. ^ "Vera Rubin". Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. CWP.
  4. ^ a b c Rayner-Canham & Rayner-Canham 2001
  5. ^ "Ellen Gleditsch". CWP.
  6. ^ "Mary L. Cartwright". Archived from the original on 2016-10-17. CWP.
  7. ^ Kenschaft, Patricia C. (2005). Change Is Possible: Stories of Women And Minorities in Mathematics. American Mathematical Society. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8218-3748-1. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Fay Ajzenberg-Selove". CWP.
  9. ^ "Milla Baldo-Ceolin". CWP.
  10. ^ "Katharine Blodgett". CWP.
  11. ^ "Christiane Bonnelle". CWP.
  12. ^ "Jenny Rosenthal Bramley". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  13. ^ "Jennry Rosenthal Bramley". CWP.
  14. ^ "Nina Byers". Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. CWP.
  15. ^ "Yvette Cauchois". CWP.
  16. ^ "Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat". CWP.
  17. ^ "Patricia Cladis". CWP.
  18. ^ "Esther Conwell". CWP.
  19. ^ "Cécile DeWitt-Morette". CWP.
  20. ^ "Nancy M. Dowdy". CWP.
  21. ^ "Mildred Dresselhaus". CWP.
  22. ^ "Helen T. Edwards". Archived from the original on 2013-08-06. CWP.
  23. ^ "Magda Ericson". CWP.
  24. ^ "Rosslyn Shanks". iwonderweather. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  25. ^ "Joan Feynman". CWP.
  26. ^ "Judy Franz". CWP.
  27. ^ "Phyllis S. Freier". CWP.
  28. ^ "Mary K. Gaillard". CWP.
  29. ^ "Fanny Gates". CWP.
  30. ^ "Maria Goeppert-Mayer". CWP.
  31. ^ "Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber". CWP.
  32. ^ "Sulamith Goldhaber". CWP.
  33. ^ "Gail Hanson". CWP.
  34. ^ "Evans Hayward". CWP.
  35. ^ "Caroline Herzenberg". CWP.
  36. ^ "Shirley Jackson (physicist)". CWP.
  37. ^ "Bertha Swirls Jeffreys". CWP.
  38. ^ "Renata Kallosh". Archived from the original on 2004-09-25. CWP.
  39. ^ "Berta Karlik". CWP.
  40. ^ "Bruria Kaufman". CWP.
  41. ^ "Marcia Keith". CWP.
  42. ^ "Margaret Kivelson". CWP.
  43. ^ "Noemie Benczer Koller". CWP.
  44. ^ "Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf". CWP.
  45. ^ "Elizabeth Laird". CWP.
  46. ^ "Juliet Lee-Franzini". Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. CWP.
  47. ^ "Inge Lehmann". Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. CWP.
  48. ^ "Kathleen Lonsdale". Archived from the original on 2016-10-05. CWP.
  49. ^ "Margaret Eliza Maltby". CWP.
  50. ^ "Helen Megaw". Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. CWP.
  51. ^ Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric (1988). Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric. Verlag Paul Haupt Bern und Stuttgart. ISBN 3258039739.
  52. ^ "Kirstine Meyer". CWP.
  53. ^ "Luise Meyer-Schutzmeister". CWP.
  54. ^ "Marcia Neugebauer". CWP.
  55. ^ "Gertrude Neumark". CWP.
  56. ^ "Ida Tacke Noddack". Archived from the original on 2013-08-06. CWP.
  57. ^ "Marguerite Perey". CWP.
  58. ^ "Melba Phillips". CWP.
  59. ^ "Agnes Pockels". CWP.
  60. ^ "P. Ya. Polubarinova-Kochina". CWP.
  61. ^ "Edith Quimby". CWP.
  62. ^ "Helen Quinn". Archived from the original on 2015-02-27. CWP.
  63. ^ "Myriam Sarachik". CWP.
  64. ^ "Bice Sechi-Zorn". CWP.
  65. ^ "Johanna Levelt Sengers". CWP.
  66. ^ "Hertha Sponer". CWP.
  67. ^ "Isabelle Stone". CWP.
  68. ^ "История Кристаллографии Лаборатория Кристаллооптики Института Кристаллографии Ран" [History of the Crystallography Laboratory Of Crystal-optics of the Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. Кристаллография (Crystallography) (in Russian). Moscow, Russia: Издательство МАИК. 55 (6): 1146–1152. 2010. ISSN 0023-4761. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  69. ^ "Akademik Asociuar Afërdita Veveçka" [Academic associate Afërdita Veveçka]. akad.gov.al (in Albanian). Tirana, Albania: Academy of Sciences of Albania. 2017. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  70. ^ "Katharine Way". CWP.
  71. ^ "Sau Lan Wu". CWP.
  72. ^ "Xide Xie". CWP.
  73. ^ Kemp, Hendrika Vande (2001). "Helen Flanders Dunbar (1902-1959)". The Feminist Psychologist. 28 (1). Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  74. ^ Duke, Carla; Fried, Stephen; Pliley, Wilma; Walker, Daley (August 1989). "Contributions to the history of psychology LIX: Rosalie Rayner Watson: The mother of a behaviorist's sons". Psychological Reports. 65 (1): 163–169. doi:10.2466/pr0.1989.65.1.163.
  75. ^ "Marianne L. Simmel (1923-2010)". American Psychologist. 67 (2): 162. February–March 2012. doi:10.1037/a0026289.
  76. ^ Brown, A. M.; Lindsey, D. T. (2013). "Infant color vision and color preferences: A tribute to Davida Teller". Visual Neuroscience. 30 (5–6): 1–8. doi:10.1017/S0952523813000114. PMID 23879986.
  77. ^ "Davida Y. "Vida" Teller, Ph.D". The Seattle Times. Seattle, WA. October 23, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2013.

References[edit]

  • Byers, Nina. "Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics". UCLA. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  • Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1986). Women scientists from antiquity to the present : an index : an international reference listing and biographical directory of some notable women scientists from ancient to modern times. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press. ISBN 0-933951-01-9.
  • Howard, Sethanne (2006). The hidden giants. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1430300762.
  • Howes, Ruth H.; Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1999). Their day in the sun : women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press. ISBN 1-56639-719-7.
  • Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey (2001). Women in chemistry : their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-twentieth century. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0941901277.
  • Stevens, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Sheldon (1982). The women of psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman. ISBN 9780870734434.

External links[edit]