List of foods named after people

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This is a list of foods and dishes named after people.


Fettuccine Alfredo with chicken (left)


  • Bachwürfel – a cubiform confectionery named after Johann S. Bach, following the style of the Mozartkugel.
  • Baco noir – a hybrid grape, named after its breeder, Maurice Baco.
  • Baldwin apple – Colonel Loammi Baldwin (1745–1807), a commander of militia at the Battle of Lexington, found this apple between 1784 and 1793 while working as a surveyor and engineer on the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts.
  • Chicken Cardinal la BalueCardinal Jean la Balue (1421–1491), a somewhat notorious minister to Louis XI, is remembered in this dish of chicken, crayfish, and mashed potatoes.
  • Barros Luco – is a popular hot sandwich in Chile that includes beef and melted cheese in one of several types of bread. The sandwich is named after Chilean president Ramón Barros Luco, and was coined in the restaurant of the National Congress of Chile, where president Luco always asked for this sandwich.
  • Bartlett pear – The English Williams pear variety was inadvertently renamed by Massachusetts nurseryman Enoch Bartlett, early 19th century. Williams was a 17th-century English horticulturist.
  • Bauru - This popular Brazilian sandwich was created by college student Casimiro Pinto Neto, nicknamed "Bauru."
  • Battenberg cake – probably named after one of the late-19th-century princely Battenberg family living in England, who gave up their German titles during World War I and changed their name to Mountbatten.
  • Béarnaise sauce – although often thought to indicate the region of Béarn, the sauce name may well originate in the nickname of French king Henry IV (1553–1610), "le Grand Béarnais."
  • Béchamel sauce – named to flatter the maître d'Hotel to Louis XIV, Louis de Béchamel, Marquis de Nointel (1630–1703), also a financier and ambassador.
  • Bellini (cocktail)Giovanni Bellini
  • Ham mousseline à la BelmontAugust Belmont (1816–1890) was born in Prussia and emigrated to the U.S. to work for the New York branch of Rothschild's. He became an extremely wealthy banker, married the daughter of Commodore Matthew Perry, and was a leading figure in New York society and American horse racing. This dish was created at Delmonico's by Charles Ranhofer, probably for a dinner given there in Belmont's honor.
  • Eggs Benedict – at least two main accounts.[2] Lemuel Benedict, a New York stockbroker, claimed to have gone to the Waldorf Hotel for breakfast one day in 1894 while suffering a hangover.[1] He asked for a restorative in the form of toast, bacon, poached eggs, and Hollandaise sauce on the side. The maître d' (Oscar of the Waldorf) took an interest in Benedict's order, and adapted it for the Waldorf menu, substituting English muffins and ham, adding truffles, and naming it after Benedict. The other version: in 1893, Charles Ranhofer, head chef of Delmonico's, created the dish for Mr. and/or Mrs. LeGrand Benedict, New York stockbroker[1] and socialite.
  • Eggs Benedict XVI – Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Alois Ratzinger (1927) now has a Germanic version of the original Eggs Benedict named after him. Rye bread and sausage or sauerbraten replace the English muffins and Canadian bacon.[4]
  • Eggs BerliozHector Berlioz (1803–1869), the notable French composer, has his name on a dish of soft-boiled eggs, elevated by the addition of croustades, duchesse potatoes, and truffles and mushrooms in a Madeira sauce.
  • Beyti kebabBeyti Güler, Turkish restaurateur.
  • Bibb lettuceJohn B. Bibb, mid-19th-century amateur horticulturist of Frankfort, Kentucky.
  • Oysters Bienville – this New Orleans dish of baked oysters in a shrimp sauce was named for Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (1680–1767), French governor of Louisiana and founder of New Orleans (1718).
  • Bing cherry – Oregon horticulturist Seth Luelling (or Lewelling) developed the cherry around 1875, with the help of his Manchurian foreman Bing, after whom he named it.
  • Bintje - a very successful potato variety created by Dutch schoolteacher Kornelis Lieuwes De Vries who in 1905 named it after one of his pupils: the then 17 year old Bintje Jansma. In 1976 she died in Franeker (Friesland) at age 88. The Bintje is equally suitable for boiling, baking, and for French fries, mashed potato and potato chips. It is the most widely cultivated potato in France and Belgium.
  • Bismarck herring, Bismarcks, Schlosskäse BismarckOtto von Bismarck (1815–1898), chief figure in the unification of Germany in 1870 and first Chancellor of the German Empire, has many foods named after him, including pickled herring, pastry, and cheese.
  • Eggs in a Mold BizetGeorges Bizet (1838–1875), the French composer of Carmen and other operas, has a consommé named for him as well as these eggs cooked in molds lined with minced pickled tongue, served on artichoke hearts.
  • Sole Bolivar – South American revolutionary Simón Bolívar (1783–1830).
  • Bonaparte's Ribs – an early-19th-century English sweet named after Napoleon Bonaparte
  • BoysenberryRudolf Boysen, botanist and Anaheim park superintendent, developed the loganberry/raspberry/blackberry cross around the 1920s. The berry was subsequently grown, named and marketed in the 1930s by Walter Knott of Knott's Berry Farm in California.
  • Bramley appleMatthew Bramley, butcher who in 1846 bought a cottage in Southwell, Nottinghamshire, England, which had previously belonged to Mary Ann Brailsford, who had planted the first bramley tree there in 1809.
  • Brillat-Savarin cheeseJean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755–1826) has many dishes named for him besides this cheese, including partridge, eggs, garnishes, savory pastries, and the Savarin cake. Brillat-Savarin was the influential French author of The Physiology of Taste, in which he advocated viewing cuisine as a science.
  • Hot Brown – J. Graham Brown, owner of the Brown Hotel, which first served the hot sandwich.
  • Parson Brown orange – Rev. Nathan L. Brown, 19th-century Florida minister and orange grower, developed what was to become the leading commercial orange of the time in the U.S.
  • Bulhão Pato clams – Portuguese poet, essay writer, memorialist, member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, renowned bon vivant and epicurean.
  • Burbank plumLuther Burbank (1849–1926), renowned American horticulturist, bred many new varieties of plants, including this and the Russet Burbank potato.


Five clementines whole, peeled, halved and sectioned
Cumberland sauce atop duck confit crepes


  • DartoisFrançois-Victor-Armand Dartois (1780–1867), once very well known author of French vaudeville plays, is commemorated by this pastry, made in several versions both sweet and savory.
  • Shrimp DeJonghe – shrimp and garlic casserole created at DeJonghe's Hotel, an early-20th-century restaurant in Chicago, owned by brothers from Belgium.
  • Sirloin of beef à la de LessepsFerdinand de Lesseps (1805–1894), French builder of the Suez Canal and first to try to build the Panama Canal, was honored with a dinner at Delmonico's in 1880. A banana dessert at the dinner was afterward termed "à la Panama." Ranhofer named this beef dish after de Lesseps, probably well before de Lesseps' 1889 bankruptcy scandal.
  • Delmonico steak – named for the Delmonico brothers' restaurant Delmonico's, at one time considered the finest restaurant in the United States. Delmonico steak and Lobster à la Delmonico are among the many named for the restaurant and/or its owners. The restaurant's chef Charles Ranhofer (1836–1899) named many dishes after historic figures, celebrities of the day, and favored customers.
  • Chicken DemidovAnatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, 1st Prince of San Donato (1813–1870), from a wealthy Russian industrialist family, lived in Paris from an early age with his mother, Elizaveta Alexandrovna Stroganova, whose family's name is found on this list with Beef Stroganoff. Both were extreme admirers of Napoleon, to the point where Demidov had a brief marriage to Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, niece of Napoleon, and he also bought the Elba house of exile to turn into a museum. He was a patron of artists, and a bon vivant. There are two chicken dishes named after him. This one is elaborately stuffed, smothered, tied up and garnished. The Demidov (also seen as "Demidoff") name is also applied to dishes of rissoles and red snapper.
  • Veal pie à la Dickens – probably around the time the popular novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870) was making his second visit to New York, in 1867, Charles Ranhofer created this dish in his honor at Delmonico's. Ranhofer also had Beet fritters à la Dickens on the menu.
  • Doboschtorte or DobostortaJosef Dobos, well-known Hungarian pastry chef, (born 1847), created the multi-layered chocolate torte in Budapest or Vienna.
  • Dongpo pork – squares of pork, half lean meat and half fat, pan-fried then braised. Named after poet Su Dongpo (1037–1101)
  • Du Barry Cream SoupMadame du Barry (1743–1793), favorite of Louis XV of France after the death of the Marquise de Pompadour in 1764, had several dishes named for her, often involving cauliflower, as in this soup. The cauliflower is said to have been a reference to her elaborate powdered wigs.[10]
  • Sole Dubois – named for the 19th-century French chef Urbain Dubois. (see Veal Prince Orloff)
  • Sole DugléréAdolphe Dugléré (1805–1884), starting as a student of Antonin Carême, became head chef at the famed Café Anglais in Paris in 1866, where he created and named many well-known dishes. Several dishes of fish bear his own name.
  • Salad à la DumasAlexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870), noted French author. Apparently a favorite of Charles Ranhofer, there are also timbales, stewed woodcock, and mushrooms à la Dumas.
  • Duxelles – a mushroom-based sauce or garnish attributed to the great 17th-century French chef François Pierre La Varenne (1615–1678) was probably named for his employer, Nicolas Chalon du Blé, marquis d'Uxelles. A variety of dishes use this name.





  • Hamantash – a small pastry allegedly named for the hat of the cruel Persian official outwitted by Queen Esther and hanged, Haman, in the Book of Esther. The pastries are traditionally eaten at Purim.
  • Hass avocado – in the 1920s, California postal worker Rudolph Hass set out to grow a number of Lyon avocado trees in his backyard. One of the seedlings he bought was a chance variant which produced fruit, his children apparently noticed as unique. Hass patented the variety in 1935, and it now makes up about 75% of U.S. avocado production.
  • Heath bar – the American "English toffee" bar is named for brothers Bayard and Everett Heath, Illinois confectioners who developed it in the 1920s and eventually turned the local favorite into a nationally popular candy bar.
  • Oh Henry! – the candy bar introduced by the Williamson Candy Company in Chicago, 1920, was named for a young man who frequented the company store and was often commandeered to do odd jobs with that call.
  • Hillel Sandwich – a traditional seder food, it consists of horseradish between two pieces of matzot, and was named after the Rabbi Hillel. In temple times, it also contained lamb.
  • Hitlerszalonna – a dense fruit jam that was eaten by Hungarian troops and civilians during World War II. Hungarian soldiers received food provisions from the Germans, and it was often fruit flavored jam instead of bacon. So the soldiers started to refer to this jam as the emperor's bacon, and the "emperor" was Adolf Hitler.
  • Schnitzel à la Holstein – Baron Friedrich von Holstein (1837–1909), primary German diplomat after Otto von Bismarck, serving Kaiser Wilhelm II. The gourmet Holstein liked to have a variety of foods on one plate, and the original dish consisted of a veal cutlet topped by a fried egg, anchovies, capers, and parsley, and surrounded by small piles of caviar, crayfish tails, smoked salmon, mushrooms, and truffles. Contemporary versions tend to be pared down to the cutlet, egg, anchovies and capers.
  • Gâteau Saint-Honoré – pastry named for the French patron saint of bakers, confectioners, and pastry chefs, Saint Honoré or Honorius (died 653), Bishop of Amiens. The pastry chef Chiboust is thought to have invented it in his Paris shop in 1846.
  • Hopjes - are a type of Dutch sweets with a slight coffee and caramel flavour that originated in the 18th century. The hopje is named after Baron Hendrik Hop who was recalled as an envoy in Brussels when the French invaded Belgium in 1792. He moved into rooms above the confectioners Van Haaren & Nieuwerkerk. He was addicted to coffee and the story goes that one night he left his coffee with sugar and cream on the heater, where it evaporated. On tasting the resulting substance, he loved it. His doctor advised him not to drink coffee so he asked the confectioner Theodorus van Haaren to make him some "lumps of coffee". After some experimenting, Van Haaren created a sweet made of coffee, caramel, cream and butter.
  • Hubbard squash – Elizabeth Hubbard, who talked up the qualities of the heretofore unnamed squash in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1842–1843.
  • Omelette St. Hubert – the patron saint of hunters, St. Hubert of Liège (656–727), the son of Bertrand, Duke of Aquitane, has several dishes involving game named after him: this omelette with a game purée, tournedos of venison, a consommé, timbales of game meat and truffles, et al. The first bishop of Liège is said to have converted after seeing a stag with a cross in its antlers while he was hunting on a Good Friday.
  • Humboldt puddingAlexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), explorer and influential naturalist, has one of Ranhofer's elaborate molded puddings named after him.


  • Timbales à la IrvingWashington Irving (1789–1859), the American author, given Charles Ranhofer's penchant for honoring writers with his creations, is the likely source of the name.
  • Iskender kebap – its invention is attributed to İskender Efendi who lived in Bursa in the late 19th century.




  • Crawfish Lafayette en Crêpe – Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834), famed French supporter of the American Revolution, is most likely the name source of this New Orleans dish. Lafayette gingerbread was also a popular cake in the 19th-century U.S., with recipes in many cookbooks.
  • Dartois LaguipièreLaguipière (c. 1750–1812) an influential French chef and mentor of Antonin Câreme, worked for the noted Condé family, Napoleon, and finally Marshal Joachim Murat, whom he accompanied on Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He died on the retreat from Moscow. This double-eponym savory pastry, filled with sweetbreads and truffles (see Dartois above), is one of many dishes with his name, either his own recipes or those of other chefs commemorating him, including consommé, various sauces, beef tournedos and fish.
  • Shrimp Lamaze – developed by chef Johann Lamprecht at Philadelphia's Warwick Hotel. The dish is named after the proprietor of the Warwick Hotel, George Lamaze.
  • Lord Lambourne – an apple cultivar developed in England in about 1907 was introduced in 1923, and named after the then-president of the Royal Horticultural Society.
  • Lamingtons – these small cakes, considered one of Australia's national foods, are usually considered to be named after Charles Cochrane-Baillie, 2nd Baron Lamington, who was governor of Queensland 1896–1901. There are other interesting claims.[12]
  • Lane cake – Named after its inventor Emma Rylander Lane, of Clayton, Alabama, who won first prize with it at the county fair in Columbus, Georgia.
  • General Leclerc pear – the French pear developed in the 1950s and introduced in 1974 is named for Jacques-Philippe Leclerc de Hautecloque (1902–1947), World War II French war hero. General Leclerc, as he was better known, dropped his last name during the Occupation to protect his family.
  • Leibniz-Keks – German butter biscuit named for philosopher and mathematician Leibniz
  • Li Hongzhang hotchpotch – a stew named after Chinese statesman Li Hongzhang (1823–1901)[13]
  • Biff à la Lindström – this Swedish beef dish is thought to be named the man who brought it from Russia to Sweden. Henrik Lindström is said to have been born in St. Petersburg, Russia. Swedish food lore has it that the army officer brought the recipe to the Hotel Witt in Kalmar, Sweden, c. 1862. The beets and capers included may indicate Russian origin or influence.
  • Lindy candy barCharles Lindbergh (1902–1974), the pioneering aviator who was first to fly solo, non-stop, across the Atlantic, had at least two American candy bars named after him; another – the "Winning Lindy."
  • Cream of cardoon soup à la LivingstonDavid Livingstone (1813–1873), Scottish missionary and explorer has this Delmonico's soup named after him, also available in celery.
  • Loganberry – a cross of a blackberry and a raspberry, was accidentally created in 1883 in Santa Cruz, California, by the American lawyer and horticulturist James Harvey Logan.
  • Crab Louis[8] – (pronounced Loo-ey) while Louis XIV is often cited as the inspiration because of his notorious fondness for food, The Davenport Hotel (Spokane) in Spokane, Washington claims Louis Davenport is the name source and inventor. Davenport was a Spokane restaurateur from 1889 on, and opened the hotel in 1914. There are several other alleged creators, including Victor Hirtzler (see Celery Victor).
  • Macaroni LucullusLucullus (c. 106–56 BC), full name Lucius Licinius Lucullus Ponticus, was perhaps the earliest recorded gastronome in the Western world. After a long spell of wars, the Roman general retired to a life of indulgence and opulence, most evident in his gardens and his cuisine. His name has become associated with numerous dishes of the over-the-top sort, using haute cuisine's favorite luxury staples—truffles, foie gras, asparagus tips, artichoke hearts, sweetbreads, cockscombs, game, Madeira, and so on. Macaroni Lucullus incorporates truffles and foie gras.
  • Lussekatter, St. Lucia buns – Swedish saffron buns named for Saint Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), whose name day, December 13, was once considered the longest night of the year. As Lucia means light, the saint was incorporated into the celebration when these buns are traditionally eaten. The Swedish term, Lucia's cats, refers to the bun's curled shape.
  • Luther Burger – a hamburger or cheeseburger with one or more glazed doughnuts in place of the bun was allegedly named for and was a favorite (and possible invention) of singer, songwriter and record producer Luther Vandross (1951–2005).
  • Dean Lyder – a cocktail which is a variation on the perfect Manhattan. It is made with the usual whiskey and equal parts sweet and dry vermouth, but with added orange bitters and zest, giving it a 'big, bold character'. It is named for Courtney Lyder (born 1966), dean of UCLA School of Nursing.[14]


  • Chicken Maintenon – a chicken dish made with lemon and toast named for Louis XIV's mistress Mme. de Maintenon.
  • Mamie Eisenhower fudge – the wife of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mamie Doud Eisenhower (1896–1979) had this candy named after her when she revealed it was a White House favorite. Mamie Eisenhower was First Lady from 1952 to 1960.
  • Mapo tofu – the name Mapo (麻婆) is thought to refer to a (possibly fictional) old pockmarked-face lady[2] by the name of Chen, who invented and sold the dish. It is thus sometimes translated as "Pockmarked-Face Lady's Tofu", or "Pockmarked Mother Chen's Tofu".
  • Sole Marco Polo – the great explorer and traveler Marco Polo (1254–1324) has this dish of sole with lobster and, somewhat oddly, tomato, named after him.
  • À la MaréchaleMarshal's wife style. Usually this term denotes dishes made from tender pieces of meat, such as cutlets, escalopes, supremes, sweetbreads, or fish, which are treated à l'anglais ("English-style"), i.e. coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and sautéed. It is unknown after whom the recipe is named. It is speculated that it could be associated with the Maréchale de Luxembourg (1707–1787), the wife of Charles-François-Frédéric de Montmorency-Luxembourg (1702–1764) and a major society hostess.
  • Margarita – there are many claims for the name of this tequila/lime/orange liqueur cocktail. Dallas socialite Margarita Samas said she invented it in 1948 for one of her Acapulco parties. Enrique Bastate Gutierrez claimed he invented it in Tijuana in the 1940s for Rita Hayworth. Hayworth's real name was Margarita Cansino, and another story connects the drink to her during an earlier time when she was dancing in Tijuana nightclubs under that name. Carlos Herrera said he created and named the cocktail in his Tijuana restaurant in 1938–1939 for Marjorie King. Ms. King was reportedly allergic to all alcohol except tequila, and had asked for something besides a straight shot. Around this same general time period, Nevada bartender Red Hinton said he'd named the cocktail after his girlfriend Margarita Mendez. Other stories exist.
  • Pizza Margherita – Queen Margherita of Savoy (1851–1926) was presented with this pizza in the colors of the Italian flag on a trip to Naples, c. 1889. Many people claimed to have created it.
  • Sole MargueryNicholas Marguery (1834–1910), famed French chef, created and named this dish, along with others, for himself and his restaurant Marguery in Paris.
  • The Marie biscuit, a type of biscuit similar to a rich tea biscuit also known as María biscuit or Maria cookie (Netherlands), was created by the London bakery Peek Freans in 1874 to commemorate the marriage of the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia to the Duke of Edinburgh. It became popular throughout Europe, particularly in Spain where, following the Civil War, the biscuit became a symbol of the country's economic recovery after bakeries produced mass quantities to consume a surplus of wheat.
  • Chicken Maria TheresiaMaria Theresia (1717–1780), Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of Emperor Franz I. Coffee Maria Theresia includes cream and orange liqueur.
  • Consommé Marie StuartMary Stuart (1542–1587), Queen of Scots, was appropriately Frenchified by Ranhofer in naming this dish. She, herself, had adopted Stuart vs. Stewart while living in France.
  • Martha Washington's CakeMartha Washington (1731–1802), wife of George Washington, is remembered for this fruitcake. Her original recipe for her "Great Cake" called for 40 eggs, 5 pounds of fruit, and similar quantities of other ingredients.
  • Bloody Mary – a popular cocktail containing vodka, tomato juice, and usually other spices or flavorings, named after Queen Mary I of England,
  • Poires Mary GardenMary Garden (1874–1967) was a hugely popular opera singer in Europe and the U.S. at the start of the 20th century. Born in Scotland, she emigrated to the U.S. as a child, then came to Paris in 1897 to complete her training. After her 1900 debut at the Opéra-Comique, she was much sought-after by composers for starring roles in their operas. Escoffier made this dish in her honor, and is said to have told a friend once that all his best dishes had been created "for the ladies". (see Melba, Rachel, Réjane, et al. below)
  • Mary Jane – peanut butter and molasses candy bars developed by Charles N. Miller in 1914, and named after his favorite aunt.
  • Mary Thomas – egg-salad and bacon with thin slice of onion within quality slices of toast. Served at Arnold's Bar and Grill and Mullane's Parkside Cafe, both of Cincinnati.
  • Massillon – the small almond pastry is named for noted French bishop and preacher Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1663–1742), a temporary favorite of Louis XIV. The pastry originated in the town of Hyères, where Massillon was born.
  • Pâté chaud ris de veau à la McAllister – most likely, Samuel Ward McAllister (1827–1895) is the name source of the hot veal pâté Charles Ranhofer created at Delmonico's. McAllister was best known for his list of the 400 people he considered New York City society.
  • McIntosh apple – John McIntosh (1777–1846), American-Canadian farmer who discovered the variety in Ontario, Canada in 1796 or 1811.
  • McJordan sandwich – Michael Jordan (1963), The McJordan consisted of a McDonald's Quarter Pounder with bacon and barbecue sauce. It was sold regionally in the Chicago area for a limited time in 1992, at the height of Jordan's career.
  • Peach MelbaDame Nellie Melba (1861–1931). Chef Auguste Escoffier at the Savoy Hotel in 1892 or 1893 heard her sing at Covent Garden and was inspired to create a dessert for her, and which he named after her.
  • Melba toastDame Nellie Melba (1861–1931), Australian soprano, née Mitchell, took her stage name from her hometown of Melbourne. In 1892–1893, she was living at the Savoy Hotel in London, which was then managed by César Ritz and Auguste Escoffier. During an illness, the singer favored some extremely dry toast which was subsequently named for her. Around this same time, Escoffier created the dessert Peach Melba in her honor. There is also a Melba garnish (raspberry sauce) that is an ingredient of Peach Melba.
  • Bisque of shrimps à la Melville – when the great American author Herman Melville (1819–1891) died in New York, he had been almost forgotten for decades. Charles Ranhofer, however, remembered him with this seafood dish.
  • Beef tenderloin minions à la MeyerbeerGiacomo Meyerbeer (1791–1864), the influential 19th-century opera composer, is honored by this dish.
  • Mirepoix – carrot and onion mixture used for sauces and garnishes is thought to be named after Gaston Pierre de Lévis, duc de Mirepoix, 18th-century Marshal of France and one of Louis XV's ambassadors.
  • Modjeskas - A caramel with a marshmallow inside, named after actress Helena Modjesksa.[15]
  • Poulet sauté Montesquieu – culinary tribute to the philosopher and author, Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689–1755), major intellect during the French Enlightenment. There is also a frozen dessert, "Plombière Montesquieu."
  • Potage anglais de poisson à Lady MorganLady Morgan, née Sydney Owenson (1776–1859), a popular Irish novelist, was visiting Baron James Mayer de Rothschild in 1829, when Câreme created this elaborate fish soup in her honor. If you have several days available, you can make it yourself.[16]
  • Mornay sauce – diplomat and writer Philippe de Mornay (1549–1623), a member of Henri IV's court, is often cited as the name source for this popular cheese version of Béchamel sauce. The alternative story is that 19th-century French chef Joseph Voiron invented it and named it after one of his cooks, Mornay, his oldest son.
  • Mozartkugel – Salzburg, the birthplace of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791), is also the place where this marzipan/nougat-filled chocolate was created c. 1890. Also in the composer's honor, Ranhofer created "Galantine of pullet à la Mozart" at Delmonico's.
  • Lamb cutlets MurilloBartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682), the influential Spanish painter, was apparently a favorite artist of Charles Ranhofer.


Nachos in a bowl.
  • Nachos – first created c. 1943 by Ignacio "Nacho" Anaya, the original nachos consisted of fried corn tortillas covered with melted cheddar cheese and jalapeño peppers.[1][17]
  • Napoleon – an alternate name for mille-feuille, was probably not named for the Emperor, but for the city of Naples.
  • Napoleon Brandy – a sort of brandy named for Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Bigarreau Napoleon cherry – unlike the pastry, the French cherry was most likely named after Napoleon Bonaparte, his son Napoleon II, or his nephew Napoleon III. The sweet, white-fleshed (bigarreau) cherry often used in maraschino cherry production fell into the hands of Oregon's Seth Luelling of Bing cherry fame (the Napoleon is a forebear of the Bing), and he renamed it the Royal Anne. Subsequently, the cherry also became known as Queen Anne cherry in North America.
  • Lord Nelson appleAdmiral Horatio Nelson (1758–1805), British hero of the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson also has a dish of mutton cutlets named after him, as well as an early-19th-century boiled sweet (or hard candy) somewhat indelicately called "Nelson's balls".
  • Nesselrode Pudding – Russian diplomat Count Karl Robert von Nesselrode (1780–1862) had several dishes named for him, usually containing chestnuts, like this iced dessert.
  • Lobster Newberg – variously spelled Newburg and Newburgh, and now applied to other seafood besides lobster, this dish is usually attributed to a Captain Ben Wenberg, who brought the recipe he had supposedly found in his travels to Delmonico's in the late 19th century. The chef, Charles Ranhofer, reproduced the dish for him and put it on the restaurant menu as Lobster Wenberg. Allegedly, the two men had a falling-out, Ranhofer took the dish off the menu, and returned it, renamed, only at other customers' insistence.
  • Marshal Ney – the elaborate Ranhofer dessert—molded tiers of meringue shells, vanilla custard, and marzipan—is named after Napoleon's Marshal Michel Ney (1769–1815), who led the retreat from Moscow and was a commander at Waterloo.


  • Potatoes O'Brien – possibly William Smith O'Brien (1803–1864), who led the Irish revolt subsequent to the Great Famine of Ireland is the source of the name.
  • Bath Oliver biscuits – Dr William Oliver (1695–1764) of Bath, England concocted these as a digestive aid for his patients. Oliver had opened a bath for the treatment of gout, and was largely responsible for 18th-century Bath becoming a popular health resort.
  • Salade Olivier – a salad composed of diced vegetables and sometimes meat, bound in mayonnaise, invented in the 1860s by Lucien Olivier, the chef of the Hermitage Restaurant in Moscow.
  • Œufs sur le plat Omer Pasha – the Hungarian-Croatian Mihailo Latas known as Omer Pasha Latas (1806–1871), commander-in-chief of Turkish forces allied with the French and English during the Crimean War had this sort of Hungarian/Turkish dish of eggs named for him. In the U.S., Ranhofer made a dish of hashed mutton Omer Pasha, as well as eggs on a dish.
  • Veal Prince Orloff – Count Gregory Orloff, paramour of tzarina Catherine the Great is often cited. Much more likely, Urbain Dubois, noted 19th-century French chef, created the dish for his veal-hating employer Prince Nicolas Orloff, minister to tzar Nicolas I, hence the multiple sauces and seasonings. Stuffed pheasant à la Prince Orloff was created by Charles Ranhofer.
  • Veal Oscar – Sweden's King Oscar II (1829–1907) The dish was first served at Restaurant Operakällaren, Stockholm, Sweden in 1897 in conjunction with the world fair. It was composed by the French mâitre de cuisine of the Operakällaren restaurant, Paul Edmond Malaise, for the 25th anniversary of the accession of King Oscar II to the throne. Choron sauce that has the color of red as the same as the kings royal mantle is piped in the shape of an "O" around a slice of fried fillet of veal. On top the fillet, a white slice of lobster tail and a slice of black truffle are placed to symbolize the black and white outer trimming on the royal mantle and you create King Oscar's crowned monogram. This is topped with two white sticks of asparagus, forming a Roman number two as for the number of the king being Oscar the 2nd. Contemporary versions may substitute chicken and crab.
  • Oysters Rockefeller – a cooked hors d'ouervre identified with New Orleans, it is named after John D. Rockefeller[2][18]
  • Osmania Biscuit – biscuit named after Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam of Hyderabad[19]


  • Selle d'agneau à la PaganiniNiccolò Paganini (1782–1840), Italian opera composer and brilliant violinist, has this lamb dish named after him, probably by Charles Ranhofer.
  • Parsnips Molly Parkin – Molly Parkin, Welsh artist and novelist. The dish, comprising parsnip, cream, tomatoes and cheese, was created for her by the food writer Denis Curtis in the 1970s.
Hachis Parmentier.
  • Potatoes ParmentierAntoine-Augustin Parmentier (1737–1817), chief proponent in reversing the French public view about the once-despised potato. Parmentier discovered the food value of the vegetable while a prisoner of war in Germany, where the potato had already been accepted.
  • PastillesGiovanni Pastilla, Italian confectioner to Marie de' Medici, is said to have accompanied her to Paris on her marriage to Henri IV, and created some form of the tablets named after him there.
  • Lobster Paul BertPaul Bert (1833–1886) was a French physiologist, diplomat, and politician, but is perhaps best known for his research on the effect of air pressure on the body. Charles Ranhofer was either a friend or fan of the father of aerospace medicine.
  • PavlovaAnna Pavlova (1881–1931), Russian ballerina. Both Australia and New Zealand have claimed to be the source of the meringue ("light as Pavlova") and fruit dessert.
  • Pedro Ximenez – a Vinifera grape, named after the soldier who allegedly brought it to Spain.
  • Dr PepperCharles T. Pepper. The soft drink invented by pharmacist Charles Alderton in 1885 at a Waco, Texas drugstore owned by Wade Morrison is said to be named for Morrison's first employer, who owned a pharmacy in Virginia.
  • Dom Pérignon (wine)Dom Pérignon (1638–1715), (Pierre) a French Benedictine monk, expert winemaker and developer of the first true champagne in the late 17th century.
  • Petre Roman cake - marshmallow and vanilla cream cake named after Petre Roman, the first Prime Minister of Romania after the 1989 revolution.
  • Eggs Picabia – Named by Gertrude Stein in her The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook after Francis Picabia (22 January 1879 – 30 November 1953) and his recipe.
  • Chicken Picasso – this creamy chicken dish was named after Pablo Picasso.
  • Sole Picasso – this fruity fish was named after Pablo Picasso. The dish consists of fried or grilled sole and warm fruit in a ginger-lemon sauce.
  • Pio Quinto – this Nicaraguan dessert was named after Pope Pius V.
  • Pizza Di Rossopizza topped with sliced tomatoes, black olives, mozzarella, eggplant and capsicum. Named after Count Enrico Di Rosso who selected the ingredients to create this variety of vegetarian pizza the colours of which resemble the red and white of the Order of St. George of which the Count is Patron.
  • Pozharsky cutlet (or Pojarski) – Pozharsky family were innkeepers in Torzhok, Russia. Darya Pozharskaya was favored by Tsar Nicholas I for her version of minced veal and chicken cutlets. An especially juicy and tender consistency was achieved by adding butter to minced meat. The originals were reformed on veal chop or chicken wing bones, respectively, for presentation.
  • Rissoles Pompadour – the Marquise de Pompadour, Jeanne Poisson (1721–1764), official paramour of Louis XV from 1745 until her death, has had many dishes named after her besides these savory fried pastries. Mme. Pompadour's interest in cooking is remembered with lamb, sole, chicken, beef, pheasant, garnishes, croquettes, cakes and desserts, created by a number of chefs during and after her life.
  • PralineCésar de Choiseul, Count du Plessis-Praslin (1598–1675), by his officer of the table Lassagne, presented at the court of Louis XIII. The caramelized almond confection was transformed at some point in Louisiana to a pecan-based one. This praline has gone on to be known by another eponym in the U.S.: Aunt Bill's Brown Candy. Aunt Bill's identity is apparently unknown.
  • Princess cake – three Swedish princesses, Margaretha (later Princess of Denmark), Märtha (later Crown Princess of Norway), and Astrid (later Queen of the Belgians).[20]
  • PrinzregententorteLuitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
  • Toronchino Procope – Charles Ranhofer named this ice cream dessert after the Sicilian Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli, whose Café Procope, opening in Paris in 1686, introduced flavored ices to the French.



  • Lamprey à la RabelaisFrançois Rabelais (c. 1484–1553), French monk, turned physician, turned famed writer and satirist, was honored in this dish by Delmonico's chef Charles Ranhofer.
  • Tournedos Rachel – from singing in the streets of Paris as a child, Swiss-born Elisa-Rachel Félix (1821–1858) went on to become known as the greatest French tragedienne of her day. Her stage name Rachel is used for a number of dishes—consommé, eggs, sweetbreads, et al.—many created by Escoffier. In New York City, Charles Ranhofer created "artichokes à la Rachel" in her honor.
  • Ramos Gin FizzHenry C. Ramos, New Orleans bartender, created this cocktail c. 1888, at either Meyer's Restaurant or the Imperial Cabinet Saloon, and named it after himself.
  • Chicken Raphael WeillRaphael Weill (1837–1920) arrived in San Francisco from France at the age of 18. Within a few years he had founded what was to be one of California's largest department stores. Later he helped found the well-known Bohemian Club, which still exists. He liked to cook, and is remembered in San Francisco restaurants with this dish.
  • Reggie BarReggie Jackson (born 1946), American baseball player of the 1970s, had this now-discontinued candy bar named for him.
  • Salad RéjaneGabrielle Réjane was the stage name for Gabrielle-Charlotte Reju (1856–1920), a French actress at the start of the 20th century. Escoffier named several dishes for her, including consommé, sole, and œufs à la neige.
  • Reuben sandwich – possibly Reuben Kolakofsky (1874–1960) made it for a poker group gathered at his restaurant in an Omaha, Nebraska hotel c. 1925, or Arnold Reuben, a New York restaurateur (1883–1970), may have created and named it c. 1914.
  • Rigó Jancsi – the Viennese chocolate and cream pastry[21] is named after the Gypsy violinist, Rigó Jancsi[21] (by Hungarian use, Rigó is his last name, Jancsi his first, called literally 'Blackbird Johnny'). He is perhaps best known for his part in one of the great late-19th-century society scandales. In 1896, Clara Ward, Princesse de Caraman-Chimay. The Princesse de Chimay saw the charming Rigó Jancsi, first violinist playing Hungarian Gypsy music in a Paris restaurant in 1896 while dining with her husband, Prince de Chimay. She ran off with Rigó, married him, divorced him, and later married two other men too.
  • Robert E. Lee Cake – southern U.S. lemon layer cake named for American Civil War General Robert E. Lee (1807–1870).
  • Strawberries Romanoff – although there are a number of claimants for the creation of this dish, including the Hollywood restaurateur self-styled "Prince Michael Romanoff", credit is most often given to Marie-Antoine Carême, when he was chef to tzar Alexander I around 1820. Romanoff was the house name of the Russian rulers.
  • Ronald Reagan's Hamburger SoupRonald Reagan, while President, had this recipe issued publicly in 1986, after he had gotten flak for saying he liked French soups.[2]
  • Ross Sauce – a multipurpose barbecue sauce invented by Scott Ross in Habersham County, Georgia. Scott Ross, a high school chemistry teacher and wrestling coach, says that his sauce "goes great on anything" suggesting salad, popcorn, and almost anything but meats.
  • Tournedos RossiniGioacchino Rossini (1792–1868), Italian composer known almost as well as a gastronome. A friend of Carême, Prince Metternich, et al., Rossini had many dishes named for him: eggs, chicken, soup, salad, cannelloni, sole, risotto, pheasant, and more. Escoffier was responsible for many of these. Charles Ranhofer created "Meringued pancakes à la Rossini."
  • Soufflé Rothschild – a dessert soufflé created by Marie-Antoine Carême for Baron James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868) and Baroness Betty de Rothschild (1805–1886) in the 1820s. The Baron was a notable French banker and diplomat. It was originally flavoured with Goldwasser but is now flavoured with a variety of other liqueurs and spirits including kirsch. This dessert was a favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (1900–2002).
  • Roy Rogers - a non-alcoholic mixed drink made with cola and grenadine syrup, named after actor Roy Rogers (1911-1998).
  • Rumford's SoupBenjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
  • Runeberg torte (Runebergintorttu / Runebergstårta) – named after the Finnish poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804–1877) and his wife, writer Fredrika Runeberg (1807–1879), who invented the pastry. Johan Ludvig Runeberg's birthday, 5 February, is in Finland Runeberg-day and it is celebrated with this almond-pastry. There is also a variation of this called the Fredrika-pastry.
  • Baby Ruth candy bar – most likely, Babe Ruth (1895–1948) was the inspiration for the name. Although the Curtiss Candy Co. has insisted from the beginning that the candy bar was named after a daughter of Grover Cleveland, Ruth Cleveland died in 1904 at the age of 12, while the Baby Ruth was introduced in 1921 right at a time when George Herman Ruth, Jr. had become a baseball superstar. Very early versions of the wrapper offer a baseball glove for 79 cents. Babe Ruth's announced intent to sue the company is probably what drove and perpetuated the dubious cover story.


Beef Stroganoff served atop pasta
  • SachertorteFranz Sacher, Vienna, 1832, working for Prince Metternich.
  • Chicken filets Sadi Carnot – chef Charles Ranhofer almost certainly had French President Marie François Sadi Carnot (1837–1894) in mind, not his uncle, the physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796–1832).
  • Flan Sagan – see Talleyrand below. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord held the title of Prince of Żagań. This flan of truffles, mushrooms, and calves' brains was one of several Sagan-named dishes, usually involving brains, including a garnish and scrambled eggs.
  • Salisbury steakDr. James H. Salisbury (1823–1905), early U.S. health food advocate, created this dish and advised his patients to eat it three times a day, while limiting their intake of "poisonous" vegetables and starches.
  • Beef hash Sam WardSamuel Cutler Ward (1814–1884) was perhaps the most influential Washington lobbyist of the mid-19th century. He was as well known for his entertaining as his political work, apparently agreeing with Talleyrand that dining well was essential to diplomacy. Why Ranhofer named a beef hash after him is open to speculation.
  • SandwichJohn Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792) did not invent the sandwich. Meat between slices of bread had been eaten long before him. But as the often-repeated story goes, his title name was applied to it c. 1762, after he frequently called for the easily handled food while entertaining friends. Their card games then were not interrupted by the need for forks and such.
  • Sarah Bernhardt Cakes – French actress Sarah Bernhardt (1844–1923). The pastry may be Danish in origin. There is a Sole Sarah Bernhardt, and a soufflé. "Sarah Bernhardt" may indicate a dish garnished with a purée of foie gras, and Delmonico's "Sarah Potatoes", by Charles Ranhofer, are most likely named for the actress.
  • Eggs Sardou – Invented at the New Orleans restaurant Antoine's and named after the French dramatist Victorien Sardou
  • Schillerlocken – two quite distinct foods named after the curly hair of the German poet Friedrich von Schiller (1759–1805). One is cream-filled puff pastry cornets; the other is long strips of smoked dogfish belly flaps. Ranhofer named a dessert of pancakes rolled up, sliced, and layered in a mold Schiller pudding.
  • Seckel pear – although little is known about the origin of this American pear, it is generally believed that a Pennsylvania farmer named Seckel discovered the fruit in the Delaware River Valley near Philadelphia, in the 18th or early 19th century.
  • Lobster cutlets à la ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822), the great English poet, drowned off the coast of Italy. Charles Ranhofer remembered him with this.
  • Shirley Temple – the classic children's cocktail of club soda, grenadine, and a maraschino cherry was invented in the late 1930s at Hollywood's Chasen's restaurant for the child star Shirley Temple (1928–2014). A slice of orange and a straw is suggested; the paper parasol is optional.
  • Reinette Simirenko – an apple variety discovered by Ukrainian pomologist Lev Simirenko in his garden and named after his father Platon Simirenko. The origin of this cultivar is unclear. It was one of the most widely grown apple varieties in the Soviet Union.
  • Veal Sinatra – a veal stuffed with a buttery cream sauce, vegetables, meat and/or seafood named after the famous jazz singer Frank Sinatra
  • Soubise sauce – the onion purée or béchamel sauce with added onion purée is probably named after the 18th-century aristocrat Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, and Marshal of France.
  • Eggs StanleySir Henry Morton Stanley (1841–1904), the famed British explorer, has several dishes named for him, usually with onions and a small amount of curry seasoning. A recipe for these poached eggs has a sauce with 1/2 teaspoon of curry powder.
  • Beef Stroganoff – a 19th-century Russian dish, named for a Count Stroganov (possibly Count Pavel Alexandrovich Stroganov or Count Grigory Dmitriyevich Stroganov)
  • SukjunamulShin Suk-ju
  • Crepes Suzette – said to have been created for then-Prince of Wales Edward VII on 31 January 1896, at the Café de Paris in Monte Carlo. When the prince ordered a special dessert for himself and a young female companion, Henri Charpentier, then 16 (1880–1961), produced the flaming crepe dish. Edward reportedly asked that the dessert be named after his companion (Suzette) rather than himself. However, Larousse disputes Charpentier's claim.
  • Ellen Svinhufvud cake – named in 1930s after Ellen Svinhufvud (1869–1953), the wife of President of Finland Pehr Evind Svinhufvud.
  • Sydney Smith's salad dressing – Salad dressing named after founder of the Edinburgh Review, Sydney Smith (1771–1845). He was a clergyman who wrote a poem which describes how to make this salad. Popular in the 19th century among American cooks.


  • Takuan – named after Takuan Sōhō, it is pickled daikon radish
  • Talleyrand – a pineapple savarin is one of many dishes named for the epicurean French statesman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754–1838). An influential negotiator at the Congress of Vienna, Talleyrand considered dining a major part of diplomacy. Antonin Câreme worked for him for a time, and Talleyrand was instrumental in furthering his career. The host's eponymous dishes include sauces, tournedos, veal, croquettes, orange fritters, et al.
  • Tarte TatinStephine Tatin (1838–1917) and Caroline Tatin (1847–1911). In French, the tarte is known as à la Demoiselles Tatin for the sisters who ran the Hotel Tatin in Lamotte-Beuvron, France. Stephine allegedly invented the upside-down tart accidentally in the fall of 1898, but the pastry may be much older.
  • Beef Tegetthoff – Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff (1827–1871), Austrian naval hero, is celebrated by this beef dish with seafood ragoût.
  • Chicken Tetrazzini – named for operatic soprano Luisa Tetrazzini,[22] the "Florentine Nightingale" (1871–1941), and created in San Francisco.
  • Tootsie RollsClara "Tootsie" Hirshfield, the small daughter of Leo Hirshfield, developer of the first paper-wrapped penny candy, in New York, 1896.
  • Biscuit Tortoni – the Italian Tortoni, working at the Café Velloni which had opened in Paris in 1798, bought the place and renamed it the Café Tortoni. It became a very successful restaurant and ice cream parlor in the 19th century. This ice cream dish is said to be one of his creations.
  • General Tso's chicken – Named for General Zuǒ Zōngtáng (1812–1885; variously spelled Tzo, Cho, Zo, Zhou, etc.) of the Qing Dynasty,[22] although it was not contemporaneous with him.




A cross-section view of a Beef Wellington sliced open
  • Waldorf salad – salad made at the Waldorf hotel originally as a joke for a particularly persnickety patron.
  • Wallenberg Steak – Scandinavian dish of minced veal named after the prominent and wealthy Swedish Wallenberg family. Contemporary versions use turkey and moose meat.
  • Wild Duckling à la Walter Scott – dish named for the Scottish writer Walter Scott (1771–1832) includes Dundee marmalade and whisky.
  • Pears Wanamaker – of the Philadelphia merchant Wanamaker family, Rodman Wanamaker (1863–1928) seems most likely to be the inspiration for this dish. The son of John Wanamaker, founder of the family business, Rodman Wanamaker went to Paris in 1889 to oversee the Paris branch of their department store. When he returned to the U.S. in 1899, he kept his Paris home and contacts.
  • Washington PieGeorge Washington (1732–1799), first U.S. president, has this cake named after him, as well as a French sauce or garnish containing corn.
  • Beef WellingtonArthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769–1852), British hero of the Battle of Waterloo, has this dish of beef with pâté, mushrooms, truffles and Madeira sauce, all encased in a pastry crust, named after him. It was probably created by his personal chef. Theories vary: either the Duke had no sense of taste and didn't care what he was eating (leaving his chef to his own devices), or he loved the dish so much that it had to be served at every formal dinner, or the shape of the concoction resembles the Wellington boot.
  • Lobster Wenberg – see Lobster Newberg.
  • Wibele – Jakob Christian Carl Wibel, he invented this sweet pastry in 1763
  • Fraises Wilhelmine – A dessert of strawberries, macerated in orange juice, powdered sugar and kirsch, served with Crème Chantilly, created by Auguste Escoffier and named after Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Wilhelmina Pepermunt, a Dutch peppermint candy, is also named after her.
  • Prince William Cider Apple – Created to celebrate the 21st birthday of Prince William. It was named the "Prince William" after he said in an interview that he was a cider drinker. Large, robust yet mild in nature with a red flush and will make a cider of fair complexion, well balanced with much character. The "Prince William" will be the first of more than 360 varieties of traditional English cider apples grown over the centuries to be given a royal name.
  • Fillets à la Peg WoffingtonPeg Woffington, Irish actress (1720–1760). A recipe exists for "Woffington Sauce" for fish, and also for an orange-based sweet, Corbeilles à la Peg Woffington.
  • Eggs Woodhouse - Named after Woodhouse, long suffering valet of Sterling Archer in the animated sitcom Archer. It is a variation of Eggs Benedict, with the main differences being the addition of artichoke hearts, creamed spinach, bechamel sauce, Ibérico ham, black truffle and beluga caviar.[24][25]
  • Woolton pieFrederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton. Lord Woolton was the British Minister of Food during World War II. This root vegetable pie created by the chefs at London's Savoy Hotel marked Woolton's drive to get people to eat more vegetables instead of meat.


  • Potage à la Xavier – this cream soup with chicken has at least two stories associated with its name. Some sources say that the gourmand Louis XVIII (1755–1824) invented the soup when he was Comte de Provence, and known as Louis Stanislas Xavier de France. Others suggest the soup was named after Francis Xavier (1506–1552), a Basque missionary to Goa and India.



See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Foods you didn't know were named after people". Fox News. June 5, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Skidelsky, William (February 4, 2012). "The 10 best foods named after people – in pictures". The Guardian. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  3. ^ "Oreiller de la Belle Aurore".
  4. ^ Eggs Benedict XVI Archived 2006-02-13 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Gilbar 2008, p. 14.
  6. ^ Gilbar 2008, p. 5.
  7. ^ "Charlotte Russe Cake History, Charlotte Malakoff, Apple Charlotte, Whats Cooking America". 26 May 2015.
  8. ^ a b Gilbar 2008, p. 15.
  9. ^ Claiborne, Craig (19 September 1977). "De Gustibus: More on Lady Curzon's Turtle Soup". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Gilbar 2008, p. 10.
  11. ^ Barry Popik. "The Big Apple: Chicken a la King".
  12. ^ lamingtons
  13. ^ "Anhui Cuisine". China Daily. 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  14. ^ Wright, Bekah (April 1, 2013) "The Lyder Side of Westwood", UCLA Magazine
  15. ^ "History". Bauer's Candies. Retrieved 2022-07-27.
  16. ^ "ESoupSong 49: The Hardest Soup in the World".
  17. ^ Gilbar 2008, pp. 6-7.
  18. ^ Gilbar 2008, p. 7.
  19. ^ "Osmania biscuit". 6 February 2019.
  20. ^ "Traditionsenlig tårtfrossa – Prinsessyra bäddar för prinsesstårtans vecka" (in Swedish). Cisionwire. 2009-09-17. Archived from the original on 2010-10-17. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  21. ^ a b Gundel, Karoly (1992). Gundel's Hungarian cookbook. Budapest: Corvina. ISBN 963-13-3600-X. OCLC 130
  22. ^ a b Gilbar 2008, p. 30.
  23. ^ "Feeding America".
  24. ^ "EGGS WOODHOUSE: An Expensive Dish for Archer Fans".
  25. ^ "ARCHER - HOW TO ARCHER - DVD EXTRAS (SEASON 03)[cookery with archer]". YouTube.


Further reading[edit]