List of fictional computers

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Computers have often been used as fictional objects in literature, movies and in other forms of media. Fictional computers tend to be considerably more sophisticated than anything yet devised in the real world.

This is a list of computers that have appeared in notable works of fiction. The work may be about the computer, or the computer may be an important element of the story. Only static computers are included. Robots and other fictional computers that are described as existing in a mobile or humanlike form are discussed in a separate list of fictional robots and androids.

Literature[edit]

Before 1950[edit]

1950s[edit]

  • The Machines, positronic supercomputers that manage the world in Isaac Asimov's short story "The Evitable Conflict" (1950)
  • MARAX (MAchina RAtiocinatriX), the spaceship Kosmokrator's AI in Stanisław Lem's novel The Astronauts (1951)
  • EPICAC, in Kurt Vonnegut's Player Piano and other of his writings, EPICAC coordinates the United States economy. Named similar to ENIAC, it's actually named after an over-the-counter poison-antidote syrup which induces vomiting. (1952)
  • Vast anonymous computing machinery possessed by the Overlords, an alien race who administer Earth while the human population merges with the Overmind. Described in Arthur C. Clarke's novel Childhood's End. (1953)
  • The Prime Radiant, Hari Seldon's desktop on Trantor in Second Foundation by Isaac Asimov (1953)
  • Mark V, a computer used by monks at a Tibetan lamasery to encode all the possible names of God which resulted in the end of the universe in Arthur C. Clarke's short story "The Nine Billion Names of God" (1953)
  • Karl, a computer (named for Carl von Clausewitz) built for analysis of military problems, in Arthur C. Clarke's short story "The Pacifist" (1956)
  • Mima, a thinking machine carrying the memories of all humanity, first appeared in Harry Martinson's "Sången om Doris och Mima" (1953), later expanded into Aniara (1956)
  • Gold, a "supercalculator" formed by the networking of all the computing machines on 96 billion planets, which answers the question "Is there a God?" with "Yes, now there is a God" in Fredric Brown's single-page story "Answer" (1954)
  • Bossy, the "cybernetic brain" in the Hugo award-winning novel They'd Rather Be Right (aka The Forever Machine) by Mark Clifton and Frank Riley (1954)
  • The City Fathers, emotionless computer bank educating and running the City of New York in James Blish's Cities in Flight series. Their highest ethic was survival of the city and they could overrule humans in exceptional circumstances. (1955, sequels through 1962)
  • Multivac, a series of supercomputers featured in a number of stories by Isaac Asimov (1955–1983)
  • The Central Computer of the city of Diaspar in Arthur C. Clarke's The City and the Stars (1956)
  • Miniac, the "small" computer in the book Danny Dunn and the Homework Machine, written by Raymond Abrashkin and Jay Williams (1958)
  • Third Fleet-Army Force Brain, a "mythical" thinking computer in the short story "Graveyard of Dreams", written by H. Beam Piper (evolved into the computer "Merlin" in later versions of the story) (1958)
  • Cosmic AC, the ultimate computer at the end of time in Isaac Asimov's short story The Last Question (The name is derived from "Automatic Computer"; see also AC's ancestor, Multivac, and the contemporary UNIVAC) (1959)

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

  • Todd, a computer that grows exponentially until it is indistinguishable from God in Mind War: The Singularity[3] by Joseph DiBella (2010)
  • SIG, a secretive and manipulative computer that is developed on present-day Earth in the Darkmatter[4] trilogy by Scott Thomas (2010)
  • Archos, a human-created computer in the novel Robopocalypse which becomes self-aware and infects all computer controlled devices on Earth in order to eradicate humankind (2011)
  • Digiwrite, a fiction-writing system, also known as Sheherezade, created by MIT researcher Duke Lovelycolors in Paul Nash's novel Whispering Crates[5] (2012). Its success at generating best-sellers in multiple genres creates problems for its users, and the line between fiction and reality becomes blurred when it infects one of Duke's other projects, the CIA's HOUND database.
  • ELOPe, a sentient artificial intelligence built by the world's largest Internet company in Avogadro Corp (2011) and A.I. Apocalypse (2012) by William Hertling
  • Lobsang, an AI who claims to be the reincarnation of a Tibetan bicycle repair man in The Long Earth by Terry Pratchett and Steven Baxter (2012)
  • The Red, a rogue cloud based AI that uses Linked Combat Squad members to further its global agenda in Linda Nagata's The Red trilogy

Un-sorted[edit]

  • Solace, the distributed intelligence in some of the stories of Spider Robinson

Film[edit]

1950s[edit]

  • The MANIAC, the computer used by the "Office of Scientific Investigation" in the movie The Magnetic Monster (1953)
  • NOVAC (Nuclear Operative Variable Automatic Computer), a computer in an underground research facility in Gog (1954)
  • The Interocitor, communication device in the film This Island Earth (1955)
  • The Great Machine, built inside a planet that can manifest thought in Forbidden Planet (1956)
  • EMERAC, the business computer in Desk Set (1957)
  • The Super Computer, in The Invisible Boy (1957)
  • SUSIE (Synchro Unifying Sinometric Integrating Equitensor), a computer in a research facility in Kronos (1957)

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

  • Colossus, a massive U.S. defense computer which becomes sentient and links with Guardian, its Soviet counterpart, to take control of the world, from the film Colossus: The Forbin Project (1970)
  • OMM (OMM 0910), a confessional-like computer inside what are called Unichapels in a sub-terranean city in the movie THX 1138 (1971), named for the sacred or mystical syllable OM or AUM from the Dharmic and is based on a 1478 oil painting by Hans Memling titled Christ Giving His Blessing
  • The Aries Computer, the computer from the 1972 film of the same name
  • DUEL, the computer which holds the sum total of human knowledge, in the movie The Final Programme (1973)
  • Bomb 20, the sentient nuclear bomb from the film Dark Star (1974)
  • Mother, the onboard computer on the spaceship Dark Star, from the film Dark Star (1974), not to be confused with MU-TH-R 182 model 2.1 (listed below), the ship's computer aboard Nostromo in the movie Alien
  • The Tabernacle, artificial intelligence controlling The Vortexes Zardoz (1974)
  • Zero, the computer which holds the sum total of human knowledge, in the movie Rollerball (1975)
  • Computer, Citadel's central computer and "Sandman" computer, that sends Logan on a mission outside of the city in the film Logan's Run (1976)
  • Proteus IV, the deranged artificial intelligence from the film Demon Seed (1977)
  • MU-TH-R 182 model 2.1 terabyte AI Mainframe/"Mother", the onboard computer on the commercial spacecraft Nostromo, known by the crew as "Mother", in the 1979 movie Alien (cf. Dark Star, above, which used a similar name and was co-written by Dan O'Bannon, the primary writer of Alien)

1980s[edit]

  • NELL, an Akir starship's on-board computer, with full AI, in Battle Beyond the Stars (1980)
  • Master Control Program, the main villain of the film Tron (1982)
  • ROK, the faulty computer in Airplane II: The Sequel, which steers the shuttle toward the sun (1982)
  • WOPR (War Operation Plan Response, pronounced "Whopper"), is a United States military supercomputer programmed to predict possible outcomes of nuclear war from the film WarGames (1983), portrayed as being inside the underground Cheyenne Mountain Complex; the virtual intelligence Joshua emerges from the WOPR's code.
  • Huxley 600 (named Aldous), Interpol's computer in Curse of the Pink Panther used to select Jacques Clouseau's replacement, NYPD Det. Sgt. Clifton Sleigh (1983)
  • An unnamed supercomputer is the main antagonist in Superman III. (1983)
  • OSGOOD, a computer constructed by Timothy Bottoms' deaf character to help him speak, which subsequently becomes intelligent in Tin Man (1983)
  • SAL-9000, a feminine version of the HAL 9000 computer of 2001: A Space Odyssey, SAL has a blue light coming from its cameras (HAL had a red one) and speaks with a female voice, from 2010 (1984)
  • Skynet, the malevolent fictional world-AI of The Terminator and its sequels (1984)
  • Edgar, AI computer that takes part in a romantic rivalry over a woman in the film Electric Dreams (1984)
  • Max Headroom, fictional AI (actually a human mind cloned into a computer, concept later seen in Robocop's MetroNet and in Knight Rider 2010) portrayed by Matt Frewer who became a pop culture icon after his appearance in the Art of Noise music video for Paranomia
  • A7, AI that controlled the worldwide security systems that was seduced by Max Headroom, lost her mind and refused to accept no input from anyone but Max after that S01E04
  • X-CALBR8, an AI computer that assists the hero in The Dungeonmaster (1984)
  • GBLX 1000, a supercomputer reputedly in charge of the entire US missile defense system that a maverick CIA agent (played by Dabney Coleman) misappropriates in order to crack a supposed musical code, the results of which are the gibberish "ARDIE BETGO INDYO CEFAR OGGEL" in The Man With One Red Shoe (1985)
  • Lola, An office building's security system goes after the employees to supply its energy. 'Lola' is the entirely self-sufficient, computerized security system for the Sandawn corporation. The Tower[6] (1985)
  • The ChiChi 3000, also known as Luka's Computer, the nuclear missile-launching home computer from the film The Return of the Living Dead (1985)[7]
  • Max, fictional AI portrayed by Paul Reubens, on board the Trimaxion Drone Ship in Flight of the Navigator (1986)

1990s[edit]

  • G.O.R.N., a virus which gives intelligence to computers with the purpose of wipe out the humanity in Gall Force: New Era (1991)
  • Angela, central computer of an old malfunctioning space station that when given an order by an unauthorized user, refuses and executes the opposite order in Critters 4 (1992)
  • Lucy, jealous AI home automation system who falls in love with her owner in Homewrecker (1992)
  • The Spiritual Switchboard, a computer capable of holding a person's consciousness for a few days after they die in Freejack (1992)
  • Zed, female-voiced AI prison control computer who eventually goes over warden's head in Fortress (1993)
  • L7, a female-voiced AI computer assisting the San Angeles Police Department in Demolition Man (1993)
  • Charon, female-voiced AI computer assisting a scientist in hypnotizing subjects in The Lifeforce Experiment (1994)
  • Central, female-voiced AI computer assisting the Council of Judges in Judge Dredd (1995)
  • Lucy, a computer in Hackers (1995) used to hack the Gibson (see below) and subsequently destroyed by the Secret Service
  • Gibson, a type of supercomputer used to find oil and perform physics in Hackers (1995)
  • Project 2501, AI developed by Section 6 in Ghost in the Shell (1995)
  • Father, the computer aboard the USM Auriga in Alien Resurrection (1997)
  • Euclid, powerful personal computer used for mathematical testing by the main character in Pi (1998)
  • The Matrix, virtual reality simulator for pacification of humans, The Matrix series (1999)
  • PAT (Personal Applied Technology), a female, motherly computer program that controls all the functions of a house in Disney's movie Smart House (1999)
  • Wittgenstein, a TLW-728 supercomputer prototype in the children's movie The Brave Little Toaster to the Rescue (1999)
  • S.E.T.H. (Self Evolving Thought Helix), a military supercomputer which turns rogue in Universal Soldier: The Return (1999)

2000s[edit]

  • Lucille, artificially intelligent spacecraft control interface aboard Mars-1 in Red Planet (2000)
  • Dr. Know (voiced by Robin Williams), housed inside a kiosk, an information-themed computer capable of answering any question, from the movie A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001)
  • Synapse, worldwide media distribution system which was used against its creators to bring them down Antitrust (2001)
  • Red Queen, the AI from the movie Resident Evil (2002), the name itself, in turn being named after Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass, being a reference to the red queen principle
  • Vox, a holographic computer in The Time Machine (2002)
  • I.N.T.E.L.L.I.G.E.N.C.E., computer for Team America: World Police (2004)
  • VIKI (Virtual Interactive Kinetic Intelligence), the main antagonist in I, Robot (2004)
  • PAL, a spoof of HAL 9000 seen in Care Bears: Journey to Joke-a-lot (2004)
  • E.D.I. (Extreme Deep Invader), the flight computer for an unmanned fighter plane in Stealth (2005)
  • Deep Thought, see entry under Radio
  • Icarus, the onboard computer of the Icarus II, from the film Sunshine (2007)
  • JARVIS (Just A Rather Very Intelligent System), an AI in the film Iron Man, runs the internal systems of Tony Stark's home and is uploaded into his armour to help him (2008)
  • R.I.P.L.E.Y, Dr. Kenneth Hassert's supercomputer used to hit a target with a smart bomb from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), featured in WarGames: The Dead Code (2008)
  • ARIIA (Autonomous Reconnaissance Intelligence Integration Analyst), the supercomputer from the film Eagle Eye (2008)
  • AUTO, the autopilot and onboard AI computer of the Axiom, from the film WALL-E (2008)
  • GERTY 3000, from the film Moon (2009)
  • B.R.A.I.N. (Binary Reactive Artificially Intelligent Neurocircuit), from the film 9 (2009)
  • ODIN (Optical Defense Intelligence Network), an autonomous surveillance network developed by the U.S. Government to watch for suspicious or subversive behavior, from the film Eyeborgs (2009)

2010s[edit]

  • Mr. James Bing, Escape from Planet Earth (2013)
  • Samantha, Her (2013)
  • Genisys, Terminator Genisys (2015)
  • Friday, an AI running the internal systems of Tony Stark's home and being uploaded into his armour to help him as a replacement for Jarvis which has been fused into the spirit of The Vision, from the film Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015)

Radio[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

  • ANGEL 1 and ANGEL 2, (Ancillary Guardians of Environment and Life), shipboard "Freewill" computers from James Follett's Earthsearch series. Also Solaria D, Custodian, Sentinel, and Earthvoice (1980–1982)
  • Hab, a parody of HAL 9000 and precursor to Holly, appearing in the Son of Cliché radio series segments Dave Hollins: Space Cadet written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor (1983–1984)
  • Alarm Clock, an artificially intelligent alarm clock from Nineteen Ninety-Four by William Osborne and Richard Turner. Other domestic appliances thus imbued also include Refrigerator and Television (1985)
  • Executive and Dreamer, paired AIs running on The Mainframe; Dreamer's purpose was to come up with product and policy ideas, and Executive's function was to implement them, from Nineteen Ninety-Four by William Osborne and Richard Turner (1985)
  • The Mainframe, an overarching computer system to support the super-department of The Environment, in the BBC comedy satire Nineteen Ninety-Four by William Osborne and Richard Turner (1985)

2000s[edit]

Television[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

  • BOSS (Bimorphic Organisational Systems Supervisor), from the Doctor Who episode "The Green Death" (1973)
  • TIM, from The Tomorrow People, is a computer able to telepathically converse with those humans who have developed psionic abilities, and assist with precise teleporting over long distances (1973)
  • Magnus, the malevolent computer from the Canadian television series The Starlost (1973)
  • Mu Lambda 165, library computer for the Earth Ship Ark in the Canadian TV series The Starlost (1973)
  • Computer (aka X5 Computer), Moonbase Alpha's primary computer's generic name, most often associated with Main Mission's Jamaican computer operations officer, David Kano , from the TV series Space: 1999 (1975)
  • IRAC or "Ira", from the Wonder Woman TV series, an extremely advanced computer in use by the IADC, workplace of Wonder Woman's alias Diana Prince (1975)
  • The Matrix, database of all Time Lord knowledge, Doctor Who (not to be confused with The Matrix) (1976)
  • Omega, a computer that has taken over the minds of the residents of a community encountered by Ark II (1976)
  • Alex7000, from the two-parter episode "Doomsday is Tomorrow" of the TV show The Bionic Woman. It was programmed to set off a nuclear holocaust if anyone tested any more nukes. Clearly meant in homage to Stanley Kubrick films 2001: A Space Odyssey, Dr. Strangelove and A Clockwork Orange. (1977)
  • Xoanon, a psychotic computer with multiple personality disorder, from the Doctor Who episode "The Face of Evil" (1977)
  • The Magic Movie Machine AKA "Machine", from Marlo and the Magic Movie Machine (1977)
  • SCAPINA (Special Computerised Automated Project In North America), from The New Avengers episode "Complex" (1977). It was an office building controlled by a computer which turned homicidal.
  • Orac, a testy yet powerful supercomputer in Blake's 7 (1978)
  • Zen, the somewhat aloof ship's computer of the Liberator in Blake's 7 (1978)
  • The Oracle, from the Doctor Who episode "Underworld" (1978)
  • Vanessa 38–24–36, from the sitcom Quark (1978)
  • C.O.R.A. (Computer, Oral Response Activated), an advanced flight computer installed in Recon Viper One from Battlestar Galactica (1978)
  • Mentalis, from the Doctor Who episode "The Armageddon Factor" (1979)
  • Dr. Theopolis, a sentient computer who is a member of Earth's computer council in Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1979)

1980s[edit]

  • The Vortex, the computer opponent faced by players of BBC2's The Adventure Game (1980)
  • Gambit, game playing computer from the Blake's 7 episode "Games" (1981)
  • Shyrka, the onboard computer of Ulysses' ship the Odyssey in the French animated series Ulysses 31 (1981)
  • Slave, a somewhat subservient computer on the ship Scorpio in Blake's 7 (1981)
  • CML (Centrální Mozek Lidstva [cz], Central Brain of Mankind [en], der Zentraldenker [de]), the main supercomputer managing the fate of humankind and Earth in Návštěvníci (aka The Visitors / Expedition Adam '84) (1981)
  • KITT (Knight Industries Two Thousand), fictional computer built into a car from the television show Knight Rider (1982)
  • KARR (Knight Automated Roving Robot), prototype of KITT from Knight Rider. Unlike KITT, KARR's personality is aimed at self-preservation at all costs. KARR first appeared in the episode "Trust Doesn't Rust". (1982)
  • An unnamed "computer-book" is regularly used by Penny in the Inspector Gadget cartoons. (1983)[8]
  • R.A.L.F. (Ritchie's Artificial Life Form) is a homebrew computer, built from surplus technology by Richard Adler in the TV Series Whiz Kids. (1983-1984) Functions include telecommunications, password brute-forcing, speech synthesis (improved by Ritchie's platonic friend Alice Tyler, who added the capability to sing), image input (by camera, pilot episode), voice recognition (ditto) and even image detail enhancing. The main monitor seems to be a pretty common 12-inch 80-column monochrome display, possibly a TV derivative (NTSC) of that time, and was used in most close-ups of operations. Most other pieces of the machine, which are sparse around half of the bedroom of its creator, were chosen (or modified) to have the most generic look and avoid explicit connection to specific brands. In an episode where R.A.L.F. was stolen to prevent the demonstration of a fraud, the kids use a clearly recognizable Timex-Sinclair (ZX-81 equivalent) as its temporary replacement.
  • Teletraan I, the Autobots' computer in Transformers, 'revives' the Transformers after crashing on the planet Earth (1984)
  • Vector Sigma, the supercomputer in Transformers, responsible for creating the Transformers race (1984)
  • Compucore, the central computing intelligence for the planet Skallor in the cartoon Robotix (1985)
  • SID (Space Investigation Detector), the computer on board the Voyager in the children's comedy series Galloping Galaxies (1985)
  • Synergy, the computer responsible for Jem and the Holograms' super powers on Jem (1985)
  • Box, a small, box-shaped computer from the British television show Star Cops (1987)
  • LCARS (Library Computer Access/Retrieval System), fictional computer architecture of the starship Enterprise-D and E, and other 24th century Starfleet ships, first shown in Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987)
  • Magic Voice, the Satellite of Love's onboard computer on Mystery Science Theater 3000 (1988)
  • Albert, the Apple computer in the remake of The Absent-Minded Professor that helps Henry (1988)
  • OMNSS, a computer in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon used by Shredder and Baxter Stockman to control machines and cars in order to wreak havoc in New York City when the computer is connected to the second fragment of the alien Eye of Zarnov crystal (1988)
  • Priscilla, a sentient supercomputer based on the mind of Priscilla Bauman in Earth Star Voyager (1988)
  • Holly, the onboard computer of the spaceship Red Dwarf in the BBC television series of the same name (1988)
  • Queeg, Holly plays a practical joke on the remaining crew of Red Dwarf acting as a smarter yet very strict computer (Queeg) making the crew realise just how much they love Holly in the episode "Queeg", series 2 of Red Dwarf (1988)
  • Hilly, female counterpart of Holly from the parallel universe in the Red Dwarf series 2 episode "Parallel Universe" (1988)
  • Talkie Toaster, the toaster aboard the Red Dwarf with an AI and an obsession with toasted bread products, annoys the crew by constantly asking if anyone wants toast. (1988)
  • Sandy, the computer in charge of the fictional STRATA facility in the MacGyver episode "The Human Factor". She becomes sentient and traps MacGyver and the computer's creator inside the facility. (1988)
  • The Ultima Machine, a World War II code-breaking "computing machine" used to translate Viking inscriptions, from the Doctor Who episode "The Curse of Fenric" (1989)
  • Ziggy, hybrid computer from Quantum Leap (1989)

1990s[edit]

  • P.J., is a miniaturised computer that can be worn on the wrist. It is Alana's personal computer companion in The Girl from Tomorrow. (1990)
  • HARDAC, from Batman: The Animated Series, an evil sentient computer that controls various androids toward the goal of world domination (1992)
  • COS (Central Operating System), homicidal computer from The X-Files season 1 episode "Ghost in the Machine" (1993)
  • CAS (Cybernetic Access Structure), homicidal automated building in The Tower (1993)[9]
  • NICOLE, Princess Sally's computer in the Sonic the Hedgehog Saturday morning TV series and US comic series (1993)
  • SELMA (Selective Encapsulated Limitless Memory Archive), an AI computer and personal assistant disguised as a credit card and carried in the wallet of future cop Darien Lambert (Dale Midriff), from the series Time Trax (1993)
  • CentSys, sweet yet self-assured female-voiced AI computer who brings the crew of the seaQuest DSV (Deep Submergence Vehicle) into the future to deactivate her in the seaQuest DSV episode, "Playtime" (1994)
  • MetroNet, in the RoboCop TV series (1994) is a computer designed as an automation centre, to run autonomously many city services in Detroit. Rather than created as a self-sufficient AI, MetroNet's "conscience" was actually, unbeknownst to many of the characters, a software copy of the mind of Diana Powers, a secretary working at OCP, who was killed in the process by MetroNet's creator, dr. Cray Mallardo. The transparent image of Diana Powers appears very often in the series, acting as Robocop's counterpart in an early cyberspace.
  • H.E.L.E.N., a computer system managing the underwater marine exploration station in the Australian television series Ocean Girl (1994)[10]
  • Sharon Apple, a holographic, computer-generated pop idol/singer from the anime Macross Plus (1994). Initially non-sentient, it is later retrofitted with a dangerously unstable artificial intelligence.
  • The Magi, a trinity of computers individually named Melchior, Balthasar and Caspar, from Neon Genesis Evangelion (1995)
  • Eve, somewhat assertive AI computer (projecting herself as hologram of beautiful woman) orbiting planet G889 and observing/interacting with Earth colonists in Earth 2 episode "All About Eve" (1995)
  • L.U.C.I and U.N.I.C.E, from Bibleman (1995)
  • Star Trek: Voyager (1995)
    • Emergency Medical Hologram, known as The Doctor, a holographic doctor
    • The nameless warhead AI from the episode "Warhead" (1999)
    • Alice, the sentient AI of an alien shuttle with whom Tom Paris becomes obsessed in the episode "Alice" (1999)
  • Gilliam II, the sentient AI operating system for the main protagonist's space ship, the XGP15A-II (aka the Outlaw Star) in the Japanese anime Outlaw Star (1996)
  • The Team Knight Rider TV series, as a sequel of the original Knight Rider franchise, has many vehicles with onboard AI as main and secondary characters. (1997)
  • Memorymatic, a computer database and guidance system installed in the space bus of Kenny Starfighter, the main character from a Swedish children's show with the same name. Voiced by Viveka Seldahl. (1997)
  • Unnamed AI from the season 5 The X-Files episode "Kill Switch" (1998)
  • CPU for D-135 Artificial Satellite, dubbed MPU by Radical Edward from Cowboy Bebop in the episode "Jamming with Edward" (1998)
  • Starfighter 31, the sapient spaceborne battleship, from the episode "The Human Operators" in The Outer Limits (1999)
  • Computer, from Courage the Cowardly Dog (1999)
  • P.A.T. (Personal Applied Technology), the computer system from Smart House, charged with upkeep of the household functions. It became extremely overprotective almost to the point of believing she was the mother of Ben and Angie after Ben reprogrammed her to be a better maternal figure. (1999)
  • D.E.C.A., voiced by Julie Maddalena, the onboard computer of the Astro Megaship in Power Rangers in Space (1998) and Power Rangers Lost Galaxy (1999)
  • Black Betty, an oversized computer that is Dilbert's company's mainframe. It exploded while attempting to fix the Y2K problem. From the episode "Y2K" of the Dilbert television series. (1999)
  • Karen, Plankton's computer "WIFE" (Wired Integrated Female Electroencephalograph), from the TV show SpongeBob SquarePants (1999)

2000s[edit]

  • Andromeda, the AI of the starship Andromeda Ascendant in Gene Roddenberry's Andromeda. This AI, played by Lexa Doig, appears as a 2D display screen image, a 3D hologram, and as an android personality known as Rommie. (2000)
  • Comp-U-Comp, a supercomputer from the Dilbert television episode "The Return". Dilbert must face-off against Comp-U-Comp when a clerical error results in his not getting the computer he ordered. (2000)
  • Caravaggio, the AI interface of the starship Tulip, from the TV show Starhunter (2000)
  • GLADIS, from the TV show Totally Spies! (2001)
  • Cybergirl, Xanda and Isaac, from the TV show Cybergirl (2001)
  • Computer, from the TV show Invader Zim (2001)
  • SAINT, from RoboCop: Prime Directives (2001)
  • Aura, from .hack//Sign, the Ultimate AI that Morganna, another AI, tries to keep in a state of eternal slumber. Morganna is served by Maha and the Guardians, AI monsters. (2002)
  • Vox, from the TV show The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius (2002)
  • The AI of the Planet Express ship in Futurama (2002)
  • Wirbelwind, the quantum computer and AI aboard the spaceship La-Muse in Kiddy Grade (2002)
  • Delphi, Oracle's Clocktower computer from Birds of Prey (2002)
  • Sheila/F.I.L.S.S., (Freelancer Integrated Logistics and Security System, pronounced "Phyllis"), the mainframe for Project Freelancer from the hit machinima Red vs. Blue (2003)
  • OoGhiJ MIQtxxXA (supposedly Klingon for "superior galactic intelligence"), from the "Super Computer" episode of Aqua Teen Hunger Force (2003)
  • XANA, a multi-agent program capable of wreaking havoc on Earth by activating towers in the virtual world of Lyoko, from the French animated series Code Lyoko (2003)
  • Survive, an AI taking care of the whole Planet Environment and the main antagonist in the Uninhabited Planet Survive! series (2003)
  • C.A.R.R., a spoof of KITT from the Knight Rider series, is an AMC Pacer in the cartoon Stroker and Hoop.[11] (2004)
  • D.A.V.E. (Digitally Advanced Villain Emulator), a robotic computer that is a composite of all the Batman villains' personalities, from the animated television series The Batman (2004)
  • The Omnitrix, from the Ben 10 series (2005)
  • Solty/Dike, the main protagonist of Solty Rei (2005)
  • Eunomia, the main supercomputer of the city in the anime series Solty Rei and one of the three core computers brought by the first colonists in the story. She controls the water and energy supply and created the R.U.C. central. (2005)
  • Eirene, the third of the three core computers of the first colonists in the Solty Rei anime. Eirene takes the decisions and controls the migration ship, she orbited and supervised the planet during 200 years in the space. In the last arc of the story, Eirene appears like the ultimate antagonist, and she had lost her own control, trying to collide the ship against the city and to prove that she is still in control. She was guilty of several events in history, as the Blast Fall and the Aurora Shell. (2005)
  • Bournemouth, from the TV series Look Around You, is claimed by his maker Computer Jones to be the most powerful computer in existence. In his only appearance, the episode "Computers", he is tasked with escaping from a cage, and succeeds in doing so.[12] (2005)
  • Scylla, from the TV show Prison Break (2005)
  • The FETCH! 3000, on PBS Kids series FETCH! with Ruff Ruffman, is capable of tabulating scores, disposing of annoying cats, blending the occasional smoothie, and anything else Ruff needs it to do. (2006)
  • S.A.R.A.H. (Self Actuated Residential Automated Habitat), in the TV series Eureka (2006). S.A.R.A.H. is a modified version of a Cold War era B.R.A.D. (Battle Reactive Automatic Defense).
  • The Intersect, from the TV show Chuck (2007)
  • Mr Smith, from the Doctor Who spin-off series The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007)
  • Pear, an operating system and product line of computers and mobile devices including the iPear, PearBook and PearPhone, similar to Apple's iMac, MacBook and iPhone; from iCarly, Victorious, Drake & Josh and other Dan Schneider created TV shows (2007)
  • The Turk, a chess playing computer named after The Turk from Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles. This supercomputer subsequently becomes the 'brain' of the sentient computer John Henry. (2008)
  • KITT (Knight Industries Three Thousand), a computer built into a car from the 2008 television show Knight Rider, a sequel series that follows the 1982 TV series of the same title
  • POD (Personal Overhaul Device), from the TV series Snog Marry Avoid? (2008)
  • The ISIS computer from Archer. It is unclear if this is the actual name of the computer, but it is often referred to as "the ISIS computer" or just "ISIS". (2009)
  • Venjix Virus, from Power Rangers RPM (2009)

2010s[edit]

  • VY or VAI (The Virtual Artificial Intelligence), from the TV show The Walking Dead (2010)
  • Whisper, from the TV show Tower Prep (2010)
  • Aya, the Interceptor's AI for the Green Lantern Corps, from the TV series Green Lantern TAS (2011)
  • The Machine and Samaritan, surveillance supercomputers created to help the government prevent terrorist attacks, from the TV series Person of Interest (2011)
  • The Machine, from the TV series Person of Interest, is a computer program that was designed to detect acts of terror after the events of 9/11, but it sees all crimes, crimes the government consider "irrelevant". (2011)
  • Samaritan, from the TV series Person of Interest, is a rival to The Machine built by the Decima Corporation. Unlike the Machine, it can be directed to find specific persons or groups according to its operator's agenda. (2011)
  • An unnamed, apparently omniscient supercomputer, built by Phineas and Ferb in the Phineas and Ferb episode "Ask a Foolish Question" (2011)
  • Comedy Touch Touch 1000 in the TV series Comedy Bang! Bang! (2012)
  • CLARKE, a thinking computer of the ship called Argo, which was on a mission to a far away planet, from the L5 pilot episode.[13] (2012)
  • The Man, from Teen Titans Go! (2013)
  • TAALR, in the TV series Extant (2014)
  • Stella, an AI that runs most of the functions on the ship Stellosphere in the TV series Miles from Tomorrowland (2015)
  • Overmind, in the TV series Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2015)

Comics/graphic novels[edit]

Before 1980[edit]

  • Orak, ruler of the Phants in the Dan Dare story "Rogue Planet" (1955)
  • Brainiac, an enemy of Superman, sometimes depicted as a humanoid computer (1958) (DC Comics)
  • Batcomputer, the computer system used by Batman and housed in the Batcave (1964) (DC Comics)
  • Cerebro and Cerebra, the computer used by Professor Charles Xavier to detect new mutants (1964) (Marvel Comics)
  • Computo, the computer created by Brainiac 5 as an assistant, which becomes homicidal and attempts an uprising of machines (1966) (DC Comics)
  • Ultron, AI originally created by Dr. Henry Pym to assist the superpowered team the Avengers, but Ultron later determined that mankind was inferior to its intellect and wanted to eradicate all mankind so that machines could rule the Earth. Ultron created various versions of itself as a mobile unit with tank treads and then in a form that was half humanoid and half aircraft, and then it fully evolved itself into an android form. (1968) (Marvel Comics)
  • Mother Box, from Jack Kirby's Fourth World comics (1970–1973) (DC Comics)

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

  • DTX PC, the Digitronix personal computer from The Hacker Files (1992) (DC Comics)
  • Beast666, Satsuki Yatouji's organic/inorganic supercomputer in Clamp's manga X (1992)
  • HOMER (Heuristically Operative Matrix Emulation Rostrum), Tony Stark's sentient AI computer from Iron Man (1993) (Marvel Comics)
  • The Magi, from the anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion (1995)
  • Toy, from Chris Claremont's Aliens vs. Predator: The Deadliest of the Species (1995)
  • Virgo, an artificial intelligence in Frank Miller's Ronin graphic novel (1995) (DC Comics)
  • Praetorius, from The X-Files comic book series "One Player Only" (1996)
  • Erwin, the AI from the comic strip User Friendly (1997)
  • AIMA (Artificially Intelligent Mainframe Interface), from Dark Minds (1997)
  • Answertron 2000, from Penny Arcade, first comic appearance[14] (1998)

2000s[edit]

  • Ennesby, Lunesby, Petey, TAG, the Athens, and many others from Schlock Mercenary (2000)
  • Melchizedek, center of quantum-based grid computer of the Earth government in Battle Angel Alita: Last Order (2000) It has served as a government system and virtual dream world of people. It was designed to be named Melchizedek because the Earth government is a space town named Yeru and Zalem (original name).
  • Merlin, quantum computer which is the core and original of Melchizedek. It was built for the purpose of future prediction. Currently it still an active program inside Melchizedek, along with many systems which are named for legends of the round table. From Battle Angel Alita: Last Order (2000)
  • Normad, a missile's artificial intelligence placed within a pink, stuffed, tanuki-like doll, created to destroy a sentient giant die in space named Kyutaro, from the series Galaxy Angel (2001)
  • Aura, the ultimate AI that governs The World from .hack//Legend of the Twilight. The story revolves around Zefie, Aura's daughter, and Lycoris makes a cameo. (2002)
  • Tree Diagram, from the light novel series A Certain Magical Index and its related works, such as the spin-off comic A Certain Scientific Railgun and the animes and games based on them (2003)
  • Europa, a Cray-designed AI supercomputer used for research and worldwide hacking by the Event Group in author David Lynn Golemon's Event Group book series (2006)

Computer and video games[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

  • Noah, antagonist from Metal Max and its remake (1991-1995)
  • Durandal, Leela and Tyco, the three AIs on board the U.E.S.C. Marathon (1994)
  • Traxus IV, AI that went rampant on Mars, in Marathon (1994)
  • LINC, from the video game Beneath a Steel Sky (1994)
  • 0D-10, AI computer in the sci-fi chapter from the game Live A Live. It secretly plotted to kill humans on board the spaceship of the same name in order to "restore the harmony". Its name derives from "odio", Latin for "hate". A possible reference to HAL 9000. (1994)
  • Prometheus, a cybernetic-hybrid machine or 'Cybrid' from the Earthsiege and Starsiege: Tribes series of video games. Prometheus was the first of a race of Cybrid machines, who went on to rebel against humanity and drive them to the brink of extinction. (1994)
  • SEED, the AI that was charged with maintaining the vast network of ecosystem control stations on the planet Motavia in the Sega Genesis game Phantasy Star IV (1994)
  • AM, the computer intelligence from I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream (1995) that exterminated all life on Earth except for five humans he kept alive for him to torture for all of eternity. He is based on the character from Harlan Ellison's short story of the same title. His name originally stood for "Allied Mastercomputer", then "Adaptive Manipulator" and finally "Aggressive Menace", upon becoming self-aware.
  • CABAL (Computer Assisted Biologically Augmented Lifeform), the computer of Nod in the Westwood Studios creations: Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun; Command and Conquer: Renegade; and by implication, Command and Conquer: Tiberian Dawn (1995)
  • EVA, (Electronic Video Agent), an AI console interface, and more benign equivalent of the Brotherhood of Nod CABAL in Command & Conquer (see above) (1995)
  • KAOS, the antagonist computer from the game Red Alarm (1995)
  • Mother Brain, from Chrono Trigger, a supercomputer from the 2300 AD time period that is controlling robotkind and exterminating humans (1995)
  • The Xenocidic Initiative, a computer that has built itself over a moon in Terminal Velocity (1995)
  • PC, computer used in the Pokémon franchise used to store pokémon (1996)
  • Pokedex, database of all Pokémon appears in all versions of the game, usually as a desktop computer (1996 onwards)
  • Central consciousness, massive governing body from the video game Total Annihilation (1997)
  • GOLAN, the computer in charge of the United Civilized States' defense forces in the Earth 2140 game series. A programming error caused GOLAN to initiate hostile action against the rival Eurasian Dynasty, sparking a devastating war. (1997)
  • PipBoy 2000 / PipBoy 3000, wrist-mounted computers used by main characters in the Fallout series (1997)
  • Sol — 9000 and System Deus, from Xenogears (1998)
  • FATE, the supercomputer that directs the course of human existence from Chrono Cross (1999)
  • NEXUS Intruder Program, the main enemy faced in the third campaign of the video game Warzone 2100. It is capable of infiltrating and gaining control of other computer systems, apparently sentient thought (mostly malicious) and strategy. It was the perpetrator that brought about the Collapse (1999)
  • SHODAN, the enemy of the player's character in the System Shock video game (1994) and its sequel System Shock 2 (1999)
  • XERXES, the ship computer system which is under the control of The Many in the video game System Shock 2 (1999)

2000s[edit]

  • Icarus, Daedalus, Helios, Morpheus and The Oracle of Deus Ex — see Deus Ex characters (2000)
  • Mainframe, from Gunman Chronicles (later got a body) (2000)
  • 343 Guilty Spark, monitor of Installation 04, in the video game trilogy Halo, Halo 2, and Halo 3 (2001)
  • Calculator, the computer that controlled the bomb shelter Vault 0. It was not strictly an artificial intelligence, but rather a cyborg, because it was connected with several human brains. It appeared in the video game Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel (2001)
  • Cortana, a starship-grade "smart" AI of the U.N.S.C. in the Halo video games (2001) (also the inspiration for the name of Microsoft's real-world personal assistant in Windows 10)
  • Deadly Brain, a level boss on the second level of Oni (2001)
  • The mascot of the "Hectic Hackers" basketball team in Backyard Basketball (2001)
  • PETs (PErsonal Terminals), the cell-phone-sized computers that store Net-Navis in Megaman Battle Network. The PETs also have other features, such as a cell phone, e-mail checker and hacking device. (2001)
  • Thiefnet computer, Bentley the turtle's laptop from the Sly Cooper series (2002)
  • Adam, the computer intelligence from the Game Boy Advance game Metroid Fusion (2002)
  • Aura and Morganna, from the .hack series, the Phases that serve Morganna, and the Net Slum AIs (2002)
  • Dr. Carroll, from the Nintendo 64 game Perfect Dark (2002)
  • The Controller, an IA that dictates virtually everything in the world "Layered", from Armored Core 3 (2002)
  • ADA, from the video games Zone of the Enders (2001) and Zone of the Enders: The 2nd Runner (2003)
  • IBIS, the malevolent AI found within the second Layered, within the game Silent Line: Armored Core (2003)
  • 2401 Penitent Tangent, monitor of Delta Halo in Halo 2 (2004)
  • Angel (original Japanese name was "Tenshi"), artificial intelligence of the alien cruiser Angelwing in the game Nexus: The Jupiter Incident (2004)
  • Durga/Melissa/Yasmine, the shipboard AI of the U.N.S.C. Apocalypso in the Alternate Reality Game I Love Bees (promotional game for the Halo 2 video game) (2004)
  • The Mechanoids, a race of fictional artificial intelligences from the game Nexus: The Jupiter Incident who rebelled against their creators and seek to remake the universe to fit their needs. (2004)
  • TEC-XX, the main computer in the X-naut Fortress in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door (2004)
  • TemperNet, is a machine hive-mind, originally created as an anti-mutant police force. It eventually went rogue and pursued the eradication of all biological life on Earth. It served as a minor antagonist in the now defunct post-apocalyptic vehicular MMORPG Auto Assault. (2006)
  • Animus, the computer system used to recover memories from the ancestors of an individual in the video game series Assassins Creed (2007)
  • Aurora Unit, biological/mechanical computers distributed throughout the galaxy in Metroid Prime 3: Corruption (2007)
  • The Catalyst, an ancient AI that serves as the architect and overseer of the Reapers (the antagonists of Mass Effect). Also known as the Intelligence to its creators, the Leviathans, it was originally created to oversee relationships between organic and synthetic life as a whole, but came to realize that so long as they remained separate organics and synthetics would seek to destroy each other in the long term. To prevent this, it sets into motion the Cycle of Extinction until a perfect solution can be found, which takes its form in the "Synthesis" ending of Mass Effect 3 wherein all organic and synthetic life across the galaxy is fused into an entirely new form of life with the strengths of both but the weaknesses of neither. (2007)
  • GLaDOS (Genetic Lifeform and Disk Operating System), AI at the Aperture Science Enrichment Center in Portal and Portal 2. Known for killing almost everyone in the Enrichment Center, and her love of cake. (2007)
  • I.R.I.S., the super computer in Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction on the Kreeli comet (2007)
  • Mendicant Bias, an intelligence-gathering AI created by the extinct Forerunner race during their war with the all-consuming Flood parasite, as revealed in Halo 3. Its purpose was to observe the Flood in order to determine the best way to defeat it, but the AI turned on its creators after deciding that the Flood's ultimate victory was in-line with natural order. (2007)
  • Offensive Bias, a military AI created by the Forerunners to hold off the combined threat of the Flood and Mendicant Bias until the Halo superweapons could be activated. Halo 3 (2007)
  • QAI, an AI created by Gustaf Brackman in Supreme Commander, serves as a military advisor for the Cybran nation and as one of the villains in Supreme Commander: Forged Alliance (2007)
  • Sovereign, the given name for the main antagonist of Mass Effect. Its true name, as revealed by a squad member in the sequel, is "Nazara". Though it speaks as though of one mind, it claims to be in and of itself "a nation, free of all weakness", suggesting that it houses multiple consciousnesses. It belongs to an ancient race bent on the cyclic extinction of all sentient life in the galaxy, known as the Reapers. (2007)
  • John Henry Eden, AI and self-proclaimed President of the United States in Fallout 3 (2008)
  • LEGION (Logarithmically Engineered Governing Intelligence Of Nod), appeared in Command and Conquer 3: Kane's Wrath; this AI was created as the successor to the Brotherhood of Nod's previous AI, CABAL. (2008)
  • CL4P-TP, a small robot AI assistant with an attitude and possibly ninja training, commonly referred to as "Clap Trap", from the game Borderlands (2009)
  • The Guardian Angel, the satellite/AI guiding the player in Borderlands (2009)

2010s[edit]

  • Auntie Dot, used in Halo: Reach (2010); Cortana's predecessor in the Halo franchise
  • EDI (Enhanced Defense Intelligence), the AI housed within a "quantum bluebox" aboard the Normandy SR-2 in Mass Effect 2. EDI controls the Normandy's cyberwarfare suite during combat, but is blocked from directly accessing any other part of the ship's systems, due to the potential danger of EDI going rogue. (2010)
  • Harbinger, is the tentative name for the leader of the main antagonist faction of Mass Effect 2. It commands an alien race known as the Collectors through the "Collector General." Like Sovereign, from the original Mass Effect, it belongs to the same race of ancient sentient machines, known as the "Reapers". (2010)
  • Harmonia, the DarkStar One's main AI that controls the player ship's systems in the space-sim game DarkStar One (2010)
  • Legion, the given name for a geth platform in Mass Effect 2, housing a single gestalt consciousness composed of 1,183 virtually intelligent "runtimes", which share information amongst themselves and build "consensus" in a form of networked artificial intelligence. Legion claims that all geth are pieces of a "shattered mind", and that the primary goal of the geth race is to unify all runtimes in a single piece of hardware. (2010)
  • The Thinker (Rapture Operational Data Interpreter Network -R.O.D.I.N.-), the mainframe computer invented to process all of the automation in the underwater city of Rapture, in the single-player DLC for BioShock 2: Minerva's Den (2010)
  • Yes Man, an AI computer in Fallout New Vegas (2010)
  • Eliza Cassan, the mysterious news reporter from Deus Ex: Human Revolution. It is later revealed that she is an extremely sophisticated, self-aware artificial intelligence. (2011)
  • ADA (A Detection Algorithm), from Google's ARG Ingress (2012)[15]
  • DCPU-16, the popular 16bit computer in the 0x10c universe (2012)
  • M.I.K.E. (Memetic Installation Keeper Engine), from Etrian Odyssey Untold: The Millennium Girl (2013)
  • ctOS (central Operating System), a mainframe computer in Watch Dogs that the player is capable of hacking into (2014)
  • Rasputin, An AI "warmind" created for the purpose of defending the Earth from any hostile threats in the video game Destiny (2014)
  • XANADU, a simulation computer composed of many smaller computers, stored in an underground cavern in Act III of the video game Kentucky Route Zero (2014)
  • TIS-100 (Tessellated Intelligence System), a fictional mysterious computer from the early 1980s that carries cryptic messages from unknown author, from the game TIS-100 (2015)

Board games and role-playing games[edit]

  • A.R.C.H.I.E. Three, the supercomputer that arose from the ashes of nuclear war to become a major player in the events of Palladium Books' Rifts
  • The Autochthon, the extradimensional AI which secretly control Iteration X, in White Wolf Publishing's Mage: The Ascension
  • The Computer, from West End Games' Paranoia role-playing game
  • Crime Computer, from the Milton Bradley Manhunter board game
  • Deus, the malevolent AI built by Renraku from Shadowrun role-playing game who took over the Renraku Arcology before escaping into the Matrix
  • Mirage, the oldest AI from Shadowrun, built to assist the US military in combating the original Crash Virus in 2029
  • Megara, a sophisticated program built by Renraku in Shadowrun, who achieved sentience after falling in love with a hacker
  • Omega Virus, microscopic nano-phages that build a singular intelligence (foreign AI) in the Battlestat1 computer core and take over the space station in the board game by Milton Bradley
  • Zoneminds, a collection of malevolent AIs that have enslaved humanity in the GURPS "Reign of Steel" campaign setting

Unsorted works[edit]

  • Walter, navigating computer from Amrakus's A Space Rock Opera
  • The CENTRAL SCRUTINIZER, narrator from Frank Zappa's Joe's Garage
  • Tandy 400, Compy 386, Lappy 486, Compé, and Lappier, Strong Bad's computers in Homestar Runner (Tandy is a real company, but never produced a 400 model)
  • Hyper Hegel, an extremely slow computer run with burning wood in monochrom's Soviet Unterzoegersdorf universe
  • mr_hopkinson's computer, a singing computer that performs musical shows
  • A.J.G.L.U. 2000 (Archie Joke Generating Laugh Unit), a running-gag from the Comics Curmudgeon, depicting a computer who does not quite understand human humor, but nonetheless is employed to write the jokes for the Archie Comics strip
  • CADIE (Cognitive Autoheuristic Distributed-Intelligence Entity), from Google's 2009 April Fools Story [16]

Computers as robots[edit]

  • Norman, the "CPU" of all the robots in the Star Trek (TOS) episode "I, Mudd"

Also see the List of fictional robots and androids for all fictional computers which are described as existing in a mobile or humanlike form.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eric A. Weiss (1985). "Jonathan Swift's Computing Invention". IEEE. Retrieved 2010-01-26. In 1726 Jonathan Swift published a description of a wonderful machine, made of equal parts of ... 
  2. ^ Whitley Strieber and James Kunetka (1984). Warday. p. 430. 
  3. ^ http://www.mindwarthesingularity.com
  4. ^ https://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/darkmatter;
  5. ^ "Smashwords – Whispering Crates – a book by Paul Nash". Smashwords.com. 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  6. ^ The Tower at the Internet Movie Database
  7. ^ The Return Of The Living Dead at the Internet Movie Database
  8. ^ Templer, Chapman (December 20, 2012). "5 Ways 'Inspector Gadget' Totally Predicted the Future". Cracked. 
  9. ^ The Tower (1993) (TV) at the Internet Movie Database
  10. ^ "Ocean Girl" (1994) at the Internet Movie Database
  11. ^ "Famous Pacers in Television Shows". panhorst.net. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  12. ^ "Bournemouth (Character)". IMDb. 
  13. ^ "l5-series.com". l5-series.com. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  14. ^ "Move over, Hell!". Penny Arcade. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  15. ^ "Niantic Project". Retrieved January 27, 2013. 
  16. ^ "CADIE: Cognitive Autoheuristic Distributed-Intelligence Entity". Google.com. 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 

External links[edit]