List of firsts in aviation

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Stained glass window showing Eilmer of Malmesbury, installed in Malmesbury Abbey in 1920

This is a list of firsts in aviation.

The forerunners[edit]

First alleged human flights[edit]

First recorded balloon flights[edit]

In 1999, Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones achieved the first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3

Heavier than air; 1853–1947[edit]

Otto Lilienthal in mid-flight, c. 1895
  • First glider flights
  • First flight in a powered airplane:
  • The Wright brothers are widely regarded as the inventors of the first fixed-wing aircraft to achieve sustained, controlled flight, the Wright Flyer. Orville Wright made the first successful flight in this aircraft on December 17, 1903, travelling 120 feet (37 m) at a speed of 6.8 mph (10.9 km/h).[33]
    • On October 9, 1890, Clément Ader flew uncontrolled for approximately 50 m (160 ft) in the steam-powered Éole.[34]
    • Gustave Whitehead claimed a flight on August 14, 1901, which was described in detail in a contemporary newspaper article.[35] His claims are dismissed by many aviation historians, as are those of persons who stated decades later that they saw short flights.[36][37]
    • Richard Pearse is said to have flown a fixed-wing aircraft several hundred meters on March 31, 1903. Pearse himself later denied this claim.[38] Several persons stated decades later that they witnessed or were told of short flights or hops by Pearse in 1903 prior to December, the month the Wrights flew.[39]
  • First circular flight by a powered airplane: Wilbur Wright flew 4,080 feet (1,244 m) in about a minute and a half on September 20, 1904.[40]
  • First heavier-than-air flight of more than 25 meters in Europe: On October 23, 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flew a distance of 60 metres (200 ft) in his 14-bis at the Chateau de Bagatelle, Paris, winning the Archdeacon Prize.[41]
  • First flight certified and registered by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI): On November 12, 1906, in the presence of official observers from the newly founded FAI, Alberto Santos Dumont flew his 14-bis a distance of 220 metres (720 ft) at the Chateau de Bagatelle, Paris.[42]
  • First airplane passenger:
The Blériot VIII in flight at Issy-les-Moulineaux, pioleted by Robert Esnault-Pelterie, 1908
Armour Company poster showing Calbraith Perry Rodgers's Vin Fiz Flyer transcontinental flight route, autumn 1911
The actual E.5/15 aircraft used by Kurt Wintgens in his pioneering aerial engagement on July 1, 1915, as it appeared at the time of the engagement
The Junkers J 1, the world's first airworthy all-metal aircraft (1915-16)

Heavier than air; 1947–present[edit]

The GlobalFlyer that Steve Fossett piloted around the world, arriving at the Kennedy Space Center, 2006

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Zizhi Tongjian 167. "(永定三年)使元黄头与诸囚自金凤台各乘纸鸱以飞,黄头独能至紫陌乃堕,仍付御史中丞毕义云饿杀之。" (Rendering: In the 3rd year of Yongding, 559, Gao Yang conducted an experiment by having Yuan Huangtou and a few prisoners launch themselves from a tower in Ye, capital of the Northern Qi. Yuan Huangtou was the only one who survived from this flight, as he glided over the city-wall and fell at Zimo [western segment of Ye] safely, but he was later executed.)
  2. ^ Hitti, Philip Khuri (September 6, 2002). History of the Arabs, Revised: 10th Edition. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-63142-0. 
  3. ^ William of Malmesbury – ed. and trans. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson, and M. Winterbottom (1998-9). Gesta regum Anglorum / The history of the English kings. Oxford Medieval Texts.
  4. ^ Who is Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi?
  5. ^ Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi "The First Man to Fly"
  6. ^ Winter, Frank H. (1992). "Who First Flew in a Rocket?", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 45 (July 1992), p. 275-80
  7. ^ Harding, John (2006), Flying's strangest moments: extraordinary but true stories from over one thousand years of aviation history, Robson Publishing, p. 5, ISBN 1-86105-934-5 
  8. ^ Brady, Tim (2000). The American Aviation Experience: A History. SIU Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-809-32371-5. 
  9. ^ Oborne, Michael W. (1998). A History of the Château de la Muette. OECD Publishing. pp. 86–7. ISBN 978-9-264-16161-0. 
  10. ^ Ryan, Craig (2003). The Pre-Astronauts: Manned Ballooning on the Threshold of Space. Naval Institute Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-591-14748-0. 
  11. ^ a b "CIA Balloon and Airship Hall of Fame 2000 Inductees". The International Air Sports Federation. September 2000. Archived from the original on July 2, 2004. 
  12. ^ Hallion, Richard P. (2003). Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age, from Antiquity through the First World War. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-195-16035-2. 
  13. ^ "Boston's first aeronaut". The New York Times. July 10, 1885. 
  14. ^ Byrne, Michael (January 9, 2007). "The Tullamore Balloon Fire - First Air Disaster in History". Offaly Historical and Archaeological Society website. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  15. ^ Fulgence, Marion. "Part 2, Chapter 10: The Necrology of Aeronautics". Wonderful Balloon Ascents. Cassel Petter & Galpin.
  16. ^ Davy 1937, p.46
  17. ^ "Sophie Blanchard – First Woman Balloon Pilot". Historic Wings. July 6, 2012. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. 
  18. ^ "The Giffard Airship, 1852". The Science Museum, London. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ Loving, Matthew (2011). Bullets and Balloons: French Airmail during the Siege of Paris. Franconian Press.
  20. ^ Williams, Amanda (December 12, 2012). "Victorian Paris photographed from the air". The Daily Mail. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Was Brazilian first to fly?". The Leader-Post. November 12, 1986. 
  22. ^ Motoring Illustrated, August 2, 1902, pp 215-216
  23. ^ Manawatu Times, Volume XXVII, Issue 7526, 11 September 1902, Page 3
  24. ^ "The Airship Heritage Trust - R34 - The Record Breaker - Atlantic Crossing". airshipsonline.com. The Airship Heritage Trust. Retrieved June 21, 2017. The Air Ministry had now finally decided to take the R34 to the USA, and a northerly coastal route was decided in case the ship ran out of fuel, then she would never be too far from landfall...Major Scott made the decision to continue onto the agreed landing area at Mineola, Long Island, New York....The R34 landed at 9:54 am after 108 hours 12 minutes flying time. 
  25. ^ Ryan, Craig (2003). The Pre-Astronauts: Manned Ballooning on the Threshold of Space. Naval Institute Press. pp. 40–44. ISBN 978-1-591-14748-0. 
  26. ^ "Trans-Pacific trek beats ballooning flight record". Lawrence Journal-World. February 19, 1995. 
  27. ^ Johnson, Glen (September 24, 1999). "Historic balloon on show". The Free Lance-Star. 
  28. ^ Tinkler, Emma (July 7, 2002). "Fossett lands after first around-the-world solo balloon quest". The Daily Courier. Yavapai County, Arizona. 
  29. ^ "Sir George Cayley". Flyingmachines.org. Retrieved 26 July 2009. 
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  32. ^ Anderson, John D. (1999). A History of Aerodynamics: And Its Impact on Flying Machines. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-521-66955-9. 
  33. ^ Gray, Carrol F. (August 2002). "The First Five Flights". WW1 Aero - The Journal of the Early Aeroplane (117): 26–39. 
  34. ^ Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (April 3, 1959). "Hops and Flights: A roll call of early powered take-offs". Flight. 75 (2619): 468. 
  35. ^ "Flying". Bridgeport Herald. August 18, 1901. 
  36. ^ "Statement Regarding The Gustave Whitehead Claims of Flight". Flying Machines. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "The Case for Gustave Whitehead". Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  38. ^ Duffy, Jonathan (December 12, 2003). "Flights of fancy?". BBC News. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  39. ^ Rodliffe, Geoffrey. "Research". New Zealand Aviation History, AvStop.com. Retrieved Jan. 10, 2016
  40. ^ Howard, Fred (1988). Wilbur and Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers. Courier Dover Publications. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-486-40297-0. 
  41. ^ "The Prize Patrol". Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  42. ^ "A Century of Sporting Achievements". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. November 15, 2006. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. 
  43. ^ Vivian, E. Charles (2004). A History of Aeronautics. [S.l.]: Kessinger Pub. pp. 134–135. ISBN 1-4191-0156-0. 
  44. ^ "This Month in Exploration - May: 100 Years Ago". NASA. Retrieved August 29, 2012. 
  45. ^ Tom D. Crouch (August 29, 2008). "1908: The Year the Airplane Went Public". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved August 29, 2012. 
  46. ^ Crouch, Tom (1982). Blériot XI: The Story of a Classic Aircraft. Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 22. 
  47. ^ AFP (25 July 2009). "English Channel Armada to Mark Centenary of Louis Blériot Flight". Times of Malta. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  48. ^ "Fatal Fall Of Wright Airship". New York Times. September 18, 1908. Retrieved 2010-10-17. Falling from a height of 75 feet, Orville Wright and Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge of the Signal Corps were buried in the wreckage of Wright's aeroplane shortly after 5 o'clock this afternoon. The young army officer died at 8:10 o'clock to-night. Wright is badly hurt, although he probably will recover. 
  49. ^ Pattison, Jo (October 1, 2009). "First to fly across the Channel". BBC News – Kent. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Blériot Tells of his Flight". The New York Times. July 26, 1909. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  51. ^ "The New 'Daily Mail' Prizes". Flight. 5 (223): 393. April 5, 1913. 
  52. ^ Air Trails, July 1953. "The Brave Baroness – First Licensed Ladybird" by Harry Harper.
  53. ^ "First 10 women in the world to earn a pilot license". Institute for Women Of Aviation Worldwide. Retrieved December 5, 2015. 
  54. ^ Thurston, David E. (2000). The World's Most Significant and Magnificent Aircraft: Evolution of the Modern Airplane. SAE. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-768-00537-0. 
  55. ^ "King up in aeroplane". The New York Times. July 16, 1910. 
  56. ^ "Aeroplanes in Collision". New York Times. October 2, 1910. p.11.
  57. ^ Driver, Hugh (1997). The Birth of Military Aviation: Britain, 1903-1914. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-861-93234-4. 
  58. ^ "Eugene Ely's Flight from USS Birmingham, 14 November 1910". Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Eugene Ely's Flight to USS Pennsylvania, 18 January 1911". Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  60. ^ "London To Paris By Aeroplane." Times [London, England] 13 Apr. 1911: 8. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 8 Nov. 2013.
  61. ^ "Month of achievement in aviation". Popular Mechanics: 350. August 1911. 
  62. ^ "Flies over the Rockies". The New York Times. October 1, 1911. 
  63. ^ Hippler, Thomas (2013). "Bombing the People": 1–2. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 
  64. ^ Strother, French (January 1912). "Flying Across The Continent: C. P. Rodgers And The First Aerial Trans-Continental Trip". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXIII: 339–345. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  65. ^ a b Bates, Jim (1990). Parachuting: From Student to Skydiver. Tab Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-830-63406-4. 
  66. ^ Poynter, Dan (1984). The Parachute Manual: A Technical Treatise on Aerodynamic Decelerators. Para Publishing. p. 160. ISBN 9780915516353. 
  67. ^ Wright, Robert K.; Greenwood, John T. (2007). Airborne Forces at War: From Parachute Test Platoon to the 21st Century. Naval Institute Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-591-14028-3. 
  68. ^ "Libya 1911: How an Italian pilot began the air war era". BBC News Website. May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Miss Quimby flies English Channel". The New York Times. April 17, 1912. 
  70. ^ "This day in Irish History 1912: The 1st Flight across the Irish Sea". politics.ie. April 22, 2012. 
  71. ^ "The Naval Review and the Aviators". Flight. IV (20): 442. May 18, 1912. 
  72. ^ a b c Hagedorn, Dan (2008). Conquistadors of the Sky: A History of Aviation in Latin America. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-813-03249-8. 
  73. ^ Diamond, Karen (April 2000). "Classic memories from the world of aerobatics". Air Sports International. Archived from the original on April 24, 2001. 
  74. ^ "Roland Garros Flies Over Mediterranean Sea". Dalje. September 23, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  75. ^ "This Week in USAF and PACAF History – 24-30 November 2008" (PDF). Pacific Air Forces. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2013. 
  76. ^ Glines, C. V. (May 1997). "St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line: World's First Scheduled Airline Using Winged Aircraft". Aviation History. 
  77. ^ Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  78. ^ "Lieut. Gran's Flight To Norway". Flight. VI (293): 837. 7 August 1914. 
  79. ^ Jon Guttman, et al. Pusher Aces of World War 1. London: Osprey Pub Co, 2009. ISBN 978-1846034176 p.9
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  81. ^ James D. Crabtree: On air defense, ISBN 0275947920, Greenwood Publishing Group, page 9
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  83. ^ "Radoje Raka Ljutovac – first person in the world to shoot down an airplane with a cannon". Pečat. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  84. ^ Robson, Pamela (2011). Wild Women: History's Female Rebels, Radicals and Revolutionaries. Pier 9. ISBN 978-1-741-96632-9. 
  85. ^ vanWyngarden, Greg (2006). Osprey Aircraft of the Aces #73: Early German Aces of World War 1. Botley, Oxford UK & New York City, USA: Osprey Publishing. pp. 11 & 12. ISBN 978-1-84176-997-4. 
  86. ^ Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
  87. ^ "First Female Combat Pilot". Guinness World Records Official Web Site. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  88. ^ "1915 - First woman pilot in combat missions as a bomber pilot - Marie Marvingt (France)". Centennial of Women Pilots. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015. In 1915, Marvingt became the first woman in the world to fly combat missions when she became a volunteer pilot flying bombing missions over German-held territory and she received the Croix de Guerre (Military Cross) for her aerial bombing of a German military base in Metz. 
  89. ^ Historic Wings – Online Magazine; Article on Hélène Dutrieu Coupe Femina and Marie Marvingt:, Published on December 21, 2012: http://fly.historicwings.com/2012/12/helene-dutrieux-and-the-coupe-femina Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  90. ^ Lawson, Eric and Jane (1996). The First Air Campaign: August 1914- November 1918. Da Capo Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-306-81213-4. Eugenie Shakhovskaya, a 25 year old Russian princess, was the first female fighter pilot in history. 
  91. ^ "Women Combat Pilots of WW1". Monash University. Retrieved 10 January 2015. Princess Eugenie M. Shakhovskaya was Russia's first woman military pilot. Served with the 1st Field Air Squadron. Unknown if she actually flew any combat missions, and she was ultimately charged with treason and attempting to flee to enemy lines. Sentenced to death by firing squad, sentence commuted to life imprisonment by the Tsar, freed during the Revolution, became chief executioner for Gen. Tchecka and drug addict, shot one of her assistants in a narcotic delerium and was herself shot. 
  92. ^ "300 Women who changed the world". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 January 2015. In Russia, Princess Eugenie Shakhovskaya is the first female military pilot. She flies reconnaissance missions. 
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Bibliography[edit]

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  • Leave No Man Behind: The Saga of Combat Search and Rescue. George Galdorisi, Thomas Phillips. MBI Publishing Company, 2009. ISBN 0-7603-2392-5, ISBN 978-0-7603-2392-2.
  • Interpretive History of Flight. M.J.B Davy. Science Museum, London, 1937.