List of genetic codes

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While there is much commonality, different parts of the tree of life use slightly different genetic codes.[1][2] Notably the mitochondrial codes vary.

When translating from genome to protein, the use of the correct genetic code is essential.

The alternative translation tables (2 to 33) involve codon reassignments that are recapitulated in the list of all known alternative codons.

Comparison of alternative translation tables for all codons (using IUPAC amino acid codes):

Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic Termination: stop codon *
Codon Translation table ID (see above)
1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
TTT F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F
TTC F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F
TTA L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L * L L L L L L L L L L
TTG L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
TCT S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
TCC S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
TCA S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S * S S S S S S S S S S S
TCG S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
TAT Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
TAC Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
TAA * * * * * Q * * * * * Y * * * * * * * * Q Q Y E E * Y
TAG * * * * * Q * * * * * * Q L * L * * * * Q Q Y E E W *
TGT C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
TGC C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
TGA * W W W W * W C * * W W * * W * * W G * W W * * W * W
TGG W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W
CTT L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
CTC L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
CTA L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
CTG L L T L L L L L L S L L L L L L L L L A L L L L L L L
CCT P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
CCC P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
CCA P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
CCG P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
CAT H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
CAC H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
CAA Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
CAG Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
CGT R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
CGC R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
CGA R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
CGG R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
ATT I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
ATC I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
ATA I M M I M I I I I I M I I I M I I I I I I I I I I I I
ATG M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M
ACT T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
ACC T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
ACA T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
ACG T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
AAT N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N
AAC N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N
AAA K K K K K K N K K K K N K K N K K K K K K K K K K K K
AAG K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
AGT S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
AGC S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
AGA R * R R S R S R R R G S R R S R R S R R R R R R R R S
AGG R * R R S R S R R R G S R R S R R K R R R R R R R R K
GTT V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
GTC V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
GTA V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
GTG V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
GCT A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
GCC A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
GCA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
GCG A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
GAT D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
GAC D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
GAA E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E
GAG E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E
GGT G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G
GGC G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G
GGA G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G
GGG G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G

Notes[edit]

Three translation tables have a peculiar status:

  • Table 7 is now merged into translation table 4.
  • Table 8 is merged to table 1; all plant chloroplast differences due to RNA edit.
  • Table 15 is deleted in the source but included here for completeness.

Other mechanisms also play a part in protein biosynthesis, such as post-transcriptional modification.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Elzanowski, Andrzej; Jim Ostell (7 July 2010). "The Genetic Codes". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  2. ^ Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Suzuki, Tsutomu (2001). "Genetic Code and its Variants". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0000810. ISBN 047001590X.
  3. ^ "NCBI Taxonomy Homepage". Archived from the original on 25 January 2009.
  4. ^ "The Genetic Codes".
  5. ^ "NCBI genetic code table".
  6. ^ Su, Huei-Jiun; Barkman, Todd J.; Hao, Weilong; Jones, Samuel S.; Naumann, Julia; Skippington, Elizabeth; Wafula, Eric K.; Hu, Jer-Ming; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; DePamphilis, Claude W. (15 January 2019). "Novel genetic code and record-setting AT-richness in the highly reduced plastid genome of the holoparasitic plant Balanophora". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (3): 934–943. doi:10.1073/pnas.1816822116. PMC 6338844. PMID 30598433.

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