List of gendarmeries

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  Countries with a gendarmerie
  Countries that formerly had a gendarmerie
  Countries with a nominal gendarmerie

A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) may also be used (e.g., Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon.

Although pioneered in France, the concept of a gendarmerie was adopted by several other European nations during the Napoleonic Wars.[1] It remains an integral part of the military establishment in most Francophone states and territories.[1] A somewhat related phenomenon has been the formation of paramilitary units which fall under the authority of civilian police agencies. Since these are not strictly military forces, however, they are not considered gendarmerie.[2]

List of active gendarmeries[edit]

The Coat of arms of the Romanian Gendarmerie, re-established in 1990, after the fall of communism.
Emblem of the Serbian Gendarmery.
Roundel of the Carabineros of Chile.
Badge of the Chinese People's Armed Police.
Country English name Native-language name Notes
Afghanistan Afghan National Civil Order Police The Afghan National Civil Order Police is a branch of the Afghan National Police
Algeria National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale (الدرك الوطني)
Argentina Argentine National Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional Argentina
Azerbaijan Internal Troops of Azerbaijan Azərbaycan Respublikası Daxili Qoşunları
Bahrain National Guard الحرس الوطني
Bahrain Public Security Forces
Bangladesh Bangladesh Ansar
Belarus Internal Troops Belarusian: Унутраныя войскі (Unutranyja vojski)
Russian: Внутренние войска (Vnutrennie voyska)
Benin National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Bhutan Royal Bhutan Police
Brazil Military Police Polícia Militar Brazilian states have their own gendarmeries and federal government has a National Public Security Force, a department formed with personal from states' Military Police Forces, Military Firefighters Corps and Civil Police.
Bulgaria Bulgarian Gendarmerie Zhandarmeriya (Жандармерия) The Bulgarian Gendarmerie was disbanded by the country's General Directorate of Police and its personnel absorbed into various specialized police units.
Burkina Faso National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Burundi National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Cambodia Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia កងរាជអាវុធហត្ថ
Cameroon National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Canada Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gendarmerie royale du Canada
Canada Canadian Forces Military Police Police militaire des Forces canadiennes Sworn as peace officers who can arrest civilians on military bases
Central African Republic Gendarmerie
Chad National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Chile Carabineros of Chile Carabineros de Chile
Chile Chilean Gendarmerie The national prison service of Chile.
China People's Armed Police Zhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì (中国人民武装警察部队) The PAP perform military-civilian police duties. The PAP is a component of the Paramilitary forces of China.
Colombia Corps of Carabiners
Mobile Carabinier Squadrons
Cuerpo de Carabineros
Escuadrones Móviles de Carabineros
Comoros Gendarmerie
Costa Rica Public Force Fuerza Pública
D. R. Congo Gendarmerie
Djibouti Djiboutian National Gendarmerie
Egypt Central Security Forces A separate force known as the Egyptian Gendarmerie was created in 1882 and continued in existence until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952. In 2014 it was announced that the Gendarmerie were to be recreated, initially for policing and security duties in certain districts of Cairo.
France National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Gabon National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Guinea Gendarmerie
Guinea-Bissau National Guard Guarda Nacional Created in 2010 through the merger of several former security agencies. Modeled on the Portuguese National Republican Guard and other similar organizations.
Haiti Haitian National Police Police Nationale d'Haiti
India Corps of Military Police
Indian Home Guard
Railway Protection Force
Rashtriya Rifles
State Armed Police Forces
The Military Police Corps (nicknamed Red Berets) is a component of the Indian Army.
The Rashtriya Rifles are a branch of the Indian Army.
India Assam Rifles
Border Security Force
Central Industrial Security Force
Central Reserve Police Force
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Sashastra Seema Bal
Special Frontier Force
The Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Sashastra Seema Bal and Special Frontier Force are components of the paramilitary forces of India.
The Central Reserve Police Force, including its specialized wing the Rapid Action Force.
Indonesia Indonesian National Police Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia For part of its history (1946 - 2000), it was a service branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, under the Department of Defense and Security. Since 2000 it is an Independent civilian police under direct command of Indonesian President
Iraq National Police Not to be confused with civilian Iraqi Police Service, although at present both are highly militarized
Iraqi Kurdistan Zeravani
Israel Israel Border Police Mishmar HaGvul (משמר הגבול)
Italy Corps of Carabineers
Finance Guard/ Customs
Arma dei Carabinieri
Guardia di Finanza
The Carabinieri is a component of the Italian Armed Forces and the Guardia di Finanza is a State Military Force and a Police Armed Corps who is part of the Italian Armed Forces, although they are controlled by different ministries
Ivory Coast Gendarmerie
Jordan General Directorate of Gendarmerie General Directorate of Gendarmerie (قوات الدرك الأردني)
Kazakhstan National Guard Kazakh: Ұлттық Ұлан (Ulttıq Ulan)
Russian: Национальная гвардия (Natsionalnaya Gvardiya)
Kenya Military Police
North Korea Korean People's Internal Security Forces
Kuwait Kuwait National Guard الحرس الوطني الكويتي
Lebanon Internal Security Forces Internal Security Forces - ISF (قوى الأمن الداخلي) Nicknamed "El Darak"
Lithuania Public Safety Service Viešojo saugumo tarnyba
Madagascar National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Mali National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Mauritania National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Mautitania National Guard
Mexico National Gendarmerie Gendarmería nacional The National Gendarmerie was created in 2014, and is legally defined as a military force within the Federal Police. On account of its heavily armed agents, its culture, and its origins, the Federal Police as a whole may be considered a gendarmerie
Moldova Carabinier Troops Trupele de Carabinieri
Monaco Prince's Company of Carabiniers Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince The Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers provide an armed support service
Morocco Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Royale (الدرك الملكي)
Morocco Auxiliary Forces
Nepal Armed Police Force
Netherlands Royal Marechaussee Koninklijke Marechaussee
Niger National Police of Niger Includes the National Gendarmerie and the Niger Internal Security Forces.
Pakistan Balochistan Levies
Frontier Constabulary
Frontier Corps
Gilgit Baltistan Scouts
Malakand Levies
Pakistan Rangers
The Frontier Constabulary, Frontier Corps, Gilgit Baltistan Scouts and Pakistan Rangers are components of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
Panama Panamanian Public Forces
Poland Military Gendarmerie Żandarmeria Wojskowa
Portugal National Republican Guard Guarda Nacional Republicana
Romania Romanian Gendarmerie Jandarmeria Română
Russia Military Police
Russia Russian National Guard
Rwanda Gendarmerie
San Marino Corps of Gendarmerie of San Marino
Guard of the Rock
Gendarmeria
Guardia di Rocca
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian National Guard
Saudi Emergency Force
الـحرس الوطني (al-Ḥaras al-Waṭanī)
قوات الطوارئ
Senegal National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Serbia Gendarmery Žandarmerija (Жандармерија)
Spain Civil Guard Guardia Civil
Switzerland Border Guard Corps
Federal Office of Police
Both have civilian status.
(The cantonal police of the French-speaking cantons are called gendarmerie, but do not fit any of the criteria.)
Tajikistan Internal Troops Қӯшунҳои дохилӣ
Togo National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Tunisia National Guard Garde Nationale
Turkey Gendarmerie Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Ukraine National Guard Національна гвардія України (Natsionalna hvardiia Ukrainy)
Vatican City Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano General responsibility for security and public order which encompasses all regular police duties, including border control, crime prevention and investigation, and enforcement of financial and commercial regulations.
Venezuela Venezuelan National Guard Guardia Nacional de Venezuela
Yemen Special Security Forces
Europe European Gendarmerie Force French: Force de gendarmerie européenne
Italian: Forza di Gendarmeria Europea
Portuguese: Força de Gendarmerie Europeia
Spanish: Fuerza de Gendarmería Europea
Formed by seven members of the European Union: France, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. The European Gendarmerie Force was created as an intervention force at the service of the EU, the NATO, the UN, the OSCE, or other “ad hoc” alliances. It is characterized by its robustness, and quick deployability, and it specializes in the management of crisis areas. Lithuania is currently a Partner Member, and Turkey has Observer status.

List of former gendarmeries[edit]

Country or territory English name Native-language name Formed Disbanded Notes
Afghanistan Defenders of the Revolution Sarandoy ~1980 ~1988 Formed and employed under the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Principality of Albania International Gendarmerie 1913 1914
Kingdom of Albania (1928-1939) Royal Albanian Gendarmerie Xhandarmëria Mbretërore e Shqipëris 1924 ~1939 Formed as a counterweight to the Royal Albanian Army, it employed British advisors on its staff and with the units
Albania Republican Guard Garda e Republikës 1928 2013
Austria Federal Gendarmerie Bundesgendarmerie 1849 2005 Dissolved under occupation from 1938 to 1945. Merged with other agencies to form new Bundespolizei in 2005
Austria B-Gendarmerie 1949
Belgium Belgian Gendarmerie French: Gendarmerie
Dutch: Rijkswacht
1796 2001 Was formed under French rule in what now is Belgian territory, even before the establishment of Belgium itself (1830). Merged with federal and local police to form a new policing system
Belgium Garde Civique 1830 1920
Belgian Congo Force Publique 1886 1960
Canada North-West Mounted Police 1873 1920
Colombia National Gendarmerie Corps Cuerpo de Gendarmeria Nacional 1906 1909 Created to function decentralized from the National Police command and more militarized regime, managed by the Ministry of War. In 1909 General Jorge Holguín suppressed the National Gendarmerie Corps and gave the provincial governors the authority to organize police services at their own will
Costa Rica Costa Rican Civil Guard 1949 1996
Cyprus Cyprus Military Police 1880 1935
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian Gendarmerie Československé četnictvo 1918 1942 Managed by the Ministry of Interior. In 1942 merged with police and fire brigades. After the liberation in 1945 created a unified police force—the Corps of National Security (SNB)—that amalgamated gendarmerie, police and intelligence.
Crete Cretan Gendarmerie Κρητική Χωροφυλακή, Kritiki Chorofylaki 1899 1916
Denmark Border Gendarmerie Grænsegendarmeriet 1838 1958 Pre-dated by De Blå Gendarmer (1885–1897)
Dutch East Indies Korps Marechaussee te voet 1890 1942
El Salvador National Guard Guardia Nacional 1912 1922
Ethiopia Ethiopian Gendarmery Zabagna 1916 1936 Included the Kebur Zabagna Imperial Guard
Gambia Gambia Constabulary 1866 1965
Germany
Gendarmerie Gendarmerie and other denominations 19th century mid-20th century Due to the distinctive autonomy of the German states, every state has his own history of establishing and denomination. In Prussia it was called Gendarmerie, in other states it was called Landjägerei, Dragoon corps or Hussar
German Empire Feldgendarmerie 1866 1918
Nazi Germany Feldgendarmerie 1933 1945
Nazi Germany Forest Protection Service
East Germany Kasernierte Volkspolizei 1948 1956
East Germany Volkspolizei-Bereitschaft 1990
Greece Hellenic Gendarmerie Ελληνική Χωροφυλακή, Elliniki Chorofylaki 1833 1984 Merged with the City Police and formed the current Hellenic Police
Georgia (country) Internal Troops of Georgia 1991 2004
Haiti Gendarmerie of Haiti 1915 1928
Hungary (Kingdom) Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie Magyar Királyi Csendőrség 1881 1945 Disbanded by the Interim National Government after WWII because Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie took part in the Holocaust by gathering the Hungarian Jews and giving them to the Nazi German forces.
Hungary (Republic) Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat 2004 2008 Couple years after the fall of the communist regime, a new gendarmerie-type police force within the frameworks of the Hungarian National Police:, Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat was formed and existed between 2004 and 2008.
Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Gendarmerie ژاندارمری (Zhāndārmerī) 1979 1990 Persian Central Government Gendarmerie 1911-1921, Amniyeh Kol-e Mamlekati 1921-1943; GENMISH 1943-1957; State Gendarmerie 1957-1979; gendarmerie dissolved in 1990
Ireland Royal Irish Constabulary[3] 1822 1922 Royal added to the name in 1867.[4]
Italian East Africa Italian African Police Polizia dell'Africa Italiana 1936 1941 Operated throughout Italian East Africa
Italian colonies of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland Zaptié 1889 1942
Italy National Republican Guard Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana 1943 1945 Formed by the Italian Social Republic
Japan Corps of Law Soldiers (lit) Kempeitai 1881 1945 Part of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval Secret Police Tokkeitai, 特警隊 1945 The Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, they were equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. They were also the smallest military police service.
Special Higher Police (特別高等警察, Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu 1911 1945 Often shortened to Tokkō (特高, Tokkō ?), established specifically to investigate and control political groups and ideologies deemed to be a threat to public order. Its main function was as a civilian counterpart to the military's Kempeitai.
National Police Reserve 1950 1952 National force in Japan until formation of JSDF and NPA
Kingdom of Laos Royal Lao Police 1949 1975
Luxembourg Grand Ducal Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Grand-Ducale 1733 2000 Dissolved under Nazi occupation from 1940 to 1944. Merged on 1 January 2000 with local Police to form the new Grand Ducal Police
Mexico Rural Guard Guardia Rural 1861 1914 In modern Mexico, the name is applied to the part-time Rural Defence Corps.
National Gendarmerie Gendarmeria Nacional 1877 1970 It was a body that has militarized police functions whose jurisdiction in large urban areas.
Mozambique (Portuguese Province) Republican Guard of Lourenço Marques Guarda Republicana de Lourenço Marques 1913 1924 Replaced both the former military Guarda Cívica (Civic Guard) and the Civil Police of Lourenço Marques.
Mozambique (Portuguese Province) Police Guard of the Mozambique Company Guarda Policial da Companhia de Moçambique 1914 1925 Military and police force of the territory under administration of the Mozambique Company (Territory of Manica and Sofala). Replaced by the Police Forces of the Mozambique Company (Forças Policiais da Companhia de Moçambique).
Nicaragua National Guard Guardia Nacional 1909 1979 Dissolved along with the Somoza regime. The concept of the Civil Guard was integrated into what would later become the National Police of Nicaragua
Northern Ireland Royal Ulster Constabulary 1922 2001
Northern Ireland Ulster Special Constabulary 1920 1970
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia Police 1889 1964
Norway Statspolitiet 1941 1945
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Gendarmerie 1869
Pakistan Gilgit Scouts 1889 1975
Palestine (British Mandate) British Gendarmerie 1920 1926 Replaced by the Transjordan Frontier Force on 1 April
Persia Qarasuran
Peru Peruvian Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional del Perú 1852 1924 Became the basis of the Civil Guard.
Peru Republican Guard 1991
Philippines Civil Guard 1868 1898
Philippines Philippine Constabulary Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas 1901 1991 Absorbed the Integrated National Police on 1 January 1991 to form the present-day Philippine National Police.
Poland Territorial Defence Force 1965 2008
Portugal Fiscal Guard Guarda Fiscal 1885 1993 It was military force controlled by the Portuguese Ministry of Finance, responsible for the tax and customs law enforcement and border surveillance. In 1993, it became part of the National Republican Guard, as the Fiscal Brigade.
Portuguese India Police and Supervion Corps of India Corpo de Polícia e Fiscalização da Índia 1924 1946 Transformed in the entirely civilian Polícia do Estado da Índia (State of India Police) in 1946.
Rhodesia British South African Police 1889 1980
Russia Internal Troops of Russia 1811 2016
Russian Empire Special Corps of Gendarmes Отдельный корпус жандармов 1836 1917
United States Occupation Zone of West Germany and Austria United States Constabulary - 1946 1952
Kingdom of Saxony Feldgendarmerie 1810 1812
South Africa Cape Mounted Police 1882 1913
South Africa South African Constabulary 1900 1908
Soviet Union Internal Troops 1919 1991
Soviet Union KGB Security Troops
Spain Carabineros 1829 1940
Second Spanish Republic Guardia de Asalto 1932 1939
Francoist Spain Armed Police Corps 1939 1979
Syria Syrian Gendarmerie 1921 1958 Formed by the French to combat local insurgencies,[5] and maintained as late as 1958.[6]
Thailand Royal Siamese Provincial Gendarmerie 1897 1915 Formed in 1897 by Danish mercenaries, integrated with the Royal Thai Police in 1915.[7]
Ukraine People's Republic Free Cossacks 1917 1918
Ukraine Internal Troops of Ukraine 1992 2014
Ukraine Berkut 1992 2014
United States Indian Territory Lighthorse ? The name given by the Five Civilized Tribes of the United States to their mounted police force. The US Army's cavalry performed gendarme duties until the advent of law and order.
Vatican City Corps of Gendarmes Corpo della Gendarmeria 1816 1974 Replaced by a civilian Central Security Office which itself became the Corpo di Vigilanza dello Stato della Città del Vaticano
Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam National Police 1962 1975

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lioe, Kim Eduard. Armed Forces in Law Enforcement Operations? - The German and European Perspective (1989 ed.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 52–57. ISBN 978-3-642-15433-1.
  2. ^ Kumar, Kuldeep. Police and Counterinsurgency: The Untold Story of Tripura's COIN Campaign (2016 ed.). SAGE Publications India. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-9351507475.
  3. ^ Emsley, Clive (1999), Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe, Oxford University Press, pp. 246–247, 267, ISBN 978-0-19-820798-6, Henry Goulburn...drafted a bill for a centralized, permanent armed constabulary linked to salaried police magistrates ... Even Grant condemned what he considered as an attempt ‘to place the whole of Ireland under an armed police, to subject it to a species of gendarmerie’.
  4. ^ Replaced by the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the Garda Síochána on the partition of Ireland in 1922
  5. ^ Deep, Daniel (2012). Occupying Syria Under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-107-00006-3.
  6. ^ Podeh, Elie (1999), The Decline of Arab Unity: The Rise And Fall of the United Arab Republic, Sussex Academic Press, p. 54, ISBN 1-84519-146-3
  7. ^ Phraya Vasuthep: The Good Danish Soldier of Fortune