List of fermented foods

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A woman preparing kenkey

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Fermented foods[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Amasi Amasi (3035444146).jpg A word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt. It is very popular in South Africa.
Amazake Amazake by emily harbour in july.jpg Japan A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Appam Paalappam.JPG India A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.
Atchara Achara or Atsara (pickled geen Papaya).jpg A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue. The name may come from several names for South Asian pickle and is related to acar from neighbouring Indonesia and Malaysia.
Ayran Fresh ayran.jpg A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (there called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[2] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
Bagoong Bagoong 1.JPG Philippines A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[3] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[4]
Bagoong monamon Bagoong.jpg Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies
Bagoong terong Bornayjars.jpg Made by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish
Bánh cuốn Banhcuon.jpg Northern Vietnam.[5] Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[6] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
Beer A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops
Blaand A fermented milk product made from whey. It is similar in alcohol content to wine.
Boza Boza bg.jpg A traditional fermented drink with alcohol found in many countries
Bread FD 1.jpg Any biologically (yeast(s) as opposed to baking powder) leavened bread.
Brem Brem Madiun.JPG Indonesia A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.
Burong mangga Philippines Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted
Burong talangka Philippines Made by mixing crablets, and salt and left in a jar to ferment thoroughly. It can be eaten after 2-5 days. In the some communities, calamansi, chili, dayap, and/or soy sause is/are added to enhance the flavor while fermentation is occurring.
Buttermilk
Calpis Japan An uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation
Chass Gujarat, India The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[7] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
Cheese Shanklish.jpg Some cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production
Cheonggukjang Cheonggukjang.jpg Korea A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans
Chicha Chicha with Pipeño.jpg In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[8] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Chinese pickles Various vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes
Cincalok
Cocoa Chocolate.jpg Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products
Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method) Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
Crème fraîche Strawberries and crème fraîche.jpg A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[9] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Curtido Condiments for Pupusas in El Salvador 2012.jpg A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice
Dhokla Khaman dhokla.jpg Gujarat, India A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[10]
Doenjang Doenjangwithbeans.jpg Korea A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation
Doogh Tan-raffi kojian-IMG 3584.JPG Ancient Persia A savory yogurt-based beverage
Dosa Rava dosa.JPG India A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is Rava dosa, a type of Dosa dish.Plain dosa and Masala dosa are better fermented dishes.The batter is fermented for 8 to 10 hrs.
Doubanjiang Doubanjiang.jpg A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices
Douchi Douchiphoto.jpg A type of fermented and salted black soybean
Douzhi Beijing This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like, or old socks like smell.
Fermented bean curd Fermentedchilibeancurd.jpg Fermented tofu (pictured) is a type of Fermented bean curd
Fermented bean paste Doenjangwithbeans.jpg A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[11]
Fermented fish Rakfisk.jpg A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Fermented milk products Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
Filmjölk Filmjolk.jpg Nordic countries A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[12][13]
Fish sauce Phrik nam pla.jpg
Ganjang Korean sauce-Choganjang-01.jpg Korea a kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment
Garri Individual plate of garri to eat by hand with fish and greens, Baba1 (5570984125).jpg a popular West African food made from cassava tubers
Garum Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
Gejang Korean seafood-Ganjang gejang-01.jpg Korea
Gochujang Kimchi and Gochujang by johl.jpg Korea
Gundruk Gundruk Achar 02.jpg - Nepal Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.
Hákarl Hakarl near Bjarnahöfn in Iceland.JPG Iceland Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is Hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland
Hongeohoe Korean cuisine-Samhap-01.jpg Korea
Idli Idli Sambar.JPG India
Igunaq Walrus meat 1 1999-04-01.jpg
Injera Alicha 1.jpg A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[14] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Iru (food) IRU.JPG
Jeotgal Korea-Gyeongdong Market-Various jeotgal-01.jpg Korea
Jogijeot Made with fish in Korea. Korea
Kapusta kiszona duszona Kvasena kapusta.JPG Poland
Katsuobushi Katsuobushi.jpg Japan
Kaymak Kaymak in Turkey.jpg
Kefir Kefir in a glass.JPG A fermented milk product
Kenkey Fante kenkey.jpg
Ketchup Ketchup example 2.jpg In Indonesian cuisine, which is similar to Malay, the term kecap refers to fermented savory sauces.
Khanom chin Khanom Chin - Thai rice noodles.JPG
Kimchi Gimchi.jpg Korea
Kiviak Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food from Greenland that is made of auks preserved in the hollowed-out body of a seal.
Kombucha Kombucha Mature.jpg Fermented tea
Khanom chin Khanom Chin - Thai rice noodles.JPG
Kumis Kumys-bottle.jpg
Kusaya Japan A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.
Kuzhi paniyaram Kuzhi Paniyaram.jpg
Kvass Mint bread kvas.jpg
Lassi Lassi in Varanasi.jpg Indian Yogurt drink
Leben (milk product)
Lufu (food)
Mageu Mageu (carton and glass).JPG
Meigan cai MeiganCaiBundle.jpg
Miso Miso sold in Tokyo foodhall.jpg Asia Fermented soya bean
Mixian (noodle) 米线 Rice Noodles - 原味小吃 Yuanwei Xiaochi Y3.jpg
Mohnyin tjin MohnninjinsellerTaunggyi.JPG
Murri (condiment)
Mursik
Myeolchijeot Korean salted anchovy-Myeolchijeot-01.jpg Korea Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto.Some eat it as a breakfast food. It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.In Japan nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.
Nata de coco Nata de coco.JPG
Nattō Natto on rice.jpg Japan Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Some eat it as a breakfast food.It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.In Japan nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.
Nem chua Nem chua.jpg Vietnam Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.
Ngapi Raw ngapi.JPG
Ogi (cereal ferment)
Ogiri
Oncom Oncom tekstur.jpg
Palappam
Pesaha Appam Knajewfood.jpg
Peuyeum Tapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
Pickles[15] Ogórki w trakcie kiszenia.jpg
Podpiwek Poland, Lithuania Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.
Poi (food) Bowl of poi.jpg
Pon ye gyi Myanmar (Burma)
Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) (Pee-men-tah Mo-ee-dah)

a.k.a. Massa de pimentão (pronounced “ mah-ssah de pea-meant-ow”)

Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
  • Pepper heat range typically from 0-1000 Scoville.
Pulque Pulquebottle.JPG
Puto Puto in banana leaf.jpg Pictured is puto in banana leaf
Rakfisk Rakfisk.jpg
Rượu nếp
Ryazhenka Ryazhenka16c.JPG
Saeujeot Korean.cuisine-Jeotgal-Saewoojeot-02.jpg Korea
Salami Italy
Sauerkraut Wesselburenkraut 19.06.2012 18-35-26.jpg Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[16][17] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
SCOBY
Şalgam Yeni3.jpg Turkey Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
Shark meat Fermented Shark Meat (8095386325).jpg Shark meat is sometimes fermented.
Shiokara Ika no shiokara.jpg
Shrimp Paste (Belacan) Terasi-dari-lombok.jpg Malaysia Fermented Shrimp paste
Sinki (food)
Skyr Skyr.is með vanillu.jpg
Smântână Napolact Gospodar Cream.JPG
Smetana (dairy product) Borscht served.jpg
Som moo Lao cuisine laoham.jpg
Sour cabbage Кисели купус са паприком.jpg Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
Sour cream Smietana.JPG Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[18] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milk Latte 025.jpg
Sowans
Soy sauce Traditional Korean soy sauce.jpg Korea, Japan, China Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce
Ssamjang Korean condiment-Ssamjang-01.jpg Korea
Stinky tofu Doufu puant facon Hangzhou a Pekin.jpg China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Fermented Tofu
Strained yogurt Labneh01.jpg
Suan cai Suan cai pork stew.jpg
Sumbala Sumbala balls and the African locust bean seeds they are prepared from (Kera (Dédougou District), Burkina Faso, June 2014).jpg
Surströmming Surströmming.jpg
Taba ng Talangka Philippines The crab roe and meat of a sack of crablets are carefully taken out and preserved in a single jar using sea salt. Traditionally, the amount of female (V-lined underbelly) and 'gay' crabs (D-lined underbelly) should always have more weight the male crabs (T-lined underbelly). Taba ng talangaka is usually used as a condiment to enhance the flavor of rice and other seafood.
Tabasco sauce Tabasco-varieties.jpg Mexico Tabasco sauce is a brand of hot sauce made exclusively from tabasco peppers (Capsicum frutescens var. tabasco), vinegar, and salt.
Tapai Tapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
Tarhana Two kinds of tarhana.JPG
Tempeh Sliced tempeh.jpg Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form
Tesgüino
Tianjin preserved vegetable Tian jian preserved vegetable 天津冬菜.JPG
Tianmianjiang Sweetnoodlesauce.jpg
Tibicos Ripe Water kefir (also known as Tibicos), after 2 days.jpg
Tsukemono Tsukemono.jpg
Tương
Viili
Vinegar
Wine
White sugar sponge cake WhiteSugarCake.jpg
Worcestershire sauce Lea & Perrins worcestershire sauce 150ml.jpg
Yakult Yakult brazil.jpg
Yellow soybean paste
Yogurt Obstjoghurt01.jpg A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Zha cai TwoHeadsZhacai.jpg
Chakuli pitha Odia Chakuli Pitha.jpg India A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram
Enduri Pitha Enduri Pitha.JPG India A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.
Žinčica Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland) A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.

Fermented cheeses[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.  For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  3. ^ J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0. 
  4. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. 
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  6. ^ T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  7. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7. 
  8. ^ [1] Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
  9. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0. , p. 181f
  10. ^ Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5. 
  11. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  12. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  13. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  14. ^ Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  15. ^ "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  16. ^ Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4. 
  17. ^ "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  18. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 

External links[edit]