List of fictional U.S. states
- 1 Fictional states of the United States
- 1.1 Non-existent states
- 1.2 Alternative representations of states
- 2 Collections of states as Independent nations
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Fictional states of the United States
Fictional states are not as common as fictional cities, counties, or countries; often, a work will invent a fictional city and simply not reveal its state. Occasionally, however, a fictional state is created to house fictional cities, towns, or counties. Typically, a work that features a fictional state will also reveal the names of several cities within that state.
Named U.S. states
- Calisota, in the Duck universe from various Walt Disney comic books, Calisota is roughly equivalent to Northern California. It includes the city of Duckburg, and possibly Mouseton, Spoonerville, and St. Canard. The name is likely derived from California and Minnesota, with possible references to the Northern California town of Calistoga.
- Coventry, from Bill Willingham's horror comic book of the same name.
- North Montana, from the movie Meet the Robinsons (2007); the former country of Canada, in the future.
- Ames, the fictitious state in which are set many moot court cases and examination problems at Harvard Law School.
- Midlands, the fictional (supposedly Midwestern) state in which all American Mock Trial Association cases take place.
- Reserve, the fictitious state in which are set many moot court and mock trial cases at Case Western Reserve University School of Law.
- Apodidraskiana, a slave state referenced in Thomas Love Peacock's novel Crotchet Castle (1831). Located there is Dotandcarryonetown, a haven for people who wish to disappear for one reason or another. The state's name appears to be derived from apodidraskinda (ἀποδιδρασκίνδα), a game similar to hide-and-seek described by the 2nd-century Greek writer Julius Pollux.
- Catawba, a stand-in for North Carolina in Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel (1929). It contains the mountain town of Altamont (Asheville) and city of Pulpit Hill (Chapel Hill), where a large university is located.
- Dorado in I-0 (1997), a work of interactive fiction by Adam Cadre.
- Euphoria, in the academic novels of David Lodge, based on California. It first appears in Changing Places (1975), much of which is set in Euphoric State University in the city of Plotinus, itself based on Berkeley, California. Euphoria is located between "North California" and "South California".
- Fremont, a fictional state in James A. Michener's novel Space (1982) located roughly along the border between Kansas and Nebraska, that is meant to stand for the American midwest in general. The origin of its name is not stated, but it is assumed to be named for 19th century explorer and politician John Charles Fremont.
- Hohoq, popularly known as Ar in John Hodgman's The Areas of My Expertise (2005), is a large flying state inhabited by a mix of bird people known as Thunderbirds and German-American settlers. It refuses to send a delegate to the United States Congress but provides the federal government with an annual tribute of bauxite. State Motto: "Please do not seek us".
- Houston, in the Southern Victory Series by Harry Turtledove, the western portion of Texas is taken from the Confederate States by the United States after the Great War is won by the Central Powers.
- Michisota, a fictional state in Lisa Wheeler's children's book Avalanche Annie: A Not-So-Tall-Tale that is a cross between Michigan and Minnesota, has snowy weather, and a mountain called Mount Himalachia.
- Mickewa, a state represented by Senator Elias Gotobed, in Anthony Trollope' novel The American Senator (1877).
- Ochichornia, in Vasily Aksyonov's semi-biographic novels and stories, relates to the popular Russian song "The Dark Eyes" ("Очи черные", "Ochi Chernie" in Russian). It has been suggested[by whom?] that Ochichornia is just another name for California.
- Oconee, a fictional southern state tucked between Georgia and Tennessee, which appeared in Michael Bishop's satirical superhero/fantasy novel Count Geiger's Blues. The story is set in Oconee's largest city, Salonika, a Metropolis-like stand-in for Atlanta.
- Pennsyltucky, a state referenced in Tiny Cracker Zoo, by Christopher Master.
- Toxoplassachusetts, the state occupied by the "toxoplasmodic hivemind", which constitutes 1/3 of the U.S. population, in John Hodgman's That Is All.
- Udana. Made up of Utah and Montana, a location on the itinerary of Humbert-Humbert, in Vladimir Nabokov's novel Lolita (1955).
- Washagon, a state referenced in Robert Grudin's Book: A Novel (1992), clearly a portmanteau of Washington and Oregon.
- Winnemac, in the novels of Sinclair Lewis. Several of his novels are set in the Winnemac town of Zenith, and the University of Winnemac is located in Mohalis. Winnemac is bordered by Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana.
- Missitucky, in the Broadway musical Finian's Rainbow (1947), with music by Burton Lane and lyrics by E.Y. Harburg, which follows one Finian McLonergan from Ireland in the town of Rainbow Valley in the mythical state of Missitucky, intent on burying a stolen pot of gold in the shadows of Fort Knox, in the mistaken belief it will grow and multiply. The name is a portmanteau of Mississippi and Kentucky.
- Bikini Bottom, the setting of SpongeBob SquarePants, is referenced as being an American state in the Christmas short Plankton's Holiday Hits
- Delmarva (fictional state), is the state in which Beach city is located in Cartoon Network series Steven Universe. It is based heavily on a peninsula with same name, the meeting point of Delaware, far eastern areas of Maryland, and a small portion of Virginia.
- Moosylvania, from Jay Ward's Rocky and Bullwinkle television series. This state has been contested by the U.S. and Canada in two episodes of the series, "Moosylvania" and "Moosylvania Saved". The U.S. says it is a province of Canada, while Canada says it is a U.S. state. It is an island in the middle of western Lake Superior. Bullwinkle is governor of Moosylvania. The state's official sport is farkling. Jay Ward even tried to make the 51st state, which he called "Moosylvania", by claiming an island off the coast of the U.S. and Canada for himself and promoting it all over the country. When Ward and his publicist, Howard Brandy, arrived at the White House gate with a proposal and signed petition, the guards told them to leave due to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
- New Delaware, mentioned in a January 16, 2013 episode of The Daily Show as a state that doesn't exist anymore—an example for Senate officials who "pick up the wrong state to change the rules with".
- New Troy
- In Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, is the state wherein Metropolis is located. New Troy is probably analogous to New York State. The name was never used as a state in the comics, which has placed Metropolis in various locations along the eastern coast of the United States over the decades.
- The place name has also been used by writer Mark Gruenwald as a direct analog of New York State for the original version of the Squadron Supreme in assorted Marvel Universe comics series.
- Oklachusetts, from the Seth MacFarlane animated short The Life of Larry (1995). Larry, who would later become Peter Griffin in Family Guy, described it as "where the wind comes sweeping down the Pike".
- Statesota is the state in which Moralton is located in the Adult Swim series Moral Orel. Based on the overhead map viewable during the show's opening credits, Statesota is made up of much of western Missouri and eastern Kansas.
- Wichita, appears in the Spanish humour sketch program La hora de José Mota. Its capital city has the same name: Wichita.
- Carcer City, in Rockstar Games' Manhunt (2013), may have taken inspiration from the real-life cities of Camden, NJ; Flint, MI; East St Louis, IL; Gary, IN; and Detroit, MI. Carcer City is believed to be connected with the Grand Theft Auto universe since references in Grand Theft Auto III (2001) state that Carcer City is close to Liberty City.
- Columbia, a floating city and former state in BioShock Infinite (2013), controversy for its actions in the Boxer Rebellion having prompted its secession.
- New Guernsey is a surrogate for New Jersey state and/or Jersey City in various fictional contexts, including the Batman comics, television series and films. Like the real New Jersey, the "State of New Guernsey" is named after one of the Channel Islands. (The similarly named "New Guernsey" in the Grand Theft Auto games series, however, is only a city, located in the state of Alderney; see below.)
- New Temperance, in Gangsters 2 (2001). The state map had an eastern coastline and included several large islands, and was made up of a combination of urban and upstate areas. The architecture and in particular civic institutions like the police seemed largely based on Illinois—the most important fact about it, however, was simply that it was a dry state during Prohibition.
- North Yankton, in the video game Grand Theft Auto V (2013), is the birthplace of Michael De Santa (born Michael Townley) and where the prologue took place.
- San Andreas is the state where Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas game (2004) is set, housing the cities of Los Santos (based off Los Angeles), San Fierro (San Francisco), and Las Venturas (Las Vegas). San Andreas also constitutes the setting of Grand Theft Auto V (2013).
Unnamed U.S. states
||This section possibly contains original research. (May 2014)|
- BO is the abbreviation for the state Weinerville is in.
- Cherokee State appears on the license plates on the sitcom Malcolm in the Middle; this is likely intended to be a state nickname.
- Eagle State likewise appears on license plates on the television series Desperate Housewives.
- Hooterville, claimed in an episode of Green Acres[which?] to be a state named after Rutherford B. Skrug, its first governor. However, Petticoat Junction and The Beverly Hillbillies place Hooterville in Missouri.
- Sideburn State appears on license plates on the television series The Adventures of Pete & Pete.
- Sill. is the abbreviation for the state containing Lichfield in the works of James Branch Cabell.
- Unnamed State in The Simpsons contains Springfield, Shelbyville, and Capitol City from The Simpsons. Producer/director David Silverman once unofficially named Springfield's setting as being in the fictional state of North Takoma. In one episode,[which?] Homer's driver's license states that the postal abbreviation of their home state is "NT". In The Simpsons Movie (2007), Flanders and Bart are at the top of a mountain, where Flanders states you can see the four states that border Springfield: Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky. In the episode "Bart vs. Lisa vs. The Third Grade", it is stated that the state bird is the pot-bellied finch, the state pasta is futicelli, and the state flag is a Confederate flag rising above an ocean (an embarrassment considering this state was Northern).
- Unnamed State in Joe Klein's 1996 novel and 1998 film Primary Colors, also referred to in the sequel The Running Mate (2000), is a small southern state and home to Governor Jack Stanton (D), whose hometown is Grace Junction. Its capital is Mammoth Falls. Unnamed State is allegorical to Arkansas, and Jack Stanton represents Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton.
- Unnamed State in Joe Klein's novel The Running Mate (2000) is a Midwestern state and the home state of Senator Charlie Martin (D). Des Pointe is the state capital, largest city and hometown of Senator Martin, but many other locations in the state are mentioned. Industrial centers are Port Sallesby and Singer Rapids. Stated to have 53 counties. Charlie Martin is partially based on Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey, but Nebraska and several other Midwestern states are mentioned separately, leaving the identity of Martin's homestate unclear
- Unnamed State, in Sinclair Lewis' novel It Can't Happen Here (1935), is a Western state and home state of dictatorial President Berzelius "Buzz" Windrip. Windrip's secretary and chief assistant Lee Sarason is described as having been, at the beginning of Windrip's rise, managing editor of the most widely circulated paper in this state's region.
Alternative representations of states
"51st state" (and related terms) has been used in books and film, usually in a negative sense:
- In Americathon (1979), set in a fictional 1998, Britain (renamed as Limeyland) has become the 57th state, and the logo of the Safeway grocery chain hangs on the Palace of Westminster.
- In the alternative universe of Alan Moore's graphic novel Watchmen, the Vietnam War ends with the conquest of the North and annexation of a united Vietnam as the 51st state.
- In the novel 51st State (1998) by Peter Preston, Britain leaves the European Union and becomes the 51st state of the United States.
- In The Light of Other Days (2000), a novel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stephen Baxter, Britain joins the United States, with the Prime Minister serving as governor and the Royal Family exiled to Australia.
- The British film The 51st State (released in the United States and Canada as Formula 51), makes fun of Anglo-American relations.
- State 51 is an upside-down, floating state featured in the Marvel Comics series Nextwave: Agents of H.A.T.E..
- Saudi Israelia. From the Simpsons episode "Future-Drama", which takes place in the future. Bart's future girlfriend mentions it as the 51st state. Named after Saudi Arabia and Israel.
North American Union
- North American Union, a theoretical economic and political union of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The concept is based on continental union-theory (such as the European Union), occasionally including a common currency called the Amero or the North American Dollar. A union of the North American continent, sometimes extending to Central America and Union of South American Nations, has been the subject of academic concepts for over a century, as well as becoming a common trope in science fiction.
- The Hunger Games - The nation of Panem rules North America in place of the governments of Canada, the United States and Mexico, which failed to survive.
- The Two Georges - For more than two centuries, what would have become the United States and Canada has been the North American Union, a self-governing dominion encompassing the northern portion of the continent except Alaska, retained under the rule of Russia. The Two Georges, a Gainsborough painting, commemorates the agreement between George Washington and King George III that created this part of the British Empire. The painting itself has become a symbol of national unity.
The United States of Canada
- Jesusland map, an Internet meme created after the 2004 United States Presidential election, which satirizes the red/blue states scheme by dividing the United States and Canada into "The United States of Canada" and "Jesusland". The map implies the existence of a fundamental political divide between contiguous northern and southern regions of North America, the former including both the socially liberal Canada and the West Coast, northeastern, and north-Midwestern states of the USA, and suggests that these states are closer in spirit to Canada than to the more conservative regions of their own country.
Collections of states as Independent nations
Geopolitical variations of sovereign nations in North America are a recurring theme due to historical debates regarding partition and secession movements. This is an especially common trope in works of alternative historical fiction involving the United States.
Confederate States of America-variants
- Southern Victory Series novel series by Harry Turtledove, with fictional character Jake Featherston as President of the Socialist Confederation of America; the fictional timeline's equivalent of Adolf Hitler as Confederate territories are annexed by American Empire.
- Captain Confederacy, an alternate history comic book by Will Shetterly and Vince Stone (published between 1986 and 1992), tells the story of an African-American superhero created for propaganda purposes in a world in which the Confederate States of America won their independence.
- C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America, a 2004 mockumentary directed by Kevin Willmott, features a fictional "tongue-in-cheek" political-mockumentary account of an alternate history in which the Confederates won the American Civil War, establishing the new Confederate States of America (that incorporates the former United States, Mexico, and the majority of South-America).
- North American Confederacy States (NAC), an alternate history series of novels created by L. Neil Smith, ostensible point of divergence is the addition of a single word in the preamble to the United States Declaration of Independence, wherein it states that governments "...derive their just power from the unanimous consent of the governed." Inspired by this wording, Albert Gallatin intercedes in the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 to the benefit of the farmers, rather than the fledgling United States government. This eventually leads to the overthrowing and execution of George Washington by firing squad for treason, the abrogation of the U.S. Constitution, and the reestablishment of government under the revised Articles of Confederation, but with a much greater emphasis on individual and economic freedom. Gallatin's actions would eventually lead to the US to merge with its neighbors to form the North American Confederacy in the 1890s.
- Russian Amerika, the alternate history novel, has 20th-century North America made up of several independent sovereign nations: The point of divergence is that the United States lost the Civil War with the Confederacy; and as a post-war consequence, the Union loses all ground west of the Mississippi River as American-claimed western lands secede from the Union.
- United States of America (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, the majority of Illinois, and Quebec south of the St Lawrence River.)
- Confederate States of America (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, the southwestern portion of Illinois, the eastern half of Kansas, Cuba, and Hispaniola.)
- Republic of Texas (Texas, Oklahoma, and eastern New Mexico)
- First People's Nation (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Arizona, the westernmost portion of New Mexico, the western half of Kansas, the central and southwestern portion of Ontario, and the southernmost portion of Manitoba.)
- Deseret (Utah and the northeastern portion of Nevada.)
- Republic of California (California, Oregon, and the majority of Nevada.)
- French Canada (Quebec north of the St Lawrence River, Newfoundland, Labrador, and the northeastern portion of Ontario.)
- British Canada (Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Washington State, the northwestern portion of Ontario, the southeastern portion of the Yukon Territory, and the majority of British Columbia and Manitoba.)
- New Spain (Mexico and Central America.)
- Danish America (Greenland)
- Russian Amerika (Alaska, the majority of the Yukon Territory, and the northwestern portion of British Columbia.)
- American Empire (米帝 Beitei?, AE), a fictional country appearing in Masamune Shirow's anime and manga series' Ghost in the Shell and Appleseed, consists primarily of the American states that had formed the Confederate States of America, plus parts of the Great Plains and Southwest. After the end of World War III, the United States is partitioned by an unspecified process into three countries: the American Empire, the Russo-American Alliance (米露連合 Bei-Ro Rengō?, in pre-1991 materials, the Ameri-Soviet Union (米ソ連合 Bei-So Rengō?)), and the rump state United States of America (アメリカ合衆国 Amerika Gasshūkoku?). The American Empire is the only successor state to play a major role in world politics. Its government seems driven by a desire to restore its diminished power and prestige, towards which end it adopts a policy of militarist aggression and open imperialism, directed primarily against Latin America.
Post-invasion/apocalyptic United States
- The Man in the High Castle: Giuseppe Zangara's assassination of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1934 led to the weak governments of John Nance Garner (formerly FDR's Vice President), and subsequently of Republican John W. Bricker in 1941. Both politicians failed to lead the country to recovery from the Great Depression and also maintained the country's isolationist policy against participating in the Second World War; thus, the U.S. had insufficient military capabilities to assist the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, or to defend itself against Japan in the Pacific.
- In the TV miniseries Amerika, the post-invasion United States is divided into multiple "administrative areas" following its annexation by the Soviet Union:
- Coalition States: a fascist empire founded upon the post-apocalyptic ruins of the American Midwest in the Rifts role-playing game.
- Fallout, a retro-futuristic United States setting influenced by the post-war culture of 1950s America, and its combination of hope for the promises of technology and lurking fear of nuclear annihilation. Since the end of The Great War, the various territories are broadly refereed to as the "Wasteland" or simply the "Wastes."
- The Commonwealth is what is left of the pre-Great War State of Massachusetts in New England Commonwealth of the United States in the alternate history of the Fallout universe. Most of it is a "war-ravaged quagmire of violence and despair" like much of the rest of the former United States, but it is also where Boston is located. It appears in Fallout 3 and in Fallout 3.
- Caesar's Legion is an autocratic, ultra-reactionary, utilitarian slaver army founded in 2247 by Edward Sallow and Joshua Graham. It is largely inspired and partially based on the ancient Roman Empire, though it isn't the Roman Empire or the Roman Republic or even its military, the Legion. It is a slave army with trappings of foreign-conscripted Roman legionaries during the late empire. All military, no civilian, and with none of the supporting civilian culture. It appears only in Fallout: New Vegas.
- The New California Republic (NCR) is a federal presidential republic founded in New California by Aradesh. Comprised five contiguous states, territories and holdings in pre-War regions in Nevada, Arizona, Oregon, and parts of Mexico. The Republic dedicates itself to the values of the old world: democracy, liberty, and the rule of law. It was founded in 2186, is mentioned in Fallout 3, and appears in Fallout 2 & Fallout: New Vegas.
- The Enclave is a nation state established after the Great War, established by remnants of the pre-War United States government and military industrial complex. It has claimed authority over all pre-war territory of the United States of America, considering itself the legal continuation of the U.S. government and styling itself as such. First appearing in Fallout 2, then later in Fallout 3, its add on Broken Steel, and is mentioned in Fallout: New Vegas.
- Shi is a post-apocalyptic nation that is against post-war politics, and uses some of the Chinese culture, such as their ancestors' customs, clothing, language and demeanor. The younger generations, however, seem to rely more on the surviving popular culture interpretations of Chinese culture (such as kung-fu holovideos), rather than actual cultural traditions. It appears in Fallout 2.
- Republic of Dave (formerly Kingdom of Tom, Kingdom of Larry, the Republic of Stevie-Ray, Billsylvania, and the New Republic of Stevie-Ray) is a small farming settlement in the far northeast corner of the Capital Wasteland (Fallout 3) that is considered by its close-knit inhabitants to be a sovereign nation-state. This nation is actually closer to a Micronation, because since on-off monarchies and republics with an only family control it, and they only had one citizen working as a teacher or merchant (optional) during the game. This "Nation" only appears in Fallout 3.
- The Free Economic Zone of New Vegas is a faction led by Robert House in New Vegas. Although it is formally founded if House establishes sovereignty over the Mojave, in practice, it exists in a practical capacity throughout Mr House's rule in New Vegas.
- Shattered Union, on Inauguration Day in Washington, D.C., a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon is detonated, destroying most of the city and effectively wiping out the presidential line of succession. The European Union sends peacekeepers to the New York and Washington metropolitan areas to secure international interests, while the Russian Federation invades and occupies Alaska (under the pretense of "expanded humanitarian operations"). As wave of secessionist sentiment rises in America; the governor of California declares home rule and secedes from the Union on April 15, 2013. Texas follows a few days later, taking neighboring states with it and re-forming the Republic of Texas. Other factions form in the following months, and by 2014, all hopes for a peaceful resolution are gone, and the Second American Civil War begins.
- Countries in Jericho
Flag of the United States of America (Same flag the real United States currently uses).
Flag of the Republic of Texas (Same flag the real State of Texas currently uses).
Other collections of independent states
- The comic book Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew took place in the "United Species of America" on the parallel world of Earth-C; the comic featured several analogs of real US states, including:
- Taxes, nicknamed "the Lone Stork State"; an analogue of Texas. Taxes was the home of supervillain Armordillo, as well as the cities of "Hogston" and "San Antoadio."
- Kornsas, in the midwest; an analogue of Kansas.
- Califurnia, on the western coast of the U.S.; an analogue of California. This state featured the cities "Saint Bernardino," "Beaverly Hills," "Follywood," and "Los Antelopes." The Zoo Crew's headquarters was located in Follywood; the city was also the home of team members Yankee Poodle and Rubberduck.
- The episode of the animated series Futurama entitled "Bendin' in the Wind" showed some maps of the USA in the year 3000. Many states were humorously respelled (such as "eHIO" for Ohio). The map also showed two new states: Pennsylvania being divided into the Penn Republic and Sylvania (), parodying the breakup of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Other humorous states, such as "East West Virginia," are included. Most of the series takes place in New New York, which the final episode confirms is the name of both the state and city's name.
- The animated series The Flintstones presented a few "prehistoric" versions of modern-day states, including:
- Texarock: A prehistoric version of Texas (though the name "Texas" was also used interchangeably).
- Arkanstone: A prehistoric version of Arkansas; the former home of various hillbilly ancestors of Fred Flintstone, as well as their rivals, the Hatrock family. Bears a (probably coincidental) similarity to the name of the Arkenstone.
- New Rock: A prehistoric version of New York.
- The Grand Theft Auto video game franchise has featured a number of fictional states:
- Alderney, a parallel of New Jersey, neighboring Liberty City. It contains the city New Guernsey.
- Liberty City (also known as Liberty City State), based on New York and appears in Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto IV, albeit in different universes (GTA III era and GTA IV era).
- San Andreas has similarities to California and Nevada: Los Santos and San Fierro are based on Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively, while Las Venturas is a version of Las Vegas. The name is derived from the San Andreas Fault.
- The video game Red Dead Redemption features two fictional states:
- In Orson Scott Card's The Tales of Alvin Maker series, the United States exists as a much smaller nation, between the area of New England and the Crown Colonies which extend from roughly Virginia south to Georgia. The nation has a significantly higher Iroquois and Dutch influence than in the real world. Member states include:
- Barry Shils' 1991 film Motorama contains a number of fictional states, which appear to be in the southwestern US. Three of these (Mercer, Bergen, and Essex) are counties in New Jersey. In order of appearance, they are:
- Mercer (nickname: The Frontier State)
- South Lydon (nickname: The Lonesome State)
- Tristana (nickname: The Green State)
- Bergen (nickname: The Long State)
- Vetner (no nickname given)
- Essex (nickname: The Last State)
- State Nº51. In John Katzenbach's novel "Games of Wits", this state is ruled by a dictatorship. This state is described as square in shape and includes the territory of several other states, including:
- Sugar, Rebecca. "I am Rebecca Sugar, creator of Steven Universe, and former Adventure Time storyboarder, AMA!". Reddit. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Episode of January 16th, 2013". The Daily Show with Jon Stewart.
- Stanton, Rich (13 March 2013). "How to write BioShock Infinite". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "On Locations in Panem, pt. II".
- Matt Bai (November 19, 2006). "The Last 20th-Century Election?". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
Since Bush’s disputed victory in 2000, many liberals have been increasingly brazen about their disdain for the rural and religious voters; one popular e-mail message, which landed in thousands of Democratic in-boxes in the days after the 2004 election, separated North America into “The United States of Canada” and “Jesusland.”
- map provided at beginning of book
- Siembieda, K.; Bellaire, C.; Therrien, S.; Ward, T. & Wujcik, E. (August 2005). Rifts Role-Playing Game, Ultimate Edition. Taylor, MI: Palladium Books. pp. 24–31. ISBN 1-57457-150-8.