List of galaxies
The following is a list of notable galaxies.
There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group (see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list), on the order of 100,000 in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about 100 to 200 billion in all of the observable universe.
The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae (interstellar clouds) was made in the 1920s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the 1960s the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29,418 galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15 comprising 30,642 items. In the 1980s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed 485 galaxy groups with 3,933 member galaxies. Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July 2007, it has classified over one million galaxy images from The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey.
There is no universal naming convention for galaxies, as they are mostly catalogued before it is established whether the object is or isn't a galaxy. Mostly they are identified by their celestial coordinates together with the name of the observing project (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC, etc.)
- 1 Named galaxies
- 2 Naked-eye galaxies
- 3 Observational firsts
- 4 Prototypes
- 5 Closest and most distant known galaxies by type
- 6 Galaxies by brightness and power
- 7 Galaxies by mass and density
- 8 Field galaxies
- 9 Interacting galaxies
- 10 Galaxies with some other notable feature
- 11 Lists of galaxies
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
This is a list of galaxies that are well known by something other than an entry in a catalog or list, or a set of coordinates, or a systematic designation.
|Image||Galaxy||Constellation||Origin of name||Notes|
|Andromeda||Andromeda||Andromeda, which is shortened from "Andromeda Galaxy", gets its name from the area of the sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda.||Andromeda is the closest big galaxy to the Milky Way and is expected to collide with the Milky Way around 4 billion years from now. The two will eventually merge into a single new galaxy called Milkomeda.|
|Black Eye Galaxy||Coma Berenices||It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of the galaxy's bright nucleus, giving rise to its nicknames of the "Black Eye" or "Evil Eye" galaxy.|
|Bode's Galaxy||Ursa Major||Named for Johann Elert Bode who discovered this galaxy in 1774.|
|Cartwheel Galaxy||Sculptor||Its visual appearance is similar to that of a spoked cartwheel.|
|Cigar Galaxy||Ursa Major||Appears similar in shape to a cigar.|
|Comet Galaxy||Sculptor||This galaxy is named after its unusual appearance, looking like a comet.||The comet effect is caused by tidal stripping by its galaxy cluster, Abell 2667.|
|Cosmos Redshift 7||Sextans||The name of this galaxy is based on a redshift (z) measurement of nearly 7 (actually, z = 6.604).||Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.|
|Hoag's Object||Serpens Caput||This is named after Art Hoag, who discovered this ring galaxy.||It is of the subtype Hoag-type galaxy, and may in fact be a polar-ring galaxy with the ring in the plane of rotation of the central object.|
|Large Magellanic Cloud||Dorado/Mensa||Named after Ferdinand Magellan||This is the fourth largest galaxy in the Local Group, and forms a pair with the SMC, and from recent research, may not be part of the Milky Way system of satellites at all.|
|Small Magellanic Cloud||Tucana||Named after Ferdinand Magellan||This forms a pair with the LMC, and from recent research, may not be part of the Milky Way system of satellites at all.|
|Mayall's Object||Ursa Major||This is named after Nicholas Mayall, of the Lick Observatory, who discovered it.||Also called VV 32 and Arp 148, this is a very peculiar looking object, and is likely to be not one galaxy, but two galaxies undergoing a collision. Event in images is a spindle shape and a ring shape.|
|Milky Way||Sagittarius (centre)||The appearance from Earth of the galaxy – a band of light.||This is our galaxy.|
|Pinwheel Galaxy||Ursa Major||Similar in appearance to a pinwheel (toy).|
|Sombrero Galaxy||Virgo||Similar in appearance to a sombrero.|
|Sunflower Galaxy||Canes Venatici||Appearance|
|Tadpole Galaxy||Draco||The name comes from the resemblance of the galaxy to a tadpole.||This shape resulted from tidal interaction that drew out a long tidal tail.|
|Whirlpool Galaxy||Canes Venatici||From the whirlpool appearance this gravitationally disturbed galaxy exhibits.|
This is a list of galaxies that are visible to the naked-eye, for at the very least, keen-eyed observers in a very dark-sky environment that is high in altitude, during clear and stable weather.
|Milky Way||-6.5 (excluding the Sun[nb 1])||0||Sagittarius (centre)||This is our galaxy. Most things visible to the naked-eye in the sky are part of it, including the Milky Way composing the Zone of Avoidance.|
|Large Magellanic Cloud||0.9||160 kly (50 kpc)||Dorado/Mensa||Visible only from the southern hemisphere. It is also the brightest patch of nebulosity in the sky.|
|Small Magellanic Cloud (NGC 292)||2.7||200 kly (60 kpc)||Tucana||Visible only from the southern hemisphere.|
|Andromeda Galaxy (M31, NGC 224)||3.4||2.5 Mly (780 kpc)||Andromeda||Once called the Great Andromeda Nebula, it is situated in the Andromeda constellation.|
|Triangulum Galaxy (M33, NGC 598)||5.7||2.9 Mly (900 kpc)||Triangulum||Being a diffuse object, its visibility is strongly affected by even small amounts of light pollution, ranging from easily visible in direct vision in truly dark skies to a difficult averted vision object in rural/suburban skies.|
|Centaurus A (NGC 5128)||6.84||13.7 ± 0.9 Mly (4.2 ± 0.3 Mpc)||Centaurus||Centaurus A has been spotted with the naked eye by Stephen James O'Meara.|
|Bode's Galaxy (M81, NGC 3031)||6.94||12 Mly (3.6 Mpc)||Ursa Major||Highly experienced amateur astronomers may be able to see Messier 81 under exceptional observing conditions.|
|Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253)||8.0||11.4 ± 0.7 Mly (3.5 ± 0.2 Mpc)||Sculptor||According to Brian A. Skiff, the naked-eye visibility of this galaxy is discussed in an old Sky & Telescope letter or note from the late 1960s or early 1970s.|
|Messier 83 (NGC 5236)||8.2||14.7 Mly (4.5 Mpc)||Hydra||M83 has reportedly been seen with the naked eye.|
- Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy is not listed, because it is not discernible as being a separate galaxy in the sky.
|First spiral galaxy||Messier 51||Canes Venatici||1845||Lord William Parsons, Earl of Rosse discovered the first spiral nebula from observing M51 (recognition of the spiral shape without the recognition of the object as outside the Milky Way).|
|Notion of galaxy||Milky Way Galaxy & Messier 31||Sagittarius (centre) & Andromeda||1923||Recognition of the Milky Way and the Andromeda nebula as two separate galaxies by Edwin Hubble.|
|First Seyfert galaxy||NGC 1068 (M77)||Cetus||1943 (1908)||The characteristics of Seyfert galaxies were first observed in M77 in 1908, however, Seyferts were defined as a class in 1943.|
|First radio galaxy||Cygnus A||Cygnus||1951/2||Of several items, then called radio stars, Cygnus A was identified with a distant galaxy, being the first of many radio stars to become a radio galaxy.|
|3C273 was the first quasar with its redshift determined, and by some considered the first quasar. 3C48 was the first "radio-star" with an unreadable spectrum, and by others considered the first quasar.|
|First superluminal galactic jet||3C279||Virgo||1971||The jet is emitted by a quasar|
|First low-surface-brightness galaxy||Malin 1||Coma Berenices||1986||Malin 1 was the first verified LSB galaxy. LSB galaxies had been first theorized in 1976.|
|First superluminal jet from a Seyfert||III Zw 2||Pisces||2000|||
This is a list of galaxies that became prototypes for a class of galaxies.
|BL Lac object||BL Lacertae (BL Lac)||Lacerta||This AGN was originally catalogued as a variable star, and "stars" of its type are considered BL Lac objects.|
|Hoag-type Galaxy||Hoag's Object||Serpens Caput||This is the prototype Hoag-type Ring Galaxy|
|Giant LSB galaxy||Malin 1||Coma Berenices||1986|||
|FR II radio galaxy
(double-lobed radio galaxy)
|starburst galaxy.||Cigar Galaxy||Ursa Major|
Closest and most distant known galaxies by type
|Closest galaxy||Canis Major Dwarf||Canis Major||0.025 Mly||Discovered in 2003, a satellite of the Milky Way, slowly being cannibalised by it.|
|Most distant galaxy||GN-z11||Ursa Major||z=11.09||With an estimated distance of about 32 billion light-years, astronomers announced it as the most distant astronomical galaxy known.|
|Closest quasar||3C 273||Virgo||z=0.158||First identified quasar, this is the most commonly accepted nearest quasar.|
|Most distant quasar||ULAS J1120+0641||Leo||z=7.085||Discovered in June 29, 2011 via UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey; first quasar discovered beyond the redshift of 7.|
|Closest radio galaxy||Centaurus A (NGC 5128, PKS 1322-427)||Centaurus||13.7 Mly|||
|Most distant radio galaxy||TN J0924-2201||Hydra||z=5.2|
|Closest Seyfert galaxy||Circinus Galaxy||Circinus||13 Mly||This is also the closest Seyfert 2 galaxy. The closest Seyfert 1 galaxy is NGC 4151.|
|Most distant Seyfert galaxy||z=|
|Closest blazar||Markarian 421 (Mrk 421, Mkn 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452)||Ursa Major||z=0.030||This is a BL Lac object.|
|Most distant known blazar||Q0906+6930||Ursa Major||z=5.47||This is a flat spectrum radio-loud quasar type blazar.|
|Closest BL Lac object||Markarian 421 (Mkn 421, Mrk 421, PKS 1101+384, LEDA 33452)||Ursa Major||z=0.030|||
|Most distant BL Lac object||z=|
|Most distant LINER||z=|
|Most distant LIRG||z=|
|Closest ULIRG||IC 1127 (Arp 220/APG 220)||Serpens Caput||z=0.018|||
|Most distant ULIRG||z=|
|Closest starburst galaxy||Cigar Galaxy (M82, Arp 337/APG 337, 3C 231, Ursa Major A)||Ursa Major||3.2 Mpc|||
|Most distant starburst galaxy||SPT 0243-49||z= 5.698|||
|1||Milky Way Galaxy||0||This is our galaxy, we are part of it.|
|2||Canis Major Dwarf||0.025 Mly|
|3||Virgo Stellar Stream||0.030 Mly|
|4||Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy||0.081 Mly|
|5||Large Magellanic Cloud||0.163 Mly||Largest satellite galaxy of the Milky Way|
|6||Small Magellanic Cloud||0.197 Mly|
|Nearest galaxy||Milky Way||always||0||This is our galaxy|
|Nearest galaxy to our own||Canis Major Dwarf||2003||0.025 Mly||The absolute closest galaxy|
|Nearest dwarf galaxy||Canis Major Dwarf||2003||0.025 Mly|
|Nearest major galaxy to our own||Andromeda Galaxy||always||2.54 Mly||First identified as a separate galaxy in 1923|
|Nearest giant galaxy||Centaurus A||12 Mly|
|Canis Major Dwarf||2003||0.025 Mly|
|Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy||1994 − 2003||0.081 Mly|
|Large Magellanic Cloud||antiquity − 1994||0.163 Mly||This is the upper bound, as it is nearest galaxy observable with the naked-eye.|
|Small Magellanic Cloud||1913–1914||0.197 Mly||This was the first intergalactic distance measured. In 1913, Ejnar Hertzsprung measures the distance to SMC using Cepheid variables. In 1914, he did it for LMC.|
|Andromeda Galaxy||1923||2.5 Mly||This was the first galaxy determined to be not part of the Milky Way.|
Most distant galaxies
|Candidate most remote galaxy (photometric redshift)||UDFj-39546284||2011||z=11.9(?)||This was proposed to be the remotest object known at time of discovery. In late 2012, its distance was revised from z=10.3 to 11.9, however, recent re-analyses suggest it is likely to be at much lower redshift.|
|Most remote galaxy confirmed (spectroscopic redshift)||GN-z11||2016||z=11.09||As of March 2016, GN-z11 was the most distant known galaxy.|
|Most remote quasar||ULAS J1120+0641||2011||z=7.085||This is the undisputed most remote quasar of any type, and the first with a redshift beyond 7.
Further information: List of quasars
|Most distant non-quasar SMG||Baby Boom Galaxy (EQ J100054+023435)||2008||z=4.547|||
|grand-design spiral galaxy||Q2343-BX442||2012||z=2.18|||
|GN-z11||2016 −||z=11.09||Announced March 2016.|
|2015 − 2016||z=8.68||This galaxy's redshift was determined by examining its Lyman-alpha emissions, which were released in August 2015.|
|EGS-zs8-1||2015 − 2015||z=7.730||This was the most distant galaxy as of May 2015.|
|Z8 GND 5296||2013 − 2015||z=7.51|||
|SXDF-NB1006-2||2012 − 2013||z=7.215|||
|GN-108036||2012 − 2012||z=7.213|||
|BDF-3299||2012 − 2013||z=7.109|||
|IOK-1||2006 − 2010||z=6.96||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2009, gamma ray burst GRB 090423 was discovered at z=8.2, taking the title of most distant object. The next galaxy to hold the title also succeeded GRB 090423, that being UDFy-38135539.|
|SDF J132522.3+273520||2005 − 2006||z=6.597||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.|
|SDF J132418.3+271455||2003 − 2005||z=6.578||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery.|
|HCM-6A||2002 − 2003||z=6.56||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z=6.28|
|SSA22−HCM1||1999 − 2002||z=5.74||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. In 2000, the quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2 was discovered at z=5.82, becoming the most remote object in the universe known. This was followed by another quasar, SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 in 2001, the first object exceeding redshift 6, at z=6.28|
|HDF 4-473.0||1998 − 1999||z=5.60||This was the remotest object known at the time of discovery.|
|RD1 (0140+326 RD1)||1998||z=5.34||This was the remotest object known at time of discovery. This was the first object found beyond redshift 5.|
|CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2||1997 − 1998||z=4.92||These were the remotest objects known at the time of discovery. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z=0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a quasar held the record for being the most distant object in the universe. It exceeded the mark set by quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=4.897|
|8C 1435+63||1994 − 1997||z=4.25||This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1247-3406 at z=4.73, discovered in 1991 was the most remote object known. This was the last radio galaxy to hold the title of most distant galaxy. This was the first galaxy, as opposed to quasar, that was found beyond redshift 4.|
|4C 41.17||1990 − 1994||z=3.792||This is a radio galaxy. At the time of its discovery, quasar PC 1158+4635, discovered in 1989, was the most remote object known, at z=4.73 In 1991, quasar PC 1247-3406, became the most remote object known, at z=4.897|
|1 Jy 0902+343 (GB6 B0902+3419, B2 0902+34)||1988 − 1990||z=3.395||This is a radio galaxy. At the time of discovery, quasar Q0051-279 at z=4.43, discovered in 1987, was the most remote object known. In 1989, quasar PC 1158+4635 was discovered at z=4.73, making it the most remote object known. This was the first galaxy discovered above redshift 3. It was also the first galaxy found above redshift 2.|
|3C 256||1984 − 1988||z=1.819||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.|
|3C 241||1984||z=1.617||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.|
|3C 324||1983 − 1984||z=1.206||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar PKS 2000-330, at z=3.78, found in 1982.|
|3C 65||1982 − 1983||z=1.176||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974. In 1982, quasar PKS 2000-330 at z=3.78 became the most remote object.|
|3C 368||1982||z=1.132||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.|
|3C 252||1981 − 1982||z=1.105||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.|
|3C 6.1||1979 -||z=0.840||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.|
|3C 318||1976 -||z=0.752||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.|
|3C 411||1975 -||z=0.469||This is a radio galaxy. At the time, the most remote object was quasar OQ172, at z=3.53, found in 1974.|
|3C 295||1960 -||z=0.461||This is a radio galaxy. This was the remotest object known at time of discovery of its redshift. This was the last non-quasar to hold the title of most distant object known until 1997. In 1964, quasar 3C 147 became the most distant object in the universe known.|
|LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008)||1951 − 1960||z=0.2
|This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at B1950.0 08h 55m 4s +03° 21′ and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).|
|LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069)||1936 -||z=0.13
|The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at B1950.0 14h 30m 6s +31° 46′ apparent magnitude 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.|
|LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021)||1932 -||z=0.075
|This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at B1950.0 07h 05m 0s +35° 04′|
|BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster||1931 − 1932||z=
|BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster||1930 − 1931||z=
|NGC 4860||1929 − 1930||z=0.026
|Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to distance, however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to distance, leading to a seachange, and having this being accepted as an inferred distance.|
|NGC 584 (Dreyer nebula 584)||1921 − 1929||z=0.006
|At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.|
|M104 (NGC 4594)||1913 − 1921||z=0.004
|This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda - which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer distance. Both were measured by Vesto Melvin Slipher. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was originally measured as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.|
|M81||antiquity - 20th century
||11.8 Mly (z=-0.10)||This is the lower bound, as it is remotest galaxy observable with the naked-eye. It is 12 million light-years away. Redshift cannot be used to infer distance, because it is moving toward us faster than cosmological expansion.|
|Messier 101||1930 -||Using the pre-1950s Cepheid measurements, M101 was one of the most distant so measured.|
|Triangulum Galaxy||1924–1930||In 1924, Edwin Hubble announced the distance to M33 Triangulum.|
|Andromeda Galaxy||1923–1924||In 1923, Edwin Hubble measured the distance to Andromeda, and settled the question of whether or not there were galaxies, or if everything was in the Milky Way.|
|Small Magellanic Cloud||1913–1923||This was the first intergalactic distance measured. In 1913, Ejnar Hertzsprung measures the distance to SMC using Cepheid variables.|
- MACS0647-JD, discovered in 2012, with z=10.7, does not appear on this list because it has not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
- UDFy-38135539, discovered in 2009, with z=8.6, does not appear on this list because its claimed redshift is disputed. Follow-up observations have failed to replicate the cited redshift measurement.
- A1689-zD1, discovered in 2008, with z=7.6, does not appear on this list because it has not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
- Abell 68 c1 and Abell 2219 c1, discovered in 2007, with z=9, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed.
- IOK4 and IOK5, discovered in 2007, with z=7, do not appear on this list because they have not been confirmed with a spectroscopic redshift.
- Abell 1835 IR1916, discovered in 2004, with z=10.0, does not appear on this list because its claimed redshift is disputed. Some follow-up observations have failed to find the object at all.
- STIS 123627+621755, discovered in 1999, with z=6.68, does not appear on this list because its redshift was based on an erroneous interpretation of an oxygen emission line as a hydrogen emission line.
- BR1202-0725 LAE, discovered in 1998 at z=5.64 does not appear on the list because it was not definitively pinned. BR1202-0725 (QSO 1202-07) refers to a quasar that the Lyman alpha emitting galaxy is near. The quasar itself lies at z=4.6947
- BaasdR2237-0607 LA1 and BR2237-0607 LA2 were found at z=4.55 while investigating around the quasar BR2237-0607 in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The quasar itself lies at z=4.558
- Two absorption dropouts in the spectrum of quasar BR 1202-07 (QSO 1202-0725, BRI 1202-0725, BRI1202-07) were found, one in early 1996, another later in 1996. Neither of these appear on the list because they were not definitively pinned down at the time. The early one was at z=4.38, the later one at z=4.687, the quasar itself lies at z=4.695
- In 1986, a gravitationally lensed galaxy forming a blue arc was found lensed by galaxy cluster CL 2224-02 (C12224 in some references). However, its redshift was only determined in 1991, at z=2.237, by which time, it would no longer be the most distant galaxy known.
- An absorption drop was discovered in 1985 in the light spectrum of quasar PKS 1614+051 at z=3.21 This does not appear on the list because it was not definitively fixed down. At the time, it was claimed to be the first non-QSO galaxy found beyond redshift 3. The quasar itself is at z=3.197
- From 1964 to 1997, the title of most distant object in the universe was held by a succession of quasars. That list is available at list of quasars.
- In 1958, cluster Cl 0024+1654 and Cl 1447+2619 were estimated to have redshifts of z=0.29 and z=0.35 respectively. However, no galaxy was spectroscopically determined.
Galaxies by brightness and power
|Intrinsically brightest galaxy||Baby Boom Galaxy||[verification needed]||Starburst galaxy located 12 billion light years away|
|Brightest galaxy to the naked eye||Large Magellanic Cloud||Apparent magnitude 0.6||This galaxy has high surface brightness combined with high apparent brightness.|
|Intrinsically faintest galaxy||Boötes Dwarf Galaxy (Boo dSph)||Absolute magnitude -6.75||This does not include dark galaxies.|
|Lowest surface brightness galaxy||Andromeda IX|
|Most luminous galaxy||WISE J224607.57-052635.0||As of May 21, 2015, WISE-J224607.57-052635.0-20150521 is the most luminous galaxy discovered and releases 10,000 times more energy than the Milky Way galaxy, although smaller. Nearly 100 percent of the light escaping from this dusty galaxy is infrared radiation. (Image)|
|Brightest distant galaxy (z > 6)||Cosmos Redshift 7||Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.|
Galaxies by mass and density
|Least massive galaxy||Segue 2||~550,000 MSun||This is not considered a star cluster, as it is held together by the gravitational effects of dark matter rather than just the mutual attraction of the constituent stars, gas and black holes.|
|Most massive galaxy||ESO 146-IG 005||~30×1012 MSun||Central galaxy in Abell 3827, 1.4 Gly distant.|
|Most dense galaxy||M85-HCC1||This is an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy |
|Least dense galaxy|
|Most massive spiral galaxy||ISOHDFS 27||1.04×1012 MSun||The preceding most massive spiral was UGC 12591|
|Least massive galaxy with globular cluster(s)||Andromeda I|||
A field galaxy is a galaxy that does not belong to a larger cluster of galaxies and hence is gravitationally alone.
|The Magellanic Clouds are being tidally disrupted by the Milky Way Galaxy, resulting in the Magellanic Stream drawing a tidal tail away from the LMC and SMC, and the Magellanic Bridge drawing material from the clouds to our galaxy.|
|The smaller galaxy NGC 5195 is tidally interacting with the larger Whirlpool Galaxy, creating its grand design spiral galaxy architecture.|
|These three galaxies interact with each other and draw out tidal tails, which are dense enough to form star clusters. The bridge of gas between these galaxies is known as Arp's Loop.|
|NGC 6872 is a barred spiral galaxy with a grand design spiral nucleus, and distinct well-formed outer barred-spiral architecture, caused by tidal interaction with satellite galaxy IC 4970.|
|Tadpole Galaxy||The Tadpole Galaxy tidally interacted with another galaxy in a close encounter, and remains slightly disrupted, with a long tidal tail.|
|Arp 299 (NGC 3690 & IC 694)||These two galaxies have recently collided and are now both barred irregular galaxies.|
|Mayall's Object||This is a pair of galaxies, one which punched through the other, resulting in a ring galaxy.|
|Antennae Galaxies (Ringtail Galaxy, NGC 4038 & NGC 4039, Arp 244)||2 galaxies||Two spiral galaxies currently starting a collision, tidally interacting, and in the process of merger.|
|Butterfly Galaxies (Siamese Twins Galaxies, NGC 4567 & NGC 4568)||2 galaxies||Two spiral galaxies in the process of starting to merge.|
|Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676, NGC 4676A & NGC 4676B, IC 819 & IC 820, Arp 242)||2 galaxies||Two spiral galaxies currently tidally interacting and in the process of merger.|
|NGC 520||2 galaxies||Two spiral galaxies undergoing collision, in the process of merger.|
|NGC 2207 and IC 2163 (NGC 2207 & IC 2163)||2 galaxies||These are two spiral galaxies starting to collide, in the process of merger.|
|NGC 5090 and NGC 5091 (NGC 5090 & NGC 5091)||2 galaxies||These two galaxies are in the process of colliding and merging.|
|NGC 7318 (Arp 319, NGC 7318A & NGC 7318B)||2 galaxies||These are two starting to collide|
|Four galaxies in CL0958+4702||4 galaxies||These four near-equals at the core of galaxy cluster CL 0958+4702 are in the process of merging.|
|Galaxy protocluster LBG-2377||z=3.03||This was announced as the most distant galaxy merger ever discovered. It is expected that this proto-cluster of galaxies will merge to form a brightest cluster galaxy, and become the core of a larger galaxy cluster.|
|Starfish Galaxy (NGC 6240, IC 4625)||This recently coalesced galaxy still has two prominent nuclei.|
|Disintegrating Galaxy||Consuming Galaxy||Notes|
|Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy||Milky Way Galaxy||The Monoceros Ring is thought to be the tidal tail of the disrupted CMa dg.|
|Virgo Stellar Stream||Milky Way Galaxy||This is thought to be a completely disrupted dwarf galaxy.|
|Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy||Milky Way Galaxy||M54 is thought to be the core of this dwarf galaxy.|
|Omega Centauri||Milky Way Galaxy||This is now categorized a globular cluster of the Milky Way. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that the Milky Way cannibalized.|
|Mayall II||Andromeda Galaxy||This is now categorized a globular cluster of Andromeda. However, it is considered the core of a dwarf galaxy that Andromeda cannibalized.|
Galaxies with some other notable feature
|M87||Virgo||This is the central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster, the central cluster of the Local Supercluster|
|M102||Draco (Ursa Major)||[clarification needed]||This galaxy cannot be definitively identified, with the most likely candidate being NGC 5866, and a good chance of it being a misidentification of M101. Other candidates have also been suggested.|
|NGC 2770||Lynx||"Supernova Factory"||NGC 2770 is referred to as the "Supernova Factory" due to three recent supernovae occurring within it.|
|NGC 3314 (NGC 3314a and NGC 3314b)||Hydra||exact visual alignment||This is a pair of spiral galaxies, one superimposed on another, at two separate and distinct ranges, and unrelated to each other. It is a rare chance visual alignment.|
|ESO 137-001||Triangulum Australe||"tail" feature||Lying in the galaxy cluster Abell 3627, this galaxy is being stripped of its gas by the pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM), due to its high speed traversal through the cluster, and is leaving a high density tail with large amounts of star formation. The tail features the largest amount of star formation outside of a galaxy seen so far. The galaxy has the appearance of a comet, with the head being the galaxy, and a tail of gas and stars.|
|Comet Galaxy||Sculptor||interacting with a galaxy cluster||Lying in galaxy cluster Abell 2667, this spiral galaxy is being tidally stripped of stars and gas through its high speed traversal through the cluster, having the appearance of a comet.|
|4C 37.11||230 Mpc||Perseus||Least separation between binary central black holes, at 24 ly (7.3 pc)||OJ 287 has an inferred pair with a 12-year orbital period, and thus would be much closer than 4C 37.11's pair.|
|SDSS J150636.30+540220.9 ("SDSS J1506+54")||z=0.608||Boötes
15h 06m 36.30s+54° 02′ 20.9″
|Most efficient star production||Most extreme example in the list of moderate-redshift galaxies with the highest density starbursts yet observed found in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data (Diamond-Stanic et al. 2012).|
|Cosmos Redshift 7||z = 6.604 (12.9 billion light-years)||Sextans||Brightest distant galaxy (z > 6)||Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7 is reported to be the brightest of distant galaxies (z > 6) and to contain some of the earliest first stars (first generation; Population III) that produced the chemical elements needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.|
Lists of galaxies
- Local Group
- List of nearest galaxies
- List of polar-ring galaxies
- List of spiral galaxies
- List of quasars
- Using the formula for addition of apparent magnitudes, the added magnitudes of all stars in the Milky Way but our Sun (-6.50) and our Sun (-26.74) differs from the apparent magnitude of just our sun by less than 10^-8
- B.D. Simmons; et al. (2014). "Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions". MNRAS. 445 (4): 3466–3474. arXiv: . Bibcode:2014MNRAS.445.3466S. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu1817.
- Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Darvish, Behnam; Schaerer, Daniel; Mobasher, Bahram; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Santos, Sérgio; Hemmati, Shoubaneh (4 June 2015). "Evidence For POPIII-Like Stellar Populations In The Most Luminous LYMAN-α Emitters At The Epoch Of Re-Ionisation: Spectroscopic Confirmation". The Astrophysical Journal. 808: 139. arXiv: . Bibcode:2015ApJ...808..139S. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/808/2/139.
- Smith, Robert T. (1941). "The Radial Velocity of a Peculiar Nebula". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 53: 187. Bibcode:1941PASP...53..187S. doi:10.1086/125301.
- Burbidge, E. Margaret (1964). "The Strange Extragalactic Systems: Mayall's Object and IC 883". Astrophysical Journal. 140: 1617. Bibcode:1964ApJ...140.1617B. doi:10.1086/148070.
- Baade, W.; Minkowski, R. (1954). "On the Identification of Radio Sources". Astrophysical Journal. 119: 215. Bibcode:1954ApJ...119..215B. doi:10.1086/145813.
- Karen Masters (December 2003). "Curious About Astronomy: Can any galaxies be seen with the naked eye?". Ask an Astronomer. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Magellanic Cloud". Astronomy Knowledge Base. University of Ottawa.
- "The Large Magellanic Cloud, LMC". SEDS.
- "The Small Magellanic Cloud, SMC". SEDS.
- "Messier 31". SEDS.
- John E. Bortle (February 2001). "The Bortle Dark-Sky Scale". Sky & Telescope.
- Barbara Wilson & Larry Mitchell. "The Revised AINTNO 100".
- Stephen Uitti. "Farthest Naked Eye Object". Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Messier 81". SEDS.
- S. J. O'Meara (1998). The Messier Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55332-6.
- Brian Skiff (10 January 1997). "Messier 81 naked-eye". sci.astro.amateur.
- Inglis, Mike. "Galaxies". Patrick Moore’s Practical Astronomy Series: 157–189. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-736-7_4.
- SEDS, Lord Rosse's drawings of M51, his "Question Mark" "Spiral Nebula"
- SEDS, Seyfert Galaxies
- Burbidge, G. (1999). "Baade & Minkowski's Identification of Radio Sources". Astrophysical Journal. 525: 569. Bibcode:1999ApJ...525C.569B.
- Astrophysical Journal, "Identification of the Radio Sources in Cassiopeia (A), Cygnus A, and Puppis A", Baade, W.; Minkowski, R., vol. 119, p.206, January 1954, doi:10.1086/145812 , Bibcode: 1954ApJ...119..206B
- Scientific American, "The Ghostliest Galaxies", GD Bothun, Vol. 276, No. 2, February 1997, pp.40-45, Bibcode: 1997SciAm.276b..40B
- Brunthaler, A.; et al. (2000). "III Zw 2, the first superluminal jet in a Seyfert galaxy". Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters. 357: 45. arXiv: . Bibcode:2000A&A...357L..45B.
- Ken Crosswell, "Malin 1: A Bizarre Galaxy Gets Slightly Less So", 22 January 2007
- Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, "The Structure of Radio Galaxies", Moffet, Alan T., vol. 4, p.145, 1966, doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.04.090166.001045 , Bibcode: 1966ARA&A...4..145M
- Drake, Nadia (March 3, 2016). "Astronomers Spot Most Distant Galaxy—At Least For Now". National Geographic. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Sub-parsec-scale structure and evolution in Centaurus A Introduction ; Tue November 26 15:27:29 PST 1996
- The 2006 Giant Flare in PKS 2155-304 and Unidentified TeV Sources
- Julie McEnery. "Time Variability of the TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from Markarian 421". Iac.es. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- bNet, Ablaze from afar: astronomers may have identified the most distant "blazar" yet, Sept, 2004
- Romani; David Sowards-Emmerd; Lincoln Greenhill; Peter Michelson (2004). "Q0906+6930: The Highest-Redshift Blazar". The Astrophysical Journal. 610: L9–L11. arXiv: . Bibcode:2004ApJ...610L...9R. doi:10.1086/423201.
- Rodríguez Zaurín, J.; Tadhunter, C. N.; González Delgado, R. M. (2008). "Optical spectroscopy of Arp220: the star formation history of the closest ULIRG". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 384 (3): 875–885. arXiv: . Bibcode:2008MNRAS.384..875R. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12658.x.
- Murray, Steven (1999). "ACIS Imaging of the Starburst Galaxy M82". Chandra Proposal ID #01700041: 362. Bibcode:1999cxo..prop..362M.
- Starburst Galaxies: Proceedings of a Workshop (page 27) ; 2001 ; ISBN 3-540-41472-X
- Science Daily, "'Monster' Starburst Galaxies Discovered in Early Universe", NRAO, 13 March 2013 (accessed 13 March 2013)
- J. D. Vieira, et al.; "Dusty starburst galaxies in the early Universe as revealed by gravitational lensing", 11 March 2013, doi:10.1038/nature1200 ; arXiv:1303.2723 ;
- Hubble; "Hubble finds a new contender for galaxy distance record", 26 January 2011
- Wall, Mike (December 12, 2012). "Ancient Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen". Space.com. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Momcheva, Ivelina; Oesch, Pascal A. (2013). "A Tentative Detection of an Emission Line at 1.6 mum for the z ~ 12 Candidate UDFj-39546284". The Astrophysical Journal. 765: L2. arXiv: . Bibcode:2013ApJ...765L...2B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/l2.
- Capak, Peter; Carilli, C. L.; Lee, N.; Aldcroft, T.; Aussel, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Blain, A. (2008). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of an Extreme Starburst at Redshift 4.547". The Astrophysical Journal. 681 (2): L53–L56. arXiv: . Bibcode:2008ApJ...681L..53C. doi:10.1086/590555.
- David R. Law; Alice E. Shapley; Charles C. Steidel; Naveen A. Reddy; Charlotte R. Christensen; Dawn K. Erb (2012-07-18). "High velocity dispersion in a rare grand-design spiral galaxy at redshift z = 2.18". Nature. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- W. M. Keck Observatory (6 August 2015). "A new record: Keck Observatory measures most distant galaxy". Astronomy Now.
- Mike Wall (5 August 2015). "Ancient Galaxy Is Most Distant Ever Found". Space.com.
- Jonathan O'Callaghan & Ellie Zolfagharifard (16 July 2015). "A galaxy that rally IS far, far away: Astronomers confirm star system 13.1 billion light-years away is the most distant known in the universe". Daily Mail (London).
- Oesch, P.A.; et al. (3 May 2015). "A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z=7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE". The Astrophysical Journal. 804: L30. arXiv: . Bibcode:2015ApJ...804L..30O. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L30.
- "Galaxy breaks record for farthest ever seen". Associated Press. CBC News. 6 May 2015.
- Finkelstein, S. L.; Papovich, C.; Dickinson, M.; Song, M.; Tilvi, V.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Mobasher, B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Reddy, N.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Dekel, A.; Fazio, G. G.; Fontana, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Huang, J.-S.; Kocevski, D.; Rafelski, M.; Weiner, B. J.; Willner, S. P. (2013). "A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51". Nature. 502: 524–527. arXiv: . Bibcode:2013Natur.502..524F. doi:10.1038/nature12657.
- Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Iye, Masanori; Ouchi, Masami; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Takashi (2012). "The First Systematic Survey for Lyalpha Emitters at z = 7.3 with Red-sensitive Subaru/Suprime-Cam". The Astrophysical Journal. 752: 114. arXiv: . Bibcode:2012ApJ...752..114S. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/752/2/114.
- Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Mobasher, Bahram; Dickinson, Mark; Penner, Kyle; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Stern, Daniel; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Spinrad, Hyron (2012). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Three z-dropout Galaxies at z = 6.844-7.213: Demographics of Lyalpha Emission in z ~ 7 Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 744: 83. arXiv: . Bibcode:2012ApJ...744...83O. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/83.
- Vanzella, E.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Castellano, M.; Boutsia, K.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Maiolino, R.; Moorwood, A.; Paris, D.; Santini, P. (2011). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshift Beyond 7". The Astrophysical Journal. 730: L35. arXiv: . Bibcode:2011ApJ...730L..35V. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/730/2/l35.
- Lehnert, M. D.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Cuby, J.-G.; Swinbank, A. M.; Morris, S.; Clément, B.; Evans, C. J.; Bremer, M. N.; Basa, S. (2010). "Spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z = 8.6". Nature. 467 (7318): 940–942. arXiv: . Bibcode:2010Natur.467..940L. doi:10.1038/nature09462. PMID 20962840.
- Iye, M; Ota, K; Kashikawa, N; et al. (2006). "A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96". Nature. 443: 186–188. doi:10.1038/nature05104. PMID 16971942.
- Yoshi Taniguchi (2008). "Star Forming Galaxies at z > 5". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 3. arXiv: . doi:10.1017/S1743921308020796.
- PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 57, 165-182, February 25, 2005; The SUBARU Deep Field Project: Lymanα Emitters at a Redshift of 6.6
- BBC News, Most distant galaxy detected, Tuesday, 25 March 2003, 14:28 GMT
- SpaceRef, Subaru Telescope Detects the Most Distant Galaxy Yet and Expects Many More, Monday, March 24, 2003
- Kodaira; Taniguchi; Kashikawa; Kaifu; Ando; Karoji (2003). "The Discovery of Two Lyman-α Emitters Beyond Redshift 6 in the Subaru Deep Field". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- New Scientist, New record for Universe's most distant object, 17:19 14 March 2002
- BBC News, Far away stars light early cosmos, Thursday, 14 March 2002, 11:38 GMT
- Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Capak, P.; Iwamuro, F.; Kneib, J.-P.; Maihara, T.; Motohara, K. (2002). "A Redshift [CLC][ITAL]z[/ITAL][/CLC] = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370". The Astrophysical Journal. 568 (2): L75–L79. arXiv: . Bibcode:2002ApJ...568L..75H. doi:10.1086/340424.
- K2.1 HCM 6A — Discovery of a redshift z = 6.56 galaxy lying behind the cluster Abell 370
- Hu, Esther M.; McMahon, Richard G.; Cowie, Lennox L. (1999). "An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at [CLC][ITAL]z[/ITAL][/CLC] = 5.74". The Astrophysical Journal. 522: L9–L12. arXiv: . Bibcode:1999ApJ...522L...9H. doi:10.1086/312205.
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 111: 1475–1502, 1999 December; SEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR DISTANT GALAXIES; INTRODUCTION
- New York Times, Peering Back in Time, Astronomers Glimpse Galaxies Aborning, October 20, 1998
- Astronomy Picture of the Day, A Baby Galaxy, March 24, 1998
- Arjun Dey; Hyron Spinrad; Daniel Stern; Graham; Chaffee (1998). "A Galaxy at z=5.34". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- A New Most Distant Object: z = 5.34
- Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Tran, Kim-Vy (1997). "A Pair of Lensed Galaxies at [CLC][ITAL]z[/ITAL][/CLC] = 4.92 in the Field of CL 1358+62". The Astrophysical Journal. 486 (2): L75–L78. arXiv: . Bibcode:1997ApJ...486L..75F. doi:10.1086/310844.
- Astronomy Picture of the Day, Behind CL1358+62: A New Farthest Object, July 31, 1997
- "Astrophysics and Space Science" 1999, 269/270, 165-181 ; GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT - 8. Z > 5 GALAXIES ; Garth Illingworth
- Wil van Breugel; Carlos De Breuck; Adam Stanford; Huub Röttgering; George Miley; Daniel Stern; Dante Minniti; Chris Carilli (1999). "Ultra-Steep Spectrum Radio Galaxies at Hy Redshifts". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- Hyron Spinrad; Arjun Dey; Graham (1995). "Keck Observations of the Most Distant Galaxy: 8C1435+63 at z=4.25". The Astrophysical Journal. 438: L51. arXiv: . Bibcode:1995ApJ...438L..51S. doi:10.1086/187713.
- New Scientist, Galaxy hunters close to the edge, 5 November 1994
- Miley, G. K.; Chambers, K. C.; van Breugel, W. J. M.; Macchetto, F. (1992). "Hubble Space Telescope imaging of distant galaxies - 4C 41.17 at Z = 3.8". Astrophysical Journal. 401: L69. Bibcode:1992ApJ...401L..69M. doi:10.1086/186673.
- Chambers, K. C.; Miley, G. K.; van Breugel, W. J. M. (1990). "4C 41.17 - A radio galaxy at a redshift of 3.8". Astrophysical Journal. 363: 21. Bibcode:1990ApJ...363...21C. doi:10.1086/169316.
- Science News, Farthest galaxy is cosmic question - 0902+34 April 23, 1988
- Science News, Two distant galaxies provide new puzzles - 4c 41.17, B2 09021+34, November 14, 1992
- Paola Mazzei; Gianfranco De Zotti (1995). "Dust in High Redshift Radio Galaxies and the Early Evolution of Spheroidal Galaxies". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- Le Fevre, O.; Hammer, F.; Nottale, L.; Mazure, A.; Christian, C. (1988). "Peculiar morphology of the high-redshift radio galaxies 3C 13 and 3C 256 in subarcsecond seeing". Astrophysical Journal. 324: L1. Bibcode:1988ApJ...324L...1L. doi:10.1086/185078.
- Lilly, S. J.; Longair, M. S. (1984). "Stellar populations in distant radio galaxies". Royal Astronomical Society. 211: 833–855. Bibcode:1984MNRAS.211..833L. doi:10.1093/mnras/211.4.833.
- Longair, M. S. (1984). "The Most Distant Galaxies". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 94: 97. Bibcode:1984JBAA...94...97L.
- "3C324 - Most Distant Galaxy". Bibcode:1983S&T....65..321S. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Smith, H. E.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Spinrad, H.; Grueff, G.; Vigotti, M. (1979). "Spectrophotometry of three high-redshift radio galaxies - 3C 6.1, 3C 265, and 3C 352". The Astrophysical Journal. 231: 307. Bibcode:1979ApJ...231..307S. doi:10.1086/157194.
- The Discovery of Radio Galaxies and Quasars
- McCarthy, P J (1993). "High Redshift Radio Galaxies". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 31: 639–688. Bibcode:1993ARA&A..31..639M. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.003231.
- Sandage, Allan (1961). "The Ability of the 200-INCH Telescope to Discriminate Between Selected World Models". Astrophysical Journal. 133: 355. Bibcode:1961ApJ...133..355S. doi:10.1086/147041.
- Hubble, E. P. (1953). "The law of red shifts (George Darwin Lecture)". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 113: 658–666. Bibcode:1953MNRAS.113..658H. doi:10.1093/mnras/113.6.658.
- OBSERVATIONAL TESTS OF WORLD MODELS; 6.1. Local Tests for Linearity of the Redshift-Distance Relation ; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988. 26: 561-630
- Humason, M. L.; Mayall, N. U.; Sandage, A. R. (1956). "Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae". Astron. J. 61: 97. Bibcode:1956AJ.....61...97H. doi:10.1086/107297.
- "1053 May 8 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society". The Observatory. 73: 97. 1953. Bibcode:1953Obs....73...97.
- Merrill, Paul W. (1958). "From Atoms to Galaxies". Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets. 7: 393. Bibcode:1958ASPL....7..393M.
- Bolton, J. G. (1969). "Extragalactic Radio Sources". Astronomical Journal. 74: 131. Bibcode:1969AJ.....74..131B. doi:10.1086/110786. A&AAid:AAA001.141.093
- Humason, M. L. (1936). "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Astrophysical Journal. 83: 10. Bibcode:1936ApJ....83...10H. doi:10.1086/143696.
- THE FIRST 50 YEARS AT PALOMAR: 1949–1999 ; The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics; 5.2.1. The Mount Wilson Years ; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1999. 37: 445-486
- Chant, C. A. (1932). "Notes and Queries (Doings at Mount Wilson-Ritchey's Photographic Telescope-Infra-red Photographic Plates)". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 26: 180. Bibcode:1932JRASC..26..180C.
- Humason, Milton L. (1931). "Apparent Velocity-Shifts in the Spectra of Faint Nebulae". Astrophysical Journal. 74: 35. Bibcode:1931ApJ....74...35H. doi:10.1086/143287.
- Hubble, Edwin; Humason, Milton L. (1931). "The Velocity-Distance Relation among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Astrophysical Journal. 74: 43. Bibcode:1931ApJ....74...43H. doi:10.1086/143323.
- Humason, M. L. (1931). "The Large Apparent Velocities of Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets. 1: 149. Bibcode:1931ASPL....1..149H.
- Humason, M. L. (1930). "The Rayton short-focus spectrographic objective". Astrophys. J. 71: 351. Bibcode:1930ApJ....71..351H. doi:10.1086/143255.
- Trimble, Virginia (1996). "H_0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant, 1925–1975". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 108: 1073. Bibcode:1996PASP..108.1073T. doi:10.1086/133837.
- "The Berkeley Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, June 20–21, 1929". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 41: 244. 1929. Bibcode:1929PASP...41..244.. doi:10.1086/123945.
- From the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Volume 15 : March 15, 1929 : Number 3 ; THE LARGE RADIAL VELOCITY OF N. G. C. 7619 ; January 17, 1929
- THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA / JOURNAL DE LA SOCIÉTÉ ROYALE D'ASTRONOMIE DU CANADA; Vol. 83, No.6 December 1989 Whole No. 621 ; EDWIN HUBBLE 1889–1953
- National Academy of Sciences; Biographical Memoirs: V. 52 - VESTO MELVIN SLIPHER; ISBN 0-309-03099-4
- Bailey, S. I. (1920). "Comet Skjellerup". Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 739. 739: 1. Bibcode:1920BHarO.739....1B.
- New York Times, DREYER NEBULA NO. 584 INCONCEIVABLY DISTANT; Dr. Slipher Says the Celestial Speed Champion Is 'Many Millions of Light Years' Away. ; January 19, 1921, Wednesday
- New York Times, NEBULA DREYER BREAKS ALL SKY SPEED RECORDS; Portion of the Constellation of Cetus Is Rushing Along at Rate of 1,240 Miles a Second. ; January 18, 1921, Tuesday
- Coe, Dan; Zitrin, Adi; Carrasco, Mauricio; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton; Bouwens, Rychard; Broadhurst, Tom; Monna, Anna; Host, Ole; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Ford, Holland; Moustakas, John; van der Wel, Arjen; Donahue, Megan; Rodney, Steven A.; Benítez, Narciso; Jouvel, Stephanie; Seitz, Stella; Kelson, Daniel D.; Rosati, Piero (2013). "CLASH: Three Strongly Lensed Images of a Candidate z ≈ 11 Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal. 762: 32. arXiv: . Bibcode:2013ApJ...762...32C. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/762/1/32.
- Lehnert, M. D.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Cuby, J.-G.; Swinbank, A. M.; Morris, S.; Clément, B.; Evans, C. J.; Bremer, M. N.; Basa, S. (2010). "Spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z = 8.6". Nature. 467 (7318): 940–942. arXiv: . Bibcode:2010Natur.467..940L. doi:10.1038/nature09462. PMID 20962840.
- New Scientist, Baby galaxies sighted at dawn of universe, 22:34 10 July 2007
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lab scientists revoke status of space object
- Hsiao-Wen Chen; Lanzetta; Sebastian Pascarelle; Noriaki Yahata (2000). "The Unusual Spectral Energy Distribution of a Galaxy Previously Reported to be at Redshift 6.68". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- BBC News, Hubble spies most distant object, Thursday, April 15, 1999
- Hu; McMahon (1996). "Detection of Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at Redshift z=4.55". Nature. 382 (6588): 231–233. arXiv: . Bibcode:1996Natur.382..231H. doi:10.1038/382231a0.
- 31/01/02 ; "DAZLE NEAR IR NARROW BAND IMAGER" (PDF). (570 KB) ; DAZLE-IoA-Doc-0002
- ESO Press Release 11/95, ESO Astronomers Detect a Galaxy at the Edge of the Universe, 15 September 1995
- New Scientist, Trouble at the edge of time, 21 October 1995
- Wampler, E. J.; et al. (1996). "High resolution observations of the QSO BR 1202-0725: deuterium and ionic abundances at redshifts above z=4". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 316: 33. arXiv: . Bibcode:1996A&A...316...33W.
- Elston, Richard; Bechtold, Jill; Hill, Gary J.; Ge, Jian (1996). "A Redshift 4.38 MG II Absorber toward BR 1202-0725". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 456: L13. Bibcode:1996ApJ...456L..13E. doi:10.1086/309853.
- Smail, I.; Ellis, R. S.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Soucail, G.; Mellier, Y.; Giraud, E. (1993). "The Nature of Star Formation in Lensed Galaxies at High Redshift". R.a.s. Monthly Notices V.263. 263: 628–640. Bibcode:1993MNRAS.263..628S. doi:10.1093/mnras/263.3.628.
- Gravitational Lenses II: Galaxy Clusters as Lenses
- Djorgovski, S.; Strauss, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; McCarthy, Patrick; Perley, R. A. (1987). "A galaxy at a redshift of 3.215 - Further studies of the PKS 1614+051 system". Astronomical Journal. 93: 1318. Bibcode:1987AJ.....93.1318D. doi:10.1086/114414. ISSN 0004-6256.
- NED, Searching NED for object "3C 123"
- Spinrad, H. (1975). "3C 123: a distant first-ranked cluster galaxy at z = 0.637". Astrophys. J. 199: L3. Bibcode:1975ApJ...199L...3S. doi:10.1086/181835.
- Staff (May 21, 2015). "PIA19339: Dusty 'Sunrise' at Core of Galaxy (Artist's Concept)". NASA. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Staff (21 May 2015). "WISE spacecraft discovers most luminous galaxy in universe". PhysOrg. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Overbye, Dennis (17 June 2015). "Astronomers Report Finding Earliest Stars That Enriched Cosmos". New York Times. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Sci-News.com, "Segue 2: Most Lightweight Galaxy in Universe", Natali Anderson, 11 June 2013 (accessed 11 June 2013)
- The Astrophysical Journal, "SEGUE 2: The Least Massive Gaalxy", Evan N. Kirby, Michael Boylan-Kolchin, Judith G. Cohen, Marla Geha, James S. Bullock, Manoj Kaplinghat, Vol.770, No.1, 2013 June, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/770/1/16 ; Bibcode: 2013ApJ...770...16K ; arXiv:1304.6080
- Astronomy Now, "Heavyweight galaxy is king of its cluster", Keith Cooper, 13 May 2010 (accessed 9 March 2013)
- Research.gov, "Astronomers Discover Most Massive Galaxy Yet, Formed by 'Galactic Cannibalism'" (accessed 9 March 2013)
- "Undergraduates discover the densest galaxies known". Space Daily. 29 July 2015.
- ESO Press Release 25/00 , Most Massive Spiral Galaxy Known in the Universe , 8 December 2000
- Grebel (2000). "Star Clusters in Local Group Galaxies". ASP Conference Series. 211: 262–269. arXiv: . Bibcode:2000ASPC..211..262G.
- Chandra X-Ray Observatory at Havard, "Abell 644 and SDSS J1021+1312: How Often do Giant Black Holes Become Hyperactive?", 20 December 2010 (accessed 7 July 2012)
- Sky and Telescope, Stars in the Middle of Nowhere, 10 January 2008
- Sky and Telescope, Galaxy Monster Mash, 9 August 2007
- ABC News, Found! Oldest galaxy pile-up, Wednesday, 9 April 2008
- Cooke, Jeff; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bullock, James S.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Wolfe, Arthur M. (2008). "A Candidate Brightest Protocluster Galaxy atz= 3.03". The Astrophysical Journal. 681 (2): L57–L60. arXiv: . Bibcode:2008ApJ...681L..57C. doi:10.1086/590406.
- "Black hole found in Omega Centauri". UPI.com. 10 April 2008.
- "Local Large-Scale Structure". Hayden Planetarium. 15 September 2008.
- Goldman, Stuart (28 September 2007). "New Stars in a Galaxy's Wake". Sky & Telescope.
- "Orphan' Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail" (Press release). NASA. 20 September 2007.
- Sun; Donahue; Voit (2007). "H-alpha tail, intracluster HII regions and star-formation: ESO137-001 in Abell 3627". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- Fraser Cain (20 September 2007). "Galaxy Leaves New Stars Behind in its Death Plunge". Universe Today.
- Geach et al., A Redline Starburst: CO(2–1) Observations of an Eddington-Limited Galaxy Reveal Star Formation At Its Most Extreme Draft version 27 February 2013
- Wolfram Research: Scientific Astronomer Documentations - Brightest Galaxies
- 1956 Catalogue of Galaxy Redshifts: Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae by Milton L. Humason, Nicholas U. Mayall, Allan Sandage
- 1936 Catalogue of Galaxy Redshifts: The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic Nebulae by Milton L. Humason
- 1925 Catalogue of Galaxy Redshifts: [ ] by Vesto Slipher
- (1917) First Catalogue of Galaxy Redshifts: Nebulae by Vesto Slipher