List of gamma-ray bursts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a list of significant gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) listed in chronological order. GRBs are named after the date on which they were detected: the first two numbers correspond to the year, the second two numbers to the month, and the last two numbers to the day.

List[edit]

Burst Position Redshift Detected by Notes
GRB 670702 Vela 4 First GRB detected
GRB 790305b The first observed SGR megaflare, a specific type of short GRB.
GRB 830801 Brightest GRB detected
GRB 970228 z = 0.695[Ref 1] BeppoSAX First X-ray afterglow, first optical afterglow
GRB 970402 RA 14h 50.1m
Dec −69° 20′
BeppoSAX From an X-ray source never seen before in the constellation Circinus.[Ref 2]
GRB 970508 z = 0.835 BeppoSAX First redshift, first radio afterglow
GRB 971214 z = 3.4 BATSE The first GRB at z > 1; the most luminous of the earliest few GRBs.
GRB 980425 z = 0.008[Ref 3] BATSE The closest GRB to date and the first associated with a supernova.
GRB 990123 R.A. 15h 25m 29s
Decl. 44° 45′ 30″[Ref 4]
z = 1.6 BeppoSAX First burst observed simultaneously in optical and gamma-rays. Brightest observed afterglow before the launch of Swift.
GRB 991216 BATSE First burst detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory[1]
GRB 030329 z = 0.168[Ref 5] HETE-2 The closest "classical" long GRB to Earth and the most thoroughly studied afterglow to date.
GRB 050509B z = 0.225 Swift First short burst with a detected afterglow and a possible host galaxy (not unique).
GRB 050709 z = 0.161[Ref 6] HETE-2 First short burst with a detected optical counterpart.
GRB 050724 z = 0.258[Ref 7] Swift First short burst with a detected radio, optical, and X-ray counterpart, as well as an unambiguous association with an elliptical galaxy.
GRB 060218 z = 0.0331[Ref 8] Swift First GRB with an accompanying supernova which could be tracked starting immediately after the burst.
GRB 060614 R.A. 21h 23m 27.0s
Decl. −53° 02′ 02″
z = 0.125 Swift Either a long-duration burst in which the presence of a bright supernova is ruled out, or a short-duration burst with extremely long-lasting gamma-ray emission.
GRB 080319B z = 0.937 Swift The most (optically) luminous event of any nature observed in the universe to date. By far the brightest optical afterglow of any gamma-ray burst.
GRB 080916C z = 4.35[Ref 9] Fermi The most energetic gamma-ray burst observed to date.
GRB 090423 R.A. 09h 55m 33.08s
Decl. +18° 08′ 58.9″
z = 8.2 Swift Remains the record holder for most distant observed object in the universe with spectroscopic confirmation.

[2] [Ref 10]

GRB 101225A R.A. 00h 00m 47.51s
Decl. +44° 36′ 01.1″
0.33 Swift 28 minutes duration. Also known as the "Christmas burst".
GRB 130427A R.A. 11h 32m 32.84s
Decl. +27° 41″ 56.2
0.34 Swift hours duration

Extremes[edit]

GRB Extremes
Title GRB Data Notes
Least distant GRB 980425 z = 0.0085
Most distant with photometric redshift estimate GRB 090429B z = 9.4 [3]
Most distant with spectroscopic redshift estimate GRB 090423 z = 8.2 [2]
Least Luminous
Most Luminous GRB 080916C Eiso = 8.8 × 1047 Joule
Longest duration GRB 111209A Duration = at least 7 hours
Shortest duration GRB 820405 Duration = 12 ms
Most distant naked-eye GRB GRB 080319B Apparent magnitude: 5.7
z=0.937
[4][5]
Closest naked-eye GRB

Firsts[edit]

GRB Firsts
Title GRB Date Data Notes
First GRB detected GRB 670702 1967 July 2 [4]
First GRB identified GRB 781104 1978 November 4 Venera-11, Venera-12, Prognoz-7, ISEE-3, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Vela
First long duration GRB discovered
First short duration GRB discovered
First hard spectrum GRB discovered
First soft spectrum GRB discovered
First GRB whose distance was determined GRB 970508 z=0.835 [6]
First GRB discovered with a radio afterglow GRB 970508 [6]
First GRB discovered with an optical afterglow GRB 970228 February 28, 1997 02:58 UTC [6]
First GRB discovered with an X-ray afterglow GRB 780506 [7]
First GRB linked to a supernova GRB 980425 25 April 1998 21:49 UTC SN 1998bw GRB 030329 definitively linked SNe with GRBs, being associated with the hypernova SN 2003dh [6][8]
First GRB of naked-eye strength GRB 080319B 2008 March 19 06:12 UTC Apparent magnitude: 5.7 The first GRB bright enough to be visible to amateur astronomers with low powered scopes was GRB 990123 at magnitude 9 [4][5][6]

Most distant GRB[edit]

GRBs z>6
GRB Distance Notes
GRB 090429B z=9.4 [3] (photometric redshift)
GRB 090423 z=8.2 [9]
GRB 080913 z=6.7 [9]
GRB 060116 z=6.60 The high foreground extinction for this event makes this photometric redshift estimate very uncertain.[10]
GRB 140515A z=6.33 [11]
GRB 050904 z=6.295 [12]

GRBs z>6 are used to explore the reionization era

Most Distant GRB Titleholders
GRB Date Distance Notes
GRB 090429B May 2011 — z=9.4 The GRB was observed in 2009, however its distance was not announced until 2011.[3]
GRB 090423 April 2009 — May 2011 z=8.2 This was the first GRB to become the most distant object in the universe.[9]
GRB 080913 September 2008 — April 2009 z=6.7 [9][13]
GRB 050904 September 2005 — September 2008 z=6.29 [12][13][14]
GRB 000131 January 2000 — September 2005 z=4.50 [14][15][16]
GRB 971214 December 1997 — January 2000 z=3.42 [6][15][16]
GRB 970508 May 1997 — December 1997 z=0.835 First GRB with its distance determined [6]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "The Universe Lights Up on Beethoven's Birthday". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 30 December 1999. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  2. ^ a b A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z~8.2Template:Http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Natur.461.1254T
  3. ^ a b c Space Daily, Explosion Helps Researcher Spot Universe's Most Distant Object, 27 May 2011
  4. ^ a b c "The Incredible Gamma Ray Burst of 2008" PDF (922 KB), T. Dockweiler, Science Newsletter - June 2008 . Retrieved 2009 11 11.
  5. ^ a b The Astrophysical Journal, "Observations of the Naked-Eye GRB 080319B: Implications of Nature's Brightest Explosion", Volume 691, Issue 1, pp. 723-737 (2009), doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/1/723, Bibcode2009ApJ...691..723B
  6. ^ a b c d e f g The ING Newsletter, "Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows: Surprises from the Sky", P. Vreeswijk, N. Tanvir, T. Galama, No.2 - March 2000 (accessed 2009/11/11)
  7. ^ arXiv, "The X-Ray Characteristics of a Classical Gamma-Ray Burst and its Afterglow", A. Connors, G. J. Hueter, 9 Jun 1998 doi:10.1086/305815 (accessed 2009 Nov 11)
  8. ^ SpaceDaily, "Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked", Jun 22, 2003 . Retrieved 2009 11 November.
  9. ^ a b c d New Scientist, "Most distant object in the universe spotted", Rachel Courtland, 22:32 27 April 2009 . Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7400
  12. ^ a b New Scientist, "Blazing gamma-ray burst is most distant ever", Jeff Hecht, 11:47 13 September 2005 . Retrieved 2009 November 11.
  13. ^ a b New Scientist, "Cosmic explosion is most distant ever seen", Maggie McKee, 01:22 20 September 2008 (accessed 11/11/2009)
  14. ^ a b Nature, "A photometric redshift of z = 6.39 plus/minus 0.12 for GRB 050904", Issue 440, pp. 181-183 (9 March 2006), doi:10.1038/nature04552 PMID 16525465 . Retrieved 11 11 2009.
  15. ^ a b ESA, "Yet another record: Ulysses detects most distant gamma-ray burst", 19 Oct 2000 . Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  16. ^ a b "Hunting Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Lyman-Forest; GRB 000131 at z = 4.50", Michael I. Andersen, Jens Hjorth, Holger Pedersen, Brian L. Jensen, Leslie K. Hunt, Javier Gorosabel, Palle Møller, Johan Fynbo, Bjarne Thomsen, doi:10.1007/10853853_34, Bibcode2001grba.conf..133A, (accessed 11 Nov 2009)

External links[edit]