List of fermented foods

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Tibicos water crystals made with Muscovado

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Fermented foods[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Acidophiline Acidofilin.jpg Russia, Ukraine Fermented milk product with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria.
Amasi Amasi (3035444146).jpg South Africa A type of fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt.
Amazake Amazake by emily harbour in july.jpg Japan A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Appam Paalappam.JPG India A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.
Atchara Atchara - pickled papaya (Philippines) 02.jpg Philippines A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue.
Ayran Fresh ayran.jpg A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (there called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[2] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
Bagoong Bagoong 1.JPG Philippines A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[3] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[4]
Bagoong monamon Bagoong.jpg Philippines Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies
Bagoong terong Bornayjars.jpg Philippines Made by salting and fermenting the bonnetmouth fish.
Balao-balao Burong Hipon - Cabalen restaurants food products buffets in Bulacan Philippines.png Philippines A Filipino dish consisting of cooked rice and whole raw shrimp fermented with salt and angkak (red yeast rice)
Bánh cuốn Banhcuon.jpg Northern Vietnam[5] Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[6] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
Beer Aufseß Bier.JPG A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops
Blaand A fermented milk product made from whey, with a very low alcohol content.
Borș (bran) Romania Water in which wheat or barley bran, sometimes sugar beet or a slice of bread have fermented.
Boza Boza bg.jpg A traditional fermented drink with alcohol found in many countries.
Bread FD 1.jpg Numerous varieties of this staple food are prepared with a biological leavening agent, commonly known as yeast, that produces gas bubbles through fermentation.
Brem Brem Madiun.JPG Indonesia A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.
Burong isda 9750Foods Fruits Baliuag Bulacan Philippines 29.jpg Philippines Raw fish, fermented in red rice and salt for up to one week. Similar to Japanese narezushi.
Burong mangga 3302San Roque Santa Marta de Pateros Church Metro Manila 46.jpg Philippines Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted.
Burong talangka Philippines Made by mixing crablets, and salt and left in a jar to ferment thoroughly. It can be eaten after 2-5 days. In the some communities, calamansi, chili, dayap, and/or soy sauce is/are added to enhance the flavor while fermentation is occurring.
Buttermilk Buttermilk.jpg A fermented dairy drink.
Calpis Calpis bottles.jpg Japan An uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation.
Chass Mint lassi.jpg India The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[7] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
Cheese Shanklish.jpg Some cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production
Cheonggukjang Cheonggukjang.jpg Korea A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans
Chicha Chicha with Pipeño.jpg Latin America In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[8] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Chinese pickles China Various vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes
Cincalok Cincalok, shallots, chilli.jpg Malaysia Fermented shrimp dish.
Cocoa Chocolate.jpg Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products
Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method) Cod liver oil.png Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
Crème fraîche Strawberries and crème fraîche.jpg France A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[9] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Curtido Condiments for Pupusas in El Salvador 2012.jpg Central America A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice
Dhokla Khaman dhokla.jpg Gujarat, India A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[10]
Doenjang Doenjangwithbeans.jpg Korea A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation
Doogh Tan-raffi kojian-IMG 3584.JPG Iran A savory yogurt-based beverage similar to Turkish ayran.
Dosa Rava dosa.JPG India A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is rava dosa, a type of dosa.
Doubanjiang Doubanjiang.jpg China A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices
Douchi Douchiphoto.jpg A type of fermented and salted black soybean
Douzhi Beijing This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like, or old socks like smell.
Fermented bean curd Fermentedchilibeancurd.jpg China Fermented tofu
Fermented bean paste Doenjangwithbeans.jpg East Asia A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[11]
Fermented fish Rakfisk.jpg A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Fermented milk products Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
Filmjölk Filmjolk.jpg Nordic countries A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[12][13]
Fish sauce Phrik nam pla.jpg
Ganjang Korean sauce-Choganjang-01.jpg Korea a kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment
Garri Individual plate of garri to eat by hand with fish and greens, Baba1 (5570984125).jpg a popular West African food made from cassava tubers
Garum Ancient Rome Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
Gejang Korean seafood-Ganjang gejang-01.jpg Korea
Gochujang Kimchi and Gochujang by johl.jpg Korea
Gundruk Gundruk Achar 02.jpg Nepal Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.
Hákarl Hakarl near Bjarnahöfn in Iceland.JPG Iceland Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland.
Hongeohoe Korean cuisine-Samhap-01.jpg Korea
Idli Idli Sambar.JPG India
Igunaq Walrus meat 1 1999-04-01.jpg
Injera Alicha 1.jpg Ethiopia A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[14] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Iru IRU.JPG Nigeria
Jeotgal Korea-Gyeongdong Market-Various jeotgal-01.jpg Korea
Jogijeot Korean sea food-Hwangsaegi jeot-01.jpg Korea Made with fish in Korea.
Kapusta kiszona duszona Kvasena kapusta.JPG Poland
Katsuobushi Katsuobushi.jpg Japan
Kaymak Kaymak in Turkey.jpg A fermented dairy product.
Kefir Kefir in a glass.JPG A fermented milk product
Kenkey Fante kenkey.jpg Ghana A fermented maize dumpling.
Khanom chin Khanom Chin - Thai rice noodles.JPG Thailand Fermented rice noodles
Kimchi Gimchi.jpg Korea Fermented cabbage or radish product
Kiviak Greenland Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food made of auks, a type of seabird, preserved in a seal skin.
Kombucha Kombucha Mature.jpg Fermented tea
Kumis Kumys-bottle.jpg Central Asia Fermented mare's milk product
Kusaya Niijima kusaya.JPG Japan A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.
Kuzhi paniyaram Kuzhi Paniyaram.jpg India Steamed rice and black lentils batter
Kvass Mint bread kvas.jpg Russia Fermented low-alcohol beverage based on rye bread
Lassi Lassi in Varanasi.jpg India Yogurt drink
Leben Levant A buttermilk-type drink
Lufu China A type of fermented bean curd
Mageu Mageu (carton and glass).JPG Southern Africa A fermented maize-based drink
Meigan cai MeiganCaiBundle.jpg China A fermented brassica product
Miso Miso sold in Tokyo foodhall.jpg Japan Fermented soya bean
Mixian (noodle) 米线 Rice Noodles - 原味小吃 Yuanwei Xiaochi Y3.jpg
Mohnyin tjin MohnninjinsellerTaunggyi.JPG
Murri (condiment)
Myeolchijeot Korean salted anchovy-Myeolchijeot-01.jpg Korea
Nata de coco Nata de coco.JPG Philippines A jelly-like dessert made from fermented coconut water
Nata de piña Philippines A jelly-like dessert made from fermented pineapple juice
Nattō Natto on rice.jpg Japan Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Some eat it as a breakfast food.It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.In Japan nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.
Nem chua Nem chua.jpg Vietnam Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.
Ngapi Raw ngapi.JPG
Ogi (cereal ferment)
Oncom Oncom tekstur.jpg
Pesaha Appam Knajewfood.jpg
Peuyeum Tapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
Pickles[15] Ogórki w trakcie kiszenia.jpg Russia
Podpiwek Poland, Lithuania Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.
Poi (food) Bowl of poi.jpg
Pon ye gyi Pon ye gyi.jpg Myanmar (Burma)
Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) (Pee-men-tah Mo-ee-dah)

a.k.a. Massa de pimentão (pronounced “ mah-ssah de pea-meant-ow”)

Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
  • Pepper heat range typically from 0-1000 Scoville.
Pulque Pulquebottle.JPG Mesoamerica An ancient drink possibly created by the Olmecs or Toltecs of South-Central Mexico. It is made from the fermented sap of the Agave Americana plant and appears very similar to milk. During the epoch of Mesoamerican history, it was believed by the Indigenous Peoples to be a sacred beverage and contain godly powers when drunk. Pulque is very much like its sister drinks, (however, the more clearer) Tequila and Mezcal. The original Classical Nahuatl name for the drink is Iztāc Octli.
Puto Puto in banana leaf.jpg Philippines Philippine rice cakes. Some varieties are fermented.
Rakfisk Rakfisk.jpg
Rượu nếp
Ryazhenka Ryazhenka16c.JPG
Saeujeot Korean.cuisine-Jeotgal-Saewoojeot-02.jpg Korea
Salami Salami aka.jpg Italy
Sauerkraut Wesselburenkraut 19.06.2012 18-35-26.jpg Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[16][17] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
Şalgam Yeni3.jpg Turkey Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
Shark meat Fermented Shark Meat (8095386325).jpg Shark meat is sometimes fermented.
Shiokara Ika no shiokara.jpg
Shrimp paste (Belacan) Terasi-dari-lombok.jpg Malaysia Fermented Shrimp paste
Sinki (food)
Skyr með vanillu.jpg
Smântână Napolact Gospodar Cream.JPG
Smetana (dairy product) Borscht served.jpg
Som moo Lao cuisine laoham.jpg
Sour cabbage Кисели купус са паприком.jpg Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
Sour cream Smietana.JPG Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[18] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milk Latte 025.jpg
Soy sauce Traditional Korean soy sauce.jpg Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce
Ssamjang Korean condiment-Ssamjang-01.jpg Korea
Stinky tofu Doufu puant facon Hangzhou a Pekin.jpg China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Fermented Tofu
Strained yogurt Labneh01.jpg
Suan cai Suan cai pork stew.jpg
Sumbala 2014.06-418-103 African locust bean(aka Néré)(Parkia biglobosa),sd,pd(soumbala) Kera(Dédougou Distr.),BF thu05jun2014-1014h.jpg
Surströmming Surströmming.jpg
Taba ng Talangka Philippines The crab roe and meat of a sack of crablets are carefully taken out and preserved in a single jar using sea salt. Traditionally, the number of female (V-lined underbelly) and 'gay' crabs (D-lined underbelly) should always have more weight than the male crabs (T-lined underbelly). Taba ng talangaka is usually used as a condiment to enhance the flavor of rice and other seafood.
Tapai Tapai peuyeum Pasar Baru.JPG
Tarhana Two kinds of tarhana.JPG
Tempeh Sliced tempeh.jpg Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form
Tianjin preserved vegetable Tian jian preserved vegetable 天津冬菜.JPG
Tianmianjiang Sweetnoodlesauce.jpg
Tibicos Ripe Water kefir (also known as Tibicos), after 2 days.jpg
Tsukemono Tsukemono.jpg
Tungrymbai Meghalaya, India
Viili Viili.jpg Scandinavia
Vinegar Balsamico-1.jpg
Wine Red and white wine 12-2015.jpg
White sugar sponge cake WhiteSugarCake.jpg
Worcestershire sauce Lea & Perrins worcestershire sauce 150ml.jpg
Yakult Yakult brazil.jpg Japan
Yellow soybean paste
Yogurt Obstjoghurt01.jpg A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Yongfeng chili sauce 辣椒酱.jpg Yongfeng, Shuangfeng County, Loudi city, Hunan province, China Fermented hot sauce from Hunan
Zha cai TwoHeadsZhacai.jpg
Chakuli pitha Odia Chakuli Pitha.jpg India A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram
Enduri Pitha Enduri Pitha.JPG India A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.
Žinčica Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland) A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.

Fermented cheeses[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081. For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996.
  3. ^ J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0.
  4. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133.
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  6. ^ T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  7. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7.
  8. ^ [1] Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
  9. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0., p. 181f
  10. ^ Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5.
  11. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  12. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  13. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  14. ^ Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  15. ^ "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  16. ^ Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4.
  17. ^ "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
  18. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14.

External links[edit]