List of fossil primates

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This is a list of fossil primates—extinct primates for which a fossil record exists. Primates are generally thought to have evolved from a small, unspecialized mammal, which probably fed on insects and fruits. However, the precise source of the primates remains controversial and even their arboreal origin has recently been questioned.[1] As it has been suggested, many other mammal orders are arboreal too, but they have not developed the same characteristics as primates. Nowadays, some well known genera, such as Purgatorius and Plesiadapis, thought to be the most ancient primates for a long time, are not usually considered as such by recent authors, who tend to include them in the new order Plesiadapiformes, within superorder Euarchontoglires.[2] Some, to avoid confusions, employ the unranked term Euprimates, which excludes Plesiadapiformes.[3] That denomination is not used here.

There is an academic debate on the time the first primates appeared. One of the earliest probable primate fossils is the problematic Altiatlasius koulchii, perhaps an Omomyid, but perhaps a non-Primate Plesiadapiform, which lived in Morocco, during the Paleocene, around 60 Ma.[1] However, other studies, including molecular clock studies, have estimated the origin of the primate branch to have been in the mid-Cretaceous period, around 85 Ma, that is to say, in the time previous to the extinction of dinosaurs and the successful mammal radiation.[4][5][6] Nevertheless, there seems to be a consensus about the monophyletic origin of the order, although the evidence is not clear.[7] There are no fossils known that can be directly linked to the living African apes, nor any that could be considered representative of the last common ancestor between them and humans.[8]

The order Primates, established by Linnaeus in 1758, includes humans and their immediate ancestors. However, contrarily to the common opinion, most primates do not have especially large brains. Brain size is a derived character, which only appeared with genus Homo, and was lacking in the first hominid. In fact, hominid encephalization quotient is only 1.5 Ma more recent than that of some dolphin species. The encephalization quotient of some cetaceans is therefore higher than that of most primates, including the nearest relatives of humans, such as Australopithecus.[9]

This list follows partly from Walter Carl Hartwig's 2002 book The Fossil Primate Record[10] and John G. Fleagle's 2013 book Primate Adaptation and Evolution (3rd edition).[11] Parentheses around authors' names (and dates) indicates a change in generic name for the fossil, as stated in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).[12] Since the publication of the book as well as the creation of this article, new fossil taxon have been discovered that has helped improved the taxonomy among primates in general.

Strepsirrhini[edit]

Infraorder Adapiformes[edit]

Adapiformes, incertae sedis[edit]

  • Sulaimanius arifi (Gunnell et al., 2008)

Adapoidea[edit]

  • Ekgmowechashalidae Szalay, 1976
    • Bugtilemur Marivaux et al., 2001
      • Bugtilemur mathesoni Marivaux et al., 2001
    • Ekgmowechashala Macdonald, 1963
      • Ekgmowechashala philotau Macdonald, 1963
      • Ekgmowechashala zancanellai Samuels, Albright & Fremd, 2015
    • Gatanthropus Ni et al., 2016
      • Gatanthropus micros Ni et al., 2016
    • Muangthanhinius Marivaux et al., 2006
      • Muangthanhinius siami Marivaux et al., 2006
  • Notharctidae Trouessart, 1879
    • Notharctinae Trouessart, 1879
      • Cantius Simons, 1962
        • Cantius abditus Gingerich & Simmons, 1977
        • Cantius angulatus Cope, 1875
        • Cantius antediluvius Kihm, 1992
        • Cantius eppsi Cooper, 1932
        • Cantius frugivorus Cope, 1875
        • Cantius lohseorum Robinson, 2016
        • Cantius mckennai Gingerich & Simons, 1977
        • Cantius nuniensis Cope, 1881
        • Cantius ralstoni Matthew, 1915
        • Cantius savagei Gingerich, 1977
        • Cantius torresi Gingerich, 1986
      • Copelemur Gingerich & Simons, 1977
        • Copelemur australotutus Beard, 1988
        • Copelemur praetutus Gazin, 1962
        • Copelemur tutus Cope, 1877
      • Hesperolemur Gunnell, 1995
        • Hesperolemur actius Gunnell, 1995
      • Megaceralemur Robinson, 2016
        • Megaceralemur trigonodus (Matthew, 1915)
        • Megaceralemur matthewi Robinson, 2016
      • Notharctus Leidy, 1870
        • Notharctus pugnax Granger & Gregory, 1917
        • Notharctus robustior Leidy, 1870
        • Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy, 1870
        • Notharctus venticolus Osborn, 1902
      • Pelycodus Cope, 1875
        • Pelycodus danielsae Froehlich & Lucas, 1991
        • Pelycodus jarrovii Cope, 1874
      • Pinolophus Robinson, 2016
        • Pinolophus meikei Robinson, 2016
      • Smilodectes Wortman, 1903
        • Smilodectes gingerichi Beard, 1988
        • Smilodectes gracilis Marsh, 1871
        • Smilodectes mcgrewi Gingerich, 1979
    • Cercamoniinae Gingerich, 1975
      • Agerinia Crusafont-Pairo & Golpe-Posse, 1973
        • Agerinia marandati Femenias-Gual, Minwer-Barakat, Marigó, Poyatos-Moré, and Moyà-Solà, 2017
        • Agerinia roselli Crusafont-Pairo & Golpe-Posse, 1973
        • Agerinia smithorum Femenias-Gual, Minwer-Barakat, Marigó, and Moyà-Solà, 2016
      • Anchomomys Stehlin, 1916
        • Anchomomys crocheti Godinot, 1988
        • Anchomomys gaillardi Stehlin, 1916
        • Anchomomys pygmaeus Rütimeyer, 1890
        • Anchomomys quercy Stehlin, 1916
      • Barnesia Thalmann, 1994
        • Barnesia hauboldi Thalmann, 1994
      • Buxella Godinot, 1988
        • Buxella magna Godinot, 1988
        • Buxella prisca Godinot, 1988
      • Donrussellia Szalay, 1976
        • Donrussellia gallica Russell, Louis & Savage, 1967
        • Donrussellia louisi
        • Donrussellia magna
        • Donrussellia provincialis
        • Donrussellia russelli
      • Mazateronodon Marigó, Minwer-Barakat, & Moyà-Solà, 2010
        • Mazateronodon endemicus Marigó, Minwer-Barakat, & Moyà-Solà, 2010
      • Panobius Russell & Gingerich, 1987
        • Panobius afridi Russell & Gingerich, 1987
      • Periconodon Stehlin, 1916
        • Periconodon helleri Schwartz et al., 1983
        • Periconodon helveticus Rütimeyer, 1891
        • Periconodon huerzeleri Gingerich, 1977
        • Periconodon jaegeri Godinot, 1988
        • Periconodon lemoinei Gingerich, 1977
      • Protoadapis Lemoine, 1878
        • Protoadapis angustidens Filhol, 1888
        • Protoadapis brachyrhynchus Stehlin, 1912
        • Protoadapis curvicuspidens Lemoine, 1878
        • Protoadapis ignoratus Thalmann, 1994
        • Protoadapis muechelnensis Thalmann, 1994
        • Protoadapis recticuspidens Lemoine, 1878
        • Protoadapis weigelti Gingerich, 1977
      • Pronycticebus Grandidier, 1904
        • Pronycticebus gaudryi Grandidier, 1904
        • Pronycticebus neglectus Thalmann et al., 1989
  • Asiadapidae Rose et al., 2009
    • Anthrasimias Bajpai et al., 2008
      • Anthrasimias gujaratensis Bajpai et al., 2008
    • Asiadapis Rose et al., 2007
      • Asiadapis cambayensis Rose et al., 2007
      • Asiadapis tapiensis Rose et al., 2018[13]
    • Marcgodinotius Bajpai et al., 2005
      • Marcgodinotius indicus Bajpai et al., 2005
  • Adapidae Trouessart, 1879
    • Adapinae Trouesart, 1879
      • Adapis Cuvier, 1821
        • Adapis bruni
        • Adapis collinsonae Hooker, 1986
        • Adapis parisiensis de Blainville, 1841
        • Adapis sudrei Gingerich, 1977
      • Cryptadapis Godinot, 1984
        • Cryptadapis laharpei Godinot, 1984
        • Cryptadapis tertius Godinot, 1984
      • Leptadapis Gervais, 1876
        • Leptadapis assolicus
        • Leptadapis filholi Godinot & Couette, 2008
        • Leptadapis capellae Crusafont-Pairo, 1967
        • Leptadapis leenhardti Stehlin, 1912
        • Leptadapis magnus Filhol, 1874
        • Leptadapis ruetimeyeri Stehlin, 1912
      • Magnadapis Godinot & Couette, 2008
        • Magnadapis quercyi Godinot & Couette, 2008
        • Magnadapis fredi Godinot & Couette, 2008
        • Magnadapis laurenceae Godinot & Couette, 2008
        • Magnadapis intermedius Godinot & Couette, 2008
      • Microadapis Szalay, 1974
        • Microadapis lynnae
        • Microadapis sciureus Stehlin, 1916
      • Palaeolemur Delfortrie, 1873
        • Palaeolemur betillei Delfortrie, 1873
      • Paradapis Tattersall & Schwartz 1983
        • Paradapis ruetimeyeri Stehlin 1912
        • Paradapis priscus Stehlin, 1916
    • Caenopithecinae Szalay & Delson 1979
      • Adapoides Beard et al., 1994
        • Adapoides troglodytes Beard et al., 1994
      • Afradapis Seiffert et al., 2009
        • Afradapis longicristatus Seiffert et al., 2009
      • Aframonius Simons et al., 1995
        • Aframonius diedes Simons et al., 1995
      • Caenopithecus Rütimeyer, 1862
        • Caenopithecus lemuroides Rütimeyer, 1862
      • Darwinius Franzen et al., 2009
        • Darwinius masillae Franzen et al., 2009
      • Europolemur Weigelt, 1933
        • Europolemur dunaifi Tattersall & Schwartz, 1983
        • Europolemur klatti Weigelt, 1933
        • Europolemur koenigswald Franzen, 1987
      • Godinotia Franzen, 2000
        • Godinotia neglecta Thalmann, Haubold & Martin, 1989
      • Mahgarita Wilson & Szalay, 1976
        • Mahgarita stevensi Wilson & Szalay, 1976
      • Masradapis Seiffert, Boyer, Fleagle, Gunnell, Heesy, Perry, Sallam, 2017
        • Masradapis tahai Seiffert, Boyer, Fleagle, Gunnell, Heesy, Perry, and Sallam, 2017
      • Mescalerolemur Kirk & Williams, 2011
        • Mescalerolemur horneri Kirk & Williams, 2011
  • Sivaladapidae Thomas & Verma, 1979
    • Ramadapis Gilbert, Patel, Singh, Campisano, Fleagle, Rust, and Patnaik, 2017
      • Ramadapis sahnii Gilbert, Patel, Singh, Campisano, Fleagle, Rust, and Patnaik, 2017
    • Sivaladapinae Thomas & Verma, 1979
      • Indraloris Lewis, 1933
        • Indraloris himalayensis Pilgrim, 1932
        • Indraloris kamlialensis Flynn and Morgan, 2005
      • Sinoadapis Wu & Pan, 1985
        • Sinoadapis carnosus Wu & Pan, 1985
      • Sivaladapis Gingerich & Sahni, 1979
        • Sivaladapis nagrii Prasad, 1970
        • Sivaladapis palaendicus Pilgrim, 1932
    • Hoanghoniinae Gingerich et al., 1994
      • Hoanghonius Zdansky, 1930
        • Hoanghonius stehlini Zdansky, 1930
      • Lushius Chow, 1961
        • Lushius qinlinensis Chow, 1961
      • Rencunius Gingerich et al., 1994
        • Rencunius zhoui Gingerich et al., 1994
      • Wailekia Ducrocq et al., 1995
        • Wailekia orientale Ducrocq et al., 1995
    • incertae sedis
      • Guangxilemur Qi & Beard, 1998
        • Guangxilemur tongi Qi & Beard, 1998
      • Kyitchaungia Beard et al. 2007
        • Kyitchaungia takaii Beard et al. 2007
      • Laomaki Ni et al. 2016
        • Laomaki yunnanensis Ni et al. 2016
      • Paukkaungia Beard et al.. 2007
        • Paukkaungia parva Beard et al.. 2007
      • Siamoadapis Chaimanee et al., 2007
        • Siamoadapis maemohensis Chaimanee et al., 2007
      • Yunnanadapis Ni et al. 2016
        • Yunnanadapis folivorus Ni et al. 2016
        • Yunnanadapis imperator Ni et al. 2016

Infraorder Chiromyiformes[edit]

  • Plesiopithecus teras Simons, 1992
  • Propotto leakeyi Simpson, 1967

Infraorder Lemuriformes[edit]

Basal stem group Lemuriformes[edit]

  • Algeripithecus minutus Godinot & Mahboubi, 1992
  • Azibius trerki Sudre, 1975
  • unnamed ('Anchomomys')
  • Djebelemur martinezi Hartenberger & Marandat, 1992
  • Namaia bogenfelsi Pickford et al., 2008
  • Omanodon minor Gheerbrant et al., 1993
  • Shizarodon dhofarensis Gheerbrant et al., 1993
  • Plesiopithecus teras Simons, 1992

Lemuroidea[edit]

Subfossil lemurs:

  • Archaeolemur edwardsi Filhol, 1895
  • Archaeolemur majori Filhol, 1895
  • Hadropithecus stenognathus Lorenz von Liburnau, 1899
  • Mesopropithecus dolichobrachion Simons et al., 1995
  • Mesopropithecus globiceps Lamberton, 1936
  • Mesopropithecus pithecoides Standing, 1905
  • Babakotia radofilai Godfrey et al., 1990
  • Palaeopropithecus ingens G. Grandidier, 1899
  • Palaeopropithecus kelyus Gommery et al., 2010
  • Palaeopropithecus maximus Standing, 1903
  • Archaeoindris fontoynontii Standing, 1909
  • Subgenus: Megaladapis
  • Megaladapis (Megaladapis) grandidieri Standing, 1903
  • Megaladapis (Megaladapis) madagascariensis Forsyth-Major, 1894
  • Subgenus: Peloriadapis
  • Megaladapis (Peloriadapis) edwardsi Grandidier, 1899
  • Pachylemur insignis Filhol, 1895
  • Pachylemur jullyi Lamberton, 1948

Lorisiformes[edit]

  • Karanisia clarki Seiffert et al., 2003
  • Mioeuoticus bishopi Leakey, 1962
  • Mioeuoticus kichotoi Kunimatsu, Tsujikawa, Nakatsukasa, Shimizu, Ogihara, Kikuchi, Nakano, Takano, Morimoto, and Ishida, 2017[21]
  • Mioeuoticus shipmani Phillips & Walker, 2000
  • Nycticeboides simpsoni Jacobs, 1981
  • Komba minor Le Gros Clark & Thomas, 1952
  • Komba robustus Le Gros Clark & Thomas, 1952
  • Komba winamensis McCrossin, 1992
  • Progalago dorae MacInnes, 1943
  • Progalago songhorensis Simpson, 1967
  • Saharagalago misrensis Seiffert et al., 2003
  • Wadilemur elegans Simons, 1997[18]

Haplorhini[edit]

  • Teilhardina asiatica Ni et al., 2004
  • Teilhardina belgica (Teilhard de Chardin, 1927)

Tarsiiformes[edit]

Tarsiiformes, incertae sedis[edit]

  • Altanius orlovi Dashzeveg & McKenna, 1977
  • Altiatlasius koulchii Sigé et al., 1990

Archicebidae[edit]

An artist's reconstruction of Archicebus achilles.
  • Archicebus achilles Ni et al., 2013[22]

Omomyoidea[edit]

  • Baataromomys ulaanus Ni, Beard, Meng, Wang, and Gebo, 2007
  • Kohatius coppensi Russell & Gingerich, 1980
  • Melaneremia bryanti Hooker, 2007
  • Microchoerus creechbarrowensis Hooker, 1986
  • Microchoerus edwardsi Filhol, 1880
  • Microchoerus erinaceus Wood, 1846
  • Microchoerus hookeri Minwer-Barakat, Marigó, Femenias-Gual, Costeur, Esteban-Trivigno, and Moyà-Solà, 2017
  • Microchoerus ornatus Stehlin, 1916
  • Microchoerus wardi Hooker, 1986
  • Necrolemur anadoni Minwer-Barakat, Marigó & Moyà-Solà, 2015
  • Necrolemur antiquus Filhol, 1873
  • Necrolemur zitteli Schlosser, 1887
  • Nannopithex filholi Chantre & Gaillard, 1897
  • Nannopithex humilidens Thalmann, 1994
  • Nannopithex quaylei Hooker, 1986
  • Nannopithex raabi Heller, 1930
  • Nannopithex zuccolae Godinot et al., 1992
  • Pseudoloris crusafonti Louis & Sudre, 1975
  • Pseudoloris godinoti Köhler & Moyà-Solà, 1999
  • Pseudoloris isabenae Crusafont-Pairo, 1967
  • Pseudoloris parvulus Filhol, 1890
  • Anaptomorphus aemulus Cope, 1872
  • Anaptomorphus westi Szalay, 1976
  • Tetonius homunculus Cope, 1882
  • Tetonius matthewi Bown & Rose, 1987
  • Tetonius mckennai Bown & Rose, 1987
  • Absarokius abbotti Loomis, 1906
  • Absarokius australis Bown & Rose, 1987
  • Absarokius nocerai Robinson, 1966
  • Absarokius metoecus Bown & Rose, 1987
  • Absarokius witteri Morris, 1954
  • Teilhardina brandti Gingerich, 1993
  • "Teilhardina" demissa Rose, 1995
  • "Teilhardina" gingerichi Rose, Chew, Dunn, Kraus, Fricke, and Zack, 2012
  • "Teilhardina" tenuicula Jepsen, 1930
  • Bownomomys americanus (Bown, 1976)
  • Bownomomys crassidens )Bown & Rose, 1987)
  • Anemorhysis natronensis Beard et al., 1992
  • Anemorhysis pattersoni Bown & Rose, 1984
  • Anemorhysis pearcei Gazin, 1962
  • Anemorhysis savagei Williams & Covert, 1994
  • Anemorhysis sublettensis Gazin, 1952
  • Anemorhysis wortmani Bown & Rose, 1984
  • Chlororhysis incomptus Bown & Rose, 1984
  • Chlororhysis knightensis Gazin, 1958
  • Pseudotetonius ambiguus Bown, 1974
  • Arapahovius advena Bown & Rose, 1991
  • Arapahovius gazini Savage & Waters, 1978
  • Aycrossia lovei Bown, 1979
  • Strigorhysis bridgerensis Bown, 1979
  • Strigorhysis huerfanensis Bown & Rose, 1987
  • Strigorhysis rugosus Bown, 1979
  • Gazinius amplus Bown, 1979
  • Gazinius bowni Gunnell, 1995
  • Tatmanius szalayi Bown & Rose, 1991
  • Trogolemur amplior Beard et al., 1992
  • Trogolemur fragilis Beard et al., 1992
  • Trogolemur myodes Matthew, 1909
  • Sphacorhysis burntforkensis Gunnell, 1995
  • Walshina esmaraldensis López-Torres, Silcox, and Holroyd, 2018
  • Walshina mcgrewi (Robinson, 1968)
  • Walshina shifrae (Krishtalka, 1978)
  • Brontomomys cerutti Atwater and Kirk, 2018
  • Diablomomys dalquesti Williams and Kirk, 2008
  • Ekwiiyemakius walshi Atwater and Kirk, 2018
  • Gunnelltarsius randalli Atwater and Kirk, 2018
  • Tribe: Omomyiini
  • Omomys carteri Leidy, 1869
  • Omomys lloydi Gazin, 1958
  • Steinius annectens Bown & Rose, 1991
  • Steinius vespertinus Matthew, 1915
  • Chumashius balchi Stock, 1933
  • Tribe: Washakiini
  • Washakius insignis Leidy, 1873
  • Washakius izetti Honey, 1990
  • Washakius laurae Simpson, 1959
  • Washakius woodringi Stock, 1938
  • Shoshonius bowni Honey, 1990
  • Shoshonius cooperi Granger, 1910
  • Dyseolemur pacificus Stock, 1934
  • Loveina minuta Loomis, 1906
  • Loveina wapitiensis Gunnell et al., 1992
  • Loveina zephyri Simspon, 1940
  • Utahia carina Muldoon and Gunnell, 2002
  • Utahia kayi Gazin, 1958
  • Stockia powayensis Gazin, 1958
  • Chipetaia lamporea Rasmussen, 1996
  • Asiomomys changbaicus Wang & Li, 1990
  • Wyomomys bridgeri Gunnell, 1995
  • Ageitodendron matthewi Gunnell, 1995
  • Ourayia hopsoni Robinson, 1968
  • Ourayia uintensis Osborn, 1895
  • Macrotarsius jepseni Robinson, 1968
  • Macrotarsius macrorhysis Beard et al., 1994
  • Macrotarsius montanus Clark, 1941
  • Macrotarsius roederi Kelly, 1990
  • Macrotarsius siegerti Robinson, 1968
  • Hemiacodon casamissus Beard et al., 1992
  • Hemiacodon gracilis Marsh, 1872
  • Yaquius travisi Mason, 1990
  • Uintanius ameghini Wortman, 1904
  • Uintanius rutherfurdi Robinson, 1966
  • Jemezius szalayi Beard, 1987
  • Rooneyia viejaensis Wilson, 1966
  • Hesperotarsius sindhensis Zijlstra, Flynn, and Wessels, 2013
  • Hesperotarsius thailandicus (Ginsburg & Mein, 1987)
  • Oligotarsius rarus Ni et al., 2016
  • "Tarsius" eocaenus Beard et al., 1994
  • "Tarsius" sirindhornae Chaimanee et al., 2011[27]
  • Xanthorhysis tabrumi Beard, 1998

Eosimiiformes[edit]

Afrotarsiidae[edit]

  • Afrasia djijidae Chaimanee et al. 2012
  • Afrotarsius chatrathi Simons & Bown, 1985
  • Afrotarsius libycus Jaeger et al., 2010

Eosimiidae[edit]

  • Eosimias centennicus Beard et al., 1996
  • Eosimias sinensis Beard et al., 1994
  • Bahinia banyueae Li et al., 2016
  • Bahinia pondaungensis Jaeger et al., 1999
  • Phileosimias Marivaux, Antoine, Baqri, Benammi, and Chaimanee, 2005
  • Phileosimias brahuiorum Marivaux, Antoine, Baqri, Benammi, and Chaimanee, 2005
  • Phileosimias kamali Marivaux, Antoine, Baqri, Benammi, and Chaimanee, 2005
  • Phenacopithecus krishtalkai Beard and Wang, 2004
  • Phenacopithecus xueshii Beard and Wang, 2004

Simiiformes[edit]

Simiiformes, incertae sedis[edit]

  • Pondaungia cotteri Pilgrim, 1927
  • Amphipithecus mogaungensis Colbert, 1937
  • Krabia minuta Chaimanee et al., 2013
  • Siamopithecus eocaenus Chaimanee et al., 1997
  • Proteopithecus sylviae Simons, 1989
  • Serapia eocaena Simons, 1992
  • Arsinoea kallimos Simons, 1992
  • Apidium bowni Simons, 1995
  • Apidium moustafai Simons, 1962
  • Apidium phiomense Osborn, 1908
  • Parapithecus fraasi Schlosser, 1910
  • Parapithecus grangeri Simons, 1974
  • Qatrania fleaglei Simons & Kay, 1988
  • Qatrania wingi Simons & kay, 1983
  • Biretia piveteaui Bonis et al., 1988
  • Biretia fayumensis Seiffert et al., 2005
  • Biretia megalopsis Seiffert et al., 2005

Platyrrhini[edit]

  • Platyrrhini, incertae sedis
    • Branisella Hoffstetter, 1969
      • Branisella boliviana Hoffstetter, 1969
  • Atelidae Gray, 1825
    • Pitheciinae Mivart, 1865
    • Tribus: Callicebini
      • Xenothrix Williams & Koopman, 1952
        • Xenothrix mcgregori Williams & Koopman, 1952
      • Antillothrix MacPhee et al., 1995
        • Antillothrix bernensis Rímoli, 1977
      • Paralouatta Rivero & Arredondo, 1991
        • Paralouatta varonai Rivero & Arredondo, 1991
        • Paralouatta marianae
    • Tribus: Pitheciini
      • Soriacebus Fleagle et al., 1987
        • Soriacebus adrianae Fleagle, 1990
        • Soriacebus ameghinorum Fleagle et al., 1987
      • Proteropithecia Kay et al., 1999
        • Proteropithecia neuquenensis Kay et al., 1998
      • Cebupithecia Stirton & Savage, 1951
        • Cebupithecia sarmientoi Stirton & Savage, 1951
      • Nuciruptor Meldrum & Kay, 1997
        • Nuciruptor rubricae Meldrum & Kay, 1997
    • Tribus: Homunculini
      • Homunculus Ameghino, 1891
        • Homunculus patagonicus Ameghino, 1891
      • Carlocebus Fleagle, 1990
        • Carlocebus carmenensis Fleagle, 1990
        • Carlocebus intermedius Fleagle, 1990
    • Atelinae Gray, 1825
    • Tribus: Alouattini
      • Stirtonia Hershkovitz, 1970
        • Stirtonia tatacoensis Stirton, 1951
        • Stirtonia victoriae Kay et al., 1987
    • Tribus: Atelini
      • Caipora Cartelle & Hartwig, 1996
        • Caipora bambuiorum Cartelle & Hartwig, 1996
    • Atelinae, incertae sedis
  • Cebidae Bonaparte, 1831
    • Cebinae Bonaparte, 1831
    • Tribus: Saimiriini
      • Neosaimiri Stirton, 1951
        • Neosaimiri fieldsi Stirton, 1951
      • Laventiana Rosenberger et al., 1991
        • Laventiana annectens Rosenberger et al., 1991
      • Dolichocebus Kraglievich, 1951
        • Dolichocebus gaimanensis Kraglievich, 1951
    • Cebinae, incertae sedis
      • Chilecebus Flynn & al, 1995
        • Chilecebus carrascoensis Flynn & al, 1995
      • Killikaike Tejedor et al., 2006
        • Killikaike blakei Tejedor et al., 2006
    • Aotinae Elliot, 1913
      • Aotus Illiger, 1811
        • Aotus dindensis Setoguchi & Rosenberger, 1987
    • Aotinae, incertae sedis
      • Tremacebus Hershkovitz, 1974
        • Tremacebus harringtoni Rusconi, 1933
    • Callitrichinae Thomas, 1903
    • Tribus: Callimiconi
      • Mohanamico Luchterhand et al., 1986
        • Mohanamico hershkovitzi Luchterhand et al., 1986
    • Callitrichinae, incertae sedis
      • Patasola Kay & Meldrum, 1997
        • Patasola magdalenae Kay & Meldrum, 1997
      • Lagonimico Kay, 1994
        • Lagonimico conclutatus Kay, 1994
      • Micodon Setoguchi & Rosenberger, 1985
        • Micodon kiotensis Setoguchi & Rosenberger, 1985

Catarrhini[edit]

Catarrhini, incertae sedis[edit]
  • Limnopithecus evansi MacInnes, 1943
  • Limnopithecus legetet Hopwood, 1933
  • Kalepithecus songhorensis Andrews, 1978
  • Kalepithecus kogolensis Pickford et al., 2017
  • Kamoyapithecus hamiltoni Madden, 1980
  • Kogolepithecus morotoensis Pickford et al., 2003
Propliothecoidea[edit]
  • Catopithecus browni Simons, 1989
  • Oligopithecus rogeri Gheerbrant et al., 1995
  • Oligopithecus savagei Simons, 1962
  • Talahpithecus parvus Jaeger et. al., 2010
  • Moeripithecus markgrafi Schlosser, 1910
  • Propliopithecus ankeli Simons et al., 1987
  • Propliopithecus chirobates Simons, 1965
  • Propliopithecus haeckeli Schlosser, 1910
  • Aegyptopithecus zeuxis Simons, 1965
Pliopithecoidea[edit]
  • Paidopithex rhenanus Pohlig, 1895
Dendropithecoidea[edit]
  • Dendropithecus macinnesi Le Gros Clark & Leakey, 1950
  • Dendropithecus ugandensis Pickford et al., 2010
  • Micropithecus clarki Fleagle & Simons, 1978
  • Micropithecus leakeyorum Harrison, 1989
  • Simiolus andrewsi Harrison, 2010
  • Simiolus cheptumoae Pickford & Kunimatsu, 2005
  • Simiolus enjiessi Leakey & Leakey, 1987
  • Simiolus minutus Rossie & Hill, 2018[28][29]
Saadanioidea[edit]
Cercopithecoidea[edit]
Hominoidea[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rasmussen, D. T. (2002). "The origin of Primates". In Hartwig, W. C. (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–9. Bibcode:2002prfr.book.....H.
  2. ^ Covert, H. H. (2002). "The earliest fossil Primates and the evolution of Prosimians: Introduction". In Hartwig, W. C. (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13–20. Bibcode:2002prfr.book.....H.
  3. ^ McKenna, M. C. & Bell, S. K. (1997). Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-231-11012-9.
  4. ^ Lee, M. (September 1999). "Molecular Clock Calibrations and Metazoan Divergence Dates". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (3): 385–391. Bibcode:1999JMolE..49..385L. doi:10.1007/PL00006562. PMID 10473780.
  5. ^ Field Museum. "Scientists Push Back Primate Origins From 65 Million To 85 Million Years Ago". Science Daily. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  6. ^ Tavaré, S., Marshall, C. R., Will, O., Soligo, C. & Martin R.D. (April 18, 2002). "Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates". Nature. 416 (6882): 726–729. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..726T. doi:10.1038/416726a. PMID 11961552.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Dawkins, R. (2005). The Ancestor's Tale. A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. Boston, New York: Mariner Books. pp. 160–168.
  8. ^ Willoughby, P. Palaeoanthropology and the place of humans in nature. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2005, 18, 60-91. Pamela Willougby at the time of authorship is Prof of Anthropology at the University of Alberta
  9. ^ Conway Morris, S. (2003). Life's Solution. Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. pp. 245–247.
  10. ^ Hartwig, C. (2002). The Fossil Primate Record. Cambridge University Press.
  11. ^ Fleagle, J.G. (2013). Primate Adaptation and Evolution (3rd ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-123-78633-3. OCLC 820107187.
  12. ^ ICZN (1999). "Article 51. Citation of names of authors". International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Retrieved 2009-05-27.
  13. ^ Kenneth D. Rose; Rachel H. Dunn; Kishor Kumar; Jonathan M.G. Perry; Kristen A. Prufrock; Rajendra S. Rana; Thierry Smith (2018). "New fossils from Tadkeshwar Mine (Gujarat, India) increase primate diversity from the early Eocene Cambay Shale". Journal of Human Evolution. in press: 93–107. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.05.006. PMID 29886006.
  14. ^ Mittermeier, R., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Glander, K., Tattersall, I., Groves, C., Rylands, A., Hapke, A., Ratsimbazafy, J., Mayor, M., Louis, E., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C. & Rasoloarison, R. (December 2008). "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology. 29 (6): 1607–1656. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y. hdl:10161/6237.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Godinot, M. (2010). "Chapter 19: Paleogene Prosimians". In Werdelin, L.; Sanders, W.J (eds.). Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-520-25721-4.
  16. ^ Gregg F. Gunnell; Doug M. Boyer; Anthony R. Friscia; Steven Heritage; Fredrick Kyalo Manthi; Ellen R. Miller; Hesham M. Sallam; Nancy B. Simmons; Nancy J. Stevens; Erik R. Seiffert (2018). "Fossil lemurs from Egypt and Kenya suggest an African origin for Madagascar's aye-aye". Nature Communications. 9: Article number 3193. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05648-w.
  17. ^ Tabuce, R.; Marivaux, L.; Lebrun, R.; Adaci, M.; Bensalah, M.; Fabre, P. -H.; Fara, E.; Gomes Rodrigues, H.; Hautier, L.; Jaeger, J. -J.; Lazzari, V.; Mebrouk, F.; Peigne, S.; Sudre, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Valentin, X.; Mahboubi, M. (2009). "Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: Craniodental evidence" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1676): 4087–4094. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1339. PMC 2821352. PMID 19740889. Lay summaryScience Daily (15 September 2009).
  18. ^ a b Godinot, M. (2010). "Chapter 19: Paleogene Prosimians". In Werdelin, L.; Sanders, W.J (eds.). Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press. p. 327. ISBN 978-0-520-25721-4.
  19. ^ Godinot, M. (2006). "Lemuriform origins as viewed from the fossil record". Folia Primatologica. 77 (6): 446–464. doi:10.1159/000095391. PMID 17053330.
  20. ^ Godinot, M. (2010). "Chapter 19: Paleogene Prosimians". In Werdelin, L.; Sanders, W.J (eds.). Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-520-25721-4.
  21. ^ Yutaka Kunimatsu; Hiroshi Tsujikawa; Masato Nakatsukasa; Daisuke Shimizu; Naomichi Ogihara; Yasuhiro Kikuchi; Yoshihiko Nakano; Tomo Takano; Naoki Morimoto; Hidemi Ishida (2017). "A new species of Mioeuoticus (Lorisiformes, Primates) from the early Middle Miocene of Kenya". Anthropological Science. in press. doi:10.1537/ase.170322.
  22. ^ Ni, X.; Gebo, D. L.; Dagosto, M.; Meng, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Flynn, J. J.; Beard, K. C. (2013). "The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution". Nature. 498 (7452): 60–64. Bibcode:2013Natur.498...60N. doi:10.1038/nature12200. PMID 23739424.
  23. ^ Paul E. Morse; Stephen G.B. Chester; Doug M. Boyer; Thierry Smith; Richard Smith; Paul Gigase; Jonathan I. Bloch (2018). "New fossils, systematics, and biogeography of the oldest known crown primate Teilhardina from the earliest Eocene of Asia, Europe, and North America". Journal of Human Evolution. in press. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.005.
  24. ^ López-Torres, Sergi, Silcox, Mary T., and Holroyd, Patricia A. 2018. New omomyoids (Euprimates, Mammalia) from the late Uintan of southern California, USA, and the question of the extinction of the Paromomyidae (Plesiadapiformes, Primates). Palaeontologia Electronica 21.3.37A 1-28. https://doi.org/10.26879/756 palaeo-electronica.org/content/2018/2309-new-primate-from-california
  25. ^ Amy L. Atwater; E. Christopher Kirk, 2018. New middle Eocene omomyines (Primates, Haplorhini) from San Diego County, California. Journal of Human Evolution in press. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.04.010. PMID 30149995.
  26. ^ Zijlstra, Jelle S.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Wessels, Wilma (2013). "The westernmost tarsier: A new genus and species from the Miocene of Pakistan". Journal of Human Evolution. 65 (5): 544–550. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.06.015. PMID 23928350.
  27. ^ Chaimanee, Y.; Lebrun, R.; Yamee, C.; Jaeger, J.-J. (2011). "A new Middle Miocene tarsier from Thailand and the reconstruction of its orbital morphology using a geometric– morphometric method". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278 (1714): 1956–1963. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2062. PMC 3107645. PMID 21123264.
  28. ^ James B. Rossie; Andrew Hill (2018). "A new species of Simiolus from the middle Miocene of the Tugen Hills, Kenya". Journal of Human Evolution. 125: 50–58. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.09.002. PMID 30502897.
  29. ^ St. Fleur, Nicholas (5 November 2018). "Tiniest Ape Ever Discovered Hints at the Rise of the Monkeys - The newly identified extinct primate weighed slightly less than an average house cat". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 November 2018.

Literature cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

The following is a list of books that provide useful reviews or overviews of primate fossil histories, including (e.g.) diagrams, photos and good referencing.

  • Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E (1985). 'Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective (4th ed.). Boston: Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-673-39013-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book treats humans as primates, and contains very accessible descriptions of primates, their evolution, and fossil history).
  • Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert D.; Pilbeam, David R (Editors). (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human evolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution, including fossil history).
  • Hartwig, Walter Carl (2002. Reprinted 2004). Hartwig, Walter (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press. p. 544. Bibcode:2002prfr.book.....H. ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2. Check date values in: |year= (help) (Needs no real explanation. The title says it all).

External links[edit]