List of gendarmeries

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  Countries with a gendarmerie
  Countries that formerly had a gendarmerie
  Countries with a nominal gendarmerie

A gendarmerie or gendarmery (/ɛnˈdɑːrmərɪ/ or /ˌʒɑːndɑːrməˈr/) is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) may also be used (e.g., Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon.

Although pioneered in France, the concept of a gendarmerie was adopted by several other European nations during the Napoleonic Wars.[1] It remains an integral part of the military establishment in most Francophone states and territories.[1] A somewhat related phenomenon has been the formation of paramilitary units which fall under the authority of civilian police agencies. Since these are not strictly military forces, however, they are not considered gendarmerie.[2]

List of active gendarmeries[edit]

The Coat of arms of the Romanian Gendarmerie, re-established in 1990, after the fall of communism.
Emblem of the Serbian Gendarmery.
Roundel of the Carabineros of Chile
Insignia of the Military Police of Brazil.
Country English name Native-language name Notes
Algeria National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale (الدرك الوطني)
Argentina Argentine National Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional Argentina
Azerbaijan Internal Troops Azərbaycan Respublikası Daxili Qoşunları
Bahrain National Guard الحرس الوطني
Bangladesh Bangladesh Ansar
Barbados National Task Force
Belarus Internal Troops Belarusian: Унутраныя войскі (Unutranyja vojski)
Russian: Внутренние войска (Vnutrennie voyska)
Benin National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Bhutan Royal Bhutan Police
Brazil Military Police Polícia Militar Brazilian states have their own gendarmeries and federal government has a National Public Security Force, a department formed with personal from states' Military Polices, Military Firefighters Corps and Civil Police.
Bulgaria National Gendarmerie Service Zhandarmeriya (Жандармерия) The Bulgarian Gendarmerie was disbanded by the country's General Directorate of Police and its personnel absorbed into various specialized police units.
Burkina Faso Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Burundi Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Cambodia Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia កងរាជអាវុធហត្ថ
Cameroon Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Canada Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gendarmerie royale du Canada
Canada Canadian Forces Military Police Police militaire des Forces canadiennes Sworn as peace officers who can arrest civilians on military bases
Central African Republic Gendarmerie
Chad Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Chile Carabiniers of Chile Carabineros de Chile
China People's Armed Police Zhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì (中国人民武装警察部队) The PAP perform military-civilian police duties.
Colombia Corps of Carabiners
Mobile Carabinier Squadrons
Cuerpo de Carabineros
Escuadrones Móviles de Carabineros
Comoros Gendarmerie
Costa Rica Public Force Fuerza Pública
D. R. Congo Gendarmerie
Djibouti Gendarmerie
Egypt Central Security Forces A separate force known as the Egyptian Gendarmerie was created in 1882 and continued in existence until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952. In 2014 it was announced that the Gendarmerie were to be recreated, initially for policing and security duties in certain districts of Cairo.
France National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Gabon Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Guinea Gendarmerie
Guinea-Bissau National Guard Guarda Nacional Created in 2010 through the merger of several former security agencies. Modeled on the Portuguese National Republican Guard and other similar organizations.
Haiti Haitian National Police Police Nationale d'Haiti
India Corps of Military Police
Central Reserve Police Force
Indian Home Guard
Railway Protection Force
The Military Police Corps (nicknamed Red Berets) is a component of the Indian Army.
The Central Reserve Police Force, including its specialized wing the Rapid Action Force, Railway Protection Force and Indian Home Guard are components of the paramilitary forces of India.
Indonesia Indonesian National Police Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia For part of its history (1946 - 2000), it was a service branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, under the Department of Defense and Security. Since 2000 it is an Independent civilian police under direct command of Indonesian President
Iraq National Police Not to be confused with civilian Iraqi Police Service, although at present both are highly militarised
Israel Israel Border Police Mishmar HaGvul (משמר הגבול)
Italy Corps of Carabineers
Finance Guard/ Customs
Arma dei Carabinieri
Guardia di Finanza
The Carabinieri is a component of the Italian Armed Forces and the Guardia di Finanza is a State Military Force and a Police Armed Corps who is part of the Italian Armed Forces, although they are controlled by different ministries
Ivory Coast Gendarmerie
Jordan General Directorate of Gendarmerie General Directorate of Gendarmerie (قوات الدرك الأردني)
Kazakhstan National Guard Kazakh: Ұлттық Ұлан (Ulttıq Ulan)
Russian: Национальная гвардия (Natsionalnaya Gvardiya)
North Korea Korean People's Internal Security Forces
Kuwait Kuwait National Guard الحرس الوطني الكويتي
Lebanon Internal Security Forces Internal Security Forces - ISF (قوى الأمن الداخلي) Nicknamed "El Darak"
Lithuania Public Safety Service Viešojo saugumo tarnyba
Madagascar Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Mali Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Mauritania Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Mexico Federal Police Gendarmería Nacional Policia Federal Civilian status, but largely composed of military personnel transferred en masse from the Mexican Army's 3rd Military Police Brigade in 1999. National Gendarmerie (Mexico) Gendarmería nacional currently in action.
Moldova Carabinier Troops Trupele de Carabinieri
Monaco Prince's Company of Carabiniers Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince The Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers provide an armed support service
Morocco Royal Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Royale (الدرك الملكي)
Netherlands Royal Marechaussee Koninklijke Marechaussee
Niger National Police of Niger Includes the National Gendarmerie and the Niger Internal Security Forces.
Pakistan Pakistan Rangers
Frontier Corps
Mehran Force
Poland Military Gendarmerie Żandarmeria Wojskowa
Portugal National Republican Guard Guarda Nacional Republicana
Romania Romanian Gendarmerie Jandarmeria Română
Russia National Guard of Russia Natsional'naya Gvardiya Rossii
Rwanda Gendarmerie
San Marino Corps of Gendarmerie of San Marino
Guard of the Rock
Guardia di Rocca
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian National Guard
Saudi Emergency Force
الـحرس الوطني (al-Ḥaras al-Waṭanī)
قوات الطوارئ
Senegal Gendarmerie Nationale National Gendarmerie
Serbia Gendarmery Žandarmerija (Жандармерија)
Spain Civil Guard Guardia Civil
Switzerland Border Guard Corps
Federal Office of Police
Both have civilian status.
(The cantonal police of the French-speaking cantons are called gendarmerie, but do not fit any of the criteria.)
Tajikistan Internal Troops Қӯшунҳои дохилӣ
Togo National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Tunisia National Guard Garde Nationale
Turkey Gendarmerie Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Ukraine National Guard Національна гвардія України (Natsionalna hvardiia Ukrainy)
Vatican City Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano General responsibility for security and public order which encompasses all regular police duties, including border control, crime prevention and investigation, and enforcement of financial and commercial regulations.
Venezuela Venezuelan National Guard Guardia Nacional de Venezuela
Europe European Gendarmerie Force French: Force de gendarmerie européenne
Italian: Forza di Gendarmeria Europea
Portuguese: Força de Gendarmerie Europeia
Spanish: Fuerza de Gendarmería Europea
Formed by five members of the European Union: France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands, the purpose was the creation of a European intervention force which would have gendarmerie functions and be specialized in crisis management. More countries will be allowed to join in the future.

List of former gendarmeries[edit]

Country or territory English name Native-language name Formed Disbanded Notes
Afghanistan Defenders of the Revolution Sarandoy ~1980 ~1988 Formed and employed under the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Albania Royal Albanian Gendarmerie Xhandarmëria Mbretërore e Shqipëris 1924 ~1939 Formed as a counterweight to the Royal Albanian Army, it employed British advisors on its staff and with the units
Albania Albanian Republican Guard Garda e Republikës 1928 2013
Austria Federal Gendarmerie Bundesgendarmerie 1849 2005 Dissolved under occupation from 1938 to 1945. Merged with other agencies to form new Bundespolizei in 2005
Belgium Belgian Gendarmerie French: Gendarmerie
Dutch: Rijkswacht
1796 2001 Was formed under French rule in what now is Belgian territory, even before the establishment of Belgium itself (1830). Merged with federal and local police to form a new policing system
Colombia National Gendarmerie Corps Cuerpo de Gendarmeria Nacional 1906 1909 Created to function decentralized from the National Police command and more militarized regime, managed by the Ministry of War. In 1909 General Jorge Holguín suppressed the National Gendarmerie Corps and gave the provincial governors the authority to organize police services at their own will
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian Gendarmerie Československé četnictvo 1918 1942 Managed by the Ministry of Interior. In 1942 merged with police and fire brigades. After the liberation in 1945 created a unified police force—the Corps of National Security (SNB)—that amalgamated gendarmerie, police and intelligence.
Crete Cretan Gendarmerie Κρητική Χωροφυλακή, Kritiki Chorofylaki 1899 1916
Denmark Border Gendarmerie Grænsegendarmeriet 1838 1958 Pre-dated by De Blå Gendarmer (1885–1897)
El Salvador National Guard Guardia Nacional 1912 1922
Ethiopia Ethiopian Gendarmery Zabagna 1916 1936 Included the Kebur Zabagna Imperial Guard
Gendarmerie Gendarmerie and other denominations 19th century mid-20th century Due to the distinctive autonomy of the German states, every state has his own history of establishing and denomination. In Prussia it was called Gendarmerie, in other states it was called Landjägerei, Dragoon corps or Hussar
Greece Greek Gendarmerie Ελληνική Χωροφυλακή, Elliniki Chorofylaki 1833 1984 Merged with the City Police and formed the current Greek Police
Hungary (Kingdom) Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie Magyar Királyi Csendőrség 1881 1945 Disbanded by the Interim National Government after WWII because Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie took part in the Holocaust by gathering the Hungarian Jews and giving them to the Nazi German forces.
Hungary (Republic) Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat 2004 2008 Couple years after the fall of the communist regime, a new gendarmerie-type police force within the frameworks of the Hungarian National Police:, Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat was formed and existed between 2004 and 2008.
Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Gendarmerie ژاندارمری (Zhāndārmerī) 1979 1990 Persian Central Government Gendarmerie 1911-1921, Amniyeh Kol-e Mamlekati 1921-1943; GENMISH 1943-1957; State Gendarmerie 1957-1979; gendarmerie dissolved in 1990
Ireland Royal Irish Constabulary[3] 1822 1922 Royal added to the name in 1867.[4]
Italian East Africa Italian Africa Police Polizia dell'Africa Italiana 1936 1944 Operated throughout Italian East Africa
Italy National Republican Guard Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana 1943 1945 Formed by the Italian Social Republic
Japan Corps of Law Soldiers (lit) Kempeitai 1881 1945 Part of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval Secret Police Tokkeitai, 特警隊 1945 The Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, they were equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. They were also the smallest military police service.
Special Higher Police (特別高等警察, Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu 1911 1945 Often shortened to Tokkō (特高, Tokkō ?), established specifically to investigate and control political groups and ideologies deemed to be a threat to public order. Its main function was as a civilian counterpart to the military's Kempeitai.
National Rural Police National force in Japan until formation of JSDF and NPA
Luxembourg Grand Ducal Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Grand-Ducale 1733 2000 Dissolved under Nazi occupation from 1940 to 1944. Merged on 1 January 2000 with local Police to form the new Grand Ducal Police
Mexico Rural Guard Guardia Rural 1861 1914 In modern Mexico, the name is applied to the part-time Rural Defence Corps.
National Gendarmerie Gendarmeria Nacional 1877 1970 It was a body that has militarized police functions whose jurisdiction in large urban areas.
Mozambique (Portuguese Province) Republican Guard of Lourenço Marques Guarda Republicana de Lourenço Marques 1913 1924 Replaced both the former military Guarda Cívica (Civic Guard) and the Civil Police of Lourenço Marques.
Mozambique (Portuguese Province) Police Guard of the Mozambique Company Guarda Policial da Companhia de Moçambique 1914 1925 Military and police force of the territory under administration of the Mozambique Company (Territory of Manica and Sofala). Replaced by the Police Forces of the Mozambique Company (Forças Policiais da Companhia de Moçambique).
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Civil Guard Guardia Civil Nicaragüense 1909 1979 Dissolved along with the Somoza regime. The concept of the Civil Guard was integrated into what would later become the National Police of Nicaragua
Palestine (British Mandate) British Gendarmerie 1920 1926 Replaced by the Transjordan Frontier Force on 1 April
Peru Peruvian Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional del Perú 1852 1924 Became the basis of the Civil Guard.
Philippines Philippine Constabulary Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas 1901 1991 Absorbed the Integrated National Police on 1 January 1991 to form the present-day Philippine National Police.
Portugal Fiscal Guard Guarda Fiscal 1885 1993 It was military force controlled by the Portuguese Ministry of Finance, responsible for the tax and customs law enforcement and border surveillance. In 1993, it became part of the National Republican Guard, as the Fiscal Brigade.
Portuguese India Police and Supervion Corps of India Corpo de Polícia e Fiscalização da Índia 1924 1946 Transformed in the entirely civilian Polícia do Estado da Índia (State of India Police) in 1946.
Russian Empire Special Corps of Gendarmes Отдельный корпус жандармов 1836 1917
United States Occupation Zone of West Germany and Austria United States Constabulary - 1946 1952
Syria Syrian Gendarmerie 1921 1958 Formed by the French to combat local insurgencies,[5] and maintained as late as 1958.[6]
Thailand Royal Siamese Provincial Gendarmerie 1897 1915 Formed in 1897 by Danish mercenaries, integrated with the Thai police in 1915.[7]
United States Indian Territory Lighthorse  ? The name given by the Five Civilized Tribes of the United States to their mounted police force. The US Army's cavalry performed gendarme duties until the advent of law and order.
Vatican City Corps of Gendarmes Corpo della Gendarmeria 1816 1974 Replaced by a civilian Central Security Office which itself became the Corpo di Vigilanza dello Stato della Città del Vaticano


  1. ^ a b Lioe, Kim Eduard. Armed Forces in Law Enforcement Operations? - The German and European Perspective (1989 ed.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 52–57. ISBN 978-3-642-15433-1. 
  2. ^ Kumar, Kuldeep. Police and Counterinsurgency: The Untold Story of Tripura's COIN Campaign (2016 ed.). SAGE Publications India. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-9351507475. 
  3. ^ Emsley, Clive (1999), Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe, Oxford University Press, pp. 246–247, 267, ISBN 978-0-19-820798-6, Henry Goulburn...drafted a bill for a centralized, permanent armed constabulary linked to salaried police magistrates ... Even Grant condemned what he considered as an attempt ‘to place the whole of Ireland under an armed police, to subject it to a species of gendarmerie’. 
  4. ^ Replaced by the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the Garda Síochána on the partition of Ireland in 1922
  5. ^ Deep, Daniel (2012). Occupying Syria Under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-107-00006-3. 
  6. ^ Podeh, Elie (1999), The Decline of Arab Unity: The Rise And Fall of the United Arab Republic, Sussex Academic Press, p. 54, ISBN 1-84519-146-3 
  7. ^ Phraya Vasuthep: The Good Danish Soldier of Fortune

See also[edit]