List of haplogroups of historic people

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This is a list of haplogroups of historic people. Haplogroups can be determined from the remains of historical figures, or derived from genealogical DNA tests of people who trace their direct maternal or paternal ancestry to a noted historical figure. Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs about this topic, and they may be included in this list too.

mtDNA[edit]

MtDNA results come from historical persons whose mitochondrial DNA has been tested; it identifies direct maternal ancestry, which is just one line out of many.

Ancient samples[edit]

These are results from 'ancient' samples, those collected from the remains or reputed remains of the person. Because mtDNA breaks down more slowly than nuclear DNA, it is often possible to obtain mtDNA results where other testing fails.

Cheddar Man[edit]

The skeleton excavated from the Cheddar Gorge is in haplogroup U5a. The Cheddar Man is the nickname for the ancient human remains found in Cheddar Gorge; his approximate date of death was 7150 BCE.

Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup
Cheddar Man 16192T, 16270T U5a

mitosearch member code: 7MRU2

Kennewick man[edit]

Analysis of the 8500-year-old skeleton of the Kennewick Man, found in Washington State, United States, showed that his y haplogroup is Q-M3 and his mtDNA haplogroup is X2a. This indicates that he was closely related to modern Native Americans.

"Markina Gora skeleton"[edit]

Analysis of mtDNA from the "Markina Gora" skeleton, a male early modern human who was interred approximately 30,000 years ago, at Markina Gora (also known as "Kostenki 14"), near Kostyonki, Voronezh Oblast on the River Don in Russia, has shown that it belongs to the U2 subclade.[1][2]

Mummy Juanita[edit]

The mummy "Juanita" of Peru, also called the "Ice Maiden", has been shown to belong to mitochondrial haplogroup A.[3][4]

Oseberg ship remains[edit]

The remains of the younger of the two women buried with the Oseberg Ship was tested and discovered to have mtDNA of U7.[5]

Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup
Young Girl N/A U7

Ötzi the Iceman[edit]

Analysis of the mtDNA of Ötzi, the frozen mummy from 3300 BCE found on the border of Austria and Italy, has shown that he belongs to the K1 subclade. His mtDNA cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has preliminarily been named K1ö for Ötzi.[6]

Young Man of Byrsa[edit]

In 2016, an ancient Carthaginian individual, who was excavated from a Punic tomb in Byrsa, Tunisia, was found to belong to the rare U5b2c1 maternal haplogroup. The Young Man of Byrsa specimen dates from the late sixth century BCE, and his lineage is believed to represent early gene flow from the Iberian Peninsula to the Maghreb.[7]

Nicholas II of Russia and family[edit]

The last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup T, based on the following mutations: 16126C, 16169Y, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, 315.1C. His results matched those of a cousin, Count Nikolai Trubetskoy, but showed a heteroplasmy - a mix of two different sequences, indicating a recent mutation. To further confirm the identity, the tsar's brother, Grand Duke George, was exhumed and found to have the same mitochondrial heteroplasmy.[8][9]

Empress Alexandra of Russia and her children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei were identified as belonging to mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C). This identity was confirmed by match to that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[8][10]

As part of the same analysis mitochondrial types were determined for four further individuals, thought to have been the Royal Physician and servants.

Petrarch[edit]

The supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca were tested for DNA in 2003.[11]

Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup
body attributed to Petrarch 16126C, 16193T, 16311C J2

Richard III of England[edit]

Richard III's mitochondrial haplotype was inferred from living descendants and then the identity of his remains confirmed through a multidisciplinary process including genetic analysis of both his mitochondrial and Y-DNA. In 2004 British historian John Ashdown-Hill traced a British-born woman living in Canada, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), who is a direct maternal line descendant of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, a sister of Richard III of England. Joy Ibsen's mtDNA was tested and belongs to mtDNA Haplogroup J.[12][13] Joy Ibsen died in 2008. On 4 February 2013, University of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second unnamed direct maternal line descendant.[14][15][16] They share mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[17][18]

Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup
Richard III of England 16069T, 16126C, 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1C J

Richard III, last king of the House of York and last of the House of Plantagenet, was YDNA G-P287, in contrast to the Y haplotypes of the putative modern relatives.[19]

Sweyn II of Denmark[edit]

In order to verify whether the body of a woman entombed near Sweyn II of Denmark in Roskilde Cathedral is that of his mother Estrid, mtDNA from pulp of teeth from each of the two bodies was extracted and analysed. The king was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H and the woman was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H5a. Based on the observation of two HVR1 sequence differences, it was concluded that it is highly unlikely that the woman was the king's mother.[20]

Deduction by descendant testing[edit]

Because mtDNA is carried through the direct female line, some researchers have identified the haplotype of historic persons by testing descendants in their direct female line. In the case of males, their mother's direct female lineage descendants are tested.

Benjamin Franklin[edit]

Doras Folger, one of Benjamin Franklin's mother's six sisters, passed on her mtDNA to her 9th-great-granddaughter, Charlene Chambers King, therefore showing Franklin to belong to haplogroup V.[21]

Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup
Benjamin Franklin T16298C, 315.1C, 309.1C, A263G, and T72C. V

Queen Victoria[edit]

mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C): Empress Alexandra of Russia's identity was confirmed by matching her mtDNA with that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[8] Their common maternal ancestor, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, and her mother, Queen Victoria, must therefore have shared this haplotype. Genealogies show that Charles II of England had the same matrilineal ancestress as Queen Victoria, namely Anne of Bohemia and Hungary.

Edward IV of England[edit]

Edward IV of England and his brother Richard III of England, both sons of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, would have shared the same mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.[17]

Contemporary public figures[edit]

Katie Couric[edit]

During an interview with Dr. Spencer Wells of the National Geographic Genographic Project, the American television personality Katie Couric was revealed to belong to haplogroup K.[22]

Stephen Colbert[edit]

Stephen Colbert was told by Dr Spencer Wells that he is a member of haplogroup K.[23]

Desmond Tutu[edit]

Desmond Tutu, South African activist and Christian cleric, according to a study on Southern African genetics belongs to mtDNA haplogroup L0d, a subgroup of Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA).[24]

Nelson Mandela[edit]

Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, belonged to mtDNA haplogroup L0d (previously known as L1d), a subgroup of Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA).[25][26][27][28]

Prince Philip[edit]

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was tested to confirm the identity of the skeleton thought to be his great-aunt, Empress Alexandra of Russia, and was identified as belonging to mtDNA Haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C).[8]

Bono[edit]

Bono, the vocalist for the Irish rock band U2, belongs to mtDNA haplogroup V.[29][30][31]

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

Y-DNA[edit]

The results for Y-DNA genealogical DNA tests are either from the men themselves, or from men who have inferred paternal descent from historical figures. Scientists make the inference as a hypothesis which could be disproved or improved by future research.

Ancient samples[edit]

Tutankhamun[edit]

An academic study which included DNA profiling of some of the related male mummies of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2010. Tutankhamun's Y-DNA haplogroup was not published in the academic paper,[32][33][34] however iGENEA, a Swiss personal genomics company, claimed to have reconstructed King Tut's Y-DNA profile based on screencaps from a Discovery Channel documentary about the study. iGENEA without producing any proof, proposed that King Tut belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1a2,[35][36]

Members of the research team that conducted the academic study published in 2010 stated they had not been consulted by iGENEA before they published the haplogroup information and described iGENEA's claims as "unscientific." [34] After pressure to publish Tutankhamun's full DNA report to confirm his Y-DNA results, the researchers refused to respond.

Ramesses III[edit]

In December 2012, a genetic study conducted by the same researchers who decoded King Tutankhamun's DNA found that Ramesses III, second pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt and considered to be the last great New Kingdom regent to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E-V38, alternatively known as haplogroup E1b1a.[37]

Richard III of England[edit]

Richard III of England was confirmed to be haplogroup G2a.[38][better source needed]

Nicholas II of Russia[edit]

Nicholas II of Russia has been predicted as having an R1b haplotype.[39][better source needed]

Pengbo(倗伯)[edit]

In the Western Zhou-era Peng cemetery (Jiang County, Shanxi 2800-3000 BP), nine haplogroup Q-M120, two O-M95, one N-M231, four O-P201, two O-M122, and four O-M175 individuals were found.[40][better source needed] In another paper, the social status of those human remains of ancient Peng kingdom are analyzed:[41]

  1. Aristocrats: three Q-M120 (prostrate 2, supine 1), 2 O-M121 (supine 2), one N-M231 (prostrate)
  2. Commoners: eight Q-M120 (prostrate 4, supine 4), three O-M121 (prostrate 1, supine 2), three O-M122 (supine 3)
  3. Slaves: three O-M121, two O-M95, one O-M122.

The tomb of the Duke of Peng and his wife (presumed to be a Zhou royal house member) was excavated and the Duke of Peng is reportedly haplogroup Q-M120.

Gaodang-king Korguz (高唐王=趙王 阔里吉思)[edit]

Noble burials of Mongols in the Yuan dynasty in Shuzhuanglou Site (northernmost Hebei, China, 700YBP) were excavated. All three men excavated belong to Y haplogroup Q, with subclade not analysed.

The most principal occupant, Gaodang King Korguz, had mtDNA of haplogroup D4m2; two others' mtDNA is A[42]

Korguz (Chinese: 高唐王阔里吉思) was the son of a princess of Kublai Khan and he was the king of the Ongud and a descendant of Gok-Truk. The Ongud claimed descent from the Shatuo. a branch of the Göktürks prominent in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His two wives were all princesses of Yuan Dynasty. It was very important for the Yuan dynasty to maintain marriage-alliance with the Onguds, which had been very important assistant since Genghis Khan. About 16 princesses of Yuan dynasty were married to khans of the Ongud.

Ötzi[edit]

Ötzi has been found to be Y-DNA haplogroup G-M201.[43] The actual term used was G2a4, but the presumed L91 mutation has since been given a new category, G-M201.

Birger Magnusson[edit]

Birger Jarl, the founder of Stockholm the modern capital of Sweden, according to Andreas Carlsson at the National Board of Forensic Medicine of Sweden, belonged to Haplogroup I-M253. Birger Magnusson was the ancestor of a line of kings of both Sweden and Norway, starting with his son, Valdemar, King of Sweden.[44]

Deduction by descendant testing[edit]

Cao Cao, the Cao Wei State of Ancient China[edit]

Chinese warlord Cao Cao, who was posthumously titled Emperor Wu of the state of Cao Wei, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-P31 according to DNA tests of some documented descendants.[45][46] Ancient DNA analysis of the tooth of Cao Cao's granduncle, Cao Ding, showed that Cao Cao belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-M175.[47]

Charles Darwin[edit]

Charles Darwin belonged to haplogroup R1b based on a sample from his great-great-grandson.[48]

Nurhaci[edit]

Haplogroup C3c has been identified as a possible marker of the Aisin Gioro ( who were founders of Qing dynasty ) and is found in ten different ethnic minorities in northern China, but completely absent from Han Chinese.[49][50][51][52]

Genghis Khan[edit]

There are no living males known to descend directly from Genghis Khan, or any of his nearest male relatives. Many researchers have attempted to infer his haplogroup, according to various criteria, from those now prominent in Mongolia and other areas formerly part of the Mongol Empire.

Most researchers suggest that Genghis Khan belonged to C2 (C-M217), C3c (C-M48) or another subclade of C (C-M130). According to Family Tree DNA,[53] Genghis Khan most likely belonged to haplogroup C-M217. An extended 25 Marker Y-DNA modal based on Mongolians matching the above modal haplotype in the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation database,[54] which also corresponds to the modal assigned to Genghis Khan released by Family Tree DNA:[53]

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 16 10 12 13 11 14 10 13 11 29 18 8 8 11 12 26 14 22 27 11 11 12 16

Ysearch: GF44B

Oxford university's department of biochemistry gives an extended haplotype (SMGF standard allele count).[55]

DYS 393 392 449 446 390 389b 464a 464b 464c 464d 461 394 458 462 391 459a 459b 460 YGATAA10 385a 385b 455 YGATAH4
Alleles 13 11 27 21 25 16 11 11 12 16 11 17 18 13 10 8 8 10 13 12 13 11 11
DYS YGATAC4 426 454 YCAIIa YCAIIb GGAAT1B07 388 447 456 441 439 437 442 445 389I 448 438 452 444 463
Alleles 21 11 12 22 23 10 14 26 15 15 10 14 11 12 13 25 10 31 14 23

Ysearch: GF44B (78 Y-STRs)

According to Zerjal et al. (2003),[56] Genghis Khan is believed to have belonged to Haplogroup C-M130711(xC3c-M48).

DYS 393 390 391 425 426 434 435 436 437i 438 439 388 389i 389ii 392
Alleles 13 25 10 12 11 11 11 12 8 10 10 14 10 26 11

However, research published in 2016 based on ancient DNA from a Mongol burial site suggested that Genghis instead belonged to haplogroup R-M343 (R1b).[57]

Gia Long[edit]

Gia Long, who was the first emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam founded by the Nguyễn-Phuoc family may have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-M95 according to the DNA tests of one documented descendant (if paternity matches genealogy).[58] Given the sample size, however, this result cannot be regarded as conclusive and further testing of other documented descendants is necessary to help confirm or refute this finding.

Adolf Hitler[edit]

According to research published in 2004, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany during 1933–1945, likely belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E-M35 ("E1b1b1"), a haplogroup which originated in East Africa about 22,400 years BP.[59]

In 2010, journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren publicised analysis of samples taken from 39 patrilineal relatives of Hitler, supporting the above finding and pointing out this haplopgroup was now common among Berbers, Somalis and Jews. Mulders contradicted interpretations of his research by some media outlets, which claimed that Hitler definitely had Jewish ancestry. Mulders commented:

I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather. I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b, being more common among Berbers, Somalian people and Jews than among overall Germans. This, in order to convey that he was not exactly what during the Third Reich would have been called 'Aryan.' All the rest are speculations of journalists who didn't even take the trouble to read my article, although I had it translated into English especially for this purpose."[60]

The accuracy of some of the coverage arising from this study was questioned. Professor Michael Hammer of Family Tree DNA said that "scientific studies as well as records from our own database[,] make it clear that one cannot reach the kind of conclusion featured in the published articles." Citing Family Tree DNA's own data that shows that more than 9% of the German and Austrian population has the identified haplotype, and that about 80% of these are not Jewish, Hammer concluded, "[t]his data clearly shows that just because one person belongs to the branch of the Y-chromosome referred to as haplogroup E1b1b, that does not mean the person is likely to be of Jewish ancestry."[60]

Thomas Jefferson[edit]

Direct male-line descendants of a cousin of United States president Thomas Jefferson were DNA tested to investigate historical assertions that Jefferson fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings.[61]

An extended 17-marker haplotype was published in 2007,[62] and the company Family Tree DNA has also published results for other markers in its standard first 12-marker panel.[63] Combining these sources gives the consolidated 21-marker haplotype below. The Jeffersons belong to Haplogroup T (M184) (formerly known as K2).

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 437 460 438 461 462 436 434 435 DXYS
156Y
Alleles 13 24 15 10 13 16 11 12 12 12 15 27 14 10 9 11 13 12 11 11 12

(Note: the value of DXYS 156Y was reported as 7 in the original paper. This is believed to translate to 12 in the convention now used by DNA testing labs and online databases).

King of France Louis XIV[edit]

Louis XIV of France belonged to haplogroup R1b (U106).[64]

Napoleon[edit]

Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote African patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed “The Maur of Sarzane”.[65]

Niall of the Nine Hostages[edit]

A study conducted at Trinity College, Dublin,[66] found that a striking percentage of men in Ireland (and quite a few in Scotland) share the same Y chromosome. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains who dominated the island for six centuries. Niall belongs to Haplogroup R1b1c7 (M222).[citation needed] It should be noted that Dr. Moore's results examined some different parts of DNA (loci) from the result given here. More recently, however, it has been determined that the emergence of R-M222 predates Niall and may be more than 2,000 years old. Therefore, not all men who belong to this haplogroup are descendants of Niall. A history of the lineage of Irish kings that was compiled by Irish monks, known as "the Annals of the Four Masters" lists "Conn of the Hundred Battles" among the ancestors of Niall. So, it may be that the haplogroup previously attributed to Niall is actually attributable to "Conn of the Hundred Battles".

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 16 17

Ysearch: M5UKQ

Fath Ali Shah Qajar[edit]

Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (1772–1834), the second emperor/shah of the Qajar dynasty of Iran belonged to Haplogroup J-M267 with DYS388 = 13 as deducted from testing of descendants of several of his sons.[67]

Somerled[edit]

Main articles: Somerled and Clann Somhairle

In 2003 Oxford University researchers traced the Y-chromosome signature of Somerled of Argyll, one of Scotland's greatest warriors, who is credited with driving out the Vikings. He was also paternal grandfather of the founder of Clan Donald. Through clan genealogies, the genetic relation was mapped out.[68] Somerled belongs to haplogroup R1a1.

In 2005 a study by Professor of Human Genetics Bryan Sykes of Oxford University led to the conclusion that Somerled has possibly 500,000 living descendants — making him the second most common historical ancestor after Genghis Khan.[69] Sykes deduced that despite Somerled's reputation for having driven out the Vikings from Scotland, Somerled's own Y-DNA closely matched that of the Vikings he fought.

The Y-DNA sequence is as follows (12 markers):[70]

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 31 16 8 10 11 11 23 14 20 31 12 15 15 16

Tõnu Trubetsky[edit]

R1a1a, shown not related to real Princes Trubetskoy.

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 25 14 21 32 12 12 14 14

Ysearch: WUZG2

Bure kinship from Sweden[edit]

The male lineage of the medieval Bure kinship from Sweden has been identified as Y-DNA haplogroup G2a, based on several BigY tests carried out in 2014 on people living today. Descendants of two of the sons of Old Olof (who was born about 1380) were identified as G-Y12970*, and descendants of his alleged brother Fale as G-Y16788. The test result supports genealogical information recorded in about 1610 by Johan Bure. The DNA results also disproved a branch that was later added to the family book.[71]

Figures from popular culture[edit]

Warren Buffett and Jimmy Buffett[edit]

Warren Buffett and Jimmy Buffett belong to Y-DNA haplogroup I1 which is most common in and around Scandinavia.[72] However, they are not closely related.[73]

Nick Donofrio[edit]

Nick Donofrio belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J-M172.[74]

Eddie Izzard[edit]

Eddie Izzard belongs to haplogroup I-M223 according to the documentary series Meet the Izzards.[75]

Nelson Mandela[edit]

Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, belonged to haplogroup E-V38 (also known as "E1B1a") typical of Bantu peoples.[25][27]

Mike Nichols[edit]

Mike Nichols belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b.[76]

Dr. Mehmet Cengis Oz also known as Dr. Oz[edit]

Dr. Mehmet Oz belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b.[77]

Chris Rock[edit]

American comedian Chris Rock belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup B (subclade B2a1). He is paternally descended from the Udeme people of Cameroon.[78]

Desmond Tutu[edit]

Desmond Tutu, South African retired Archbishop of Cape Town, according to a study on Southern African genetics belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a1g.[24]

Spencer Wells[edit]

Spencer Wells, the project director of The Genographic Project, is a member of haplogroup R1b.[79]


Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J    LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] NO [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
N   O   K2b1 [χ 10]     P
K2b1a[χ 11]     K2b1b K2b1c      M     P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S [χ 12] Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Paul Rincon, 2010, "DNA analysed from early European" BBC News". news.bbc.co.uk. 27 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "?" (PDF). eva.mpg.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2011. 
  3. ^ "The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health". Scientific American. 
  4. ^ "First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover – Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News". Dsc.discovery.com. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  5. ^ Per Holck (2006-08-01). "The Oseberg Ship Burial, Norway: New Thoughts On the Skeletons From the Grave Mound". Eja.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  6. ^ Ermini, Luca (30 October 2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. 
  7. ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, Gosling AL, Boocock J, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. (May 25, 2016). "A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155046. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155046. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d Gill, P; Ivanov, P; Kimpton, C; Piercy, R; Benson, N; Tully, G; Evett, I; Hagelberg, E; Sullivan, K (1994). "Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis". Nature Genetics. 6: 130–135. doi:10.1038/ng0294-130. PMID 8162066. 
  9. ^ Ivanov, P; Wadhams, M; Roby, R; Holland, M; Weedn, V; Parsons, T (1996). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II". Nature Genetics. 12: 417–420. doi:10.1038/ng0496-417. PMID 8630496. 
  10. ^ Coble, M; Loreille, O; Wadhams, M; Edson, S; Maynard, K; Meyer, C; Niederstätter, H; Berger, B; Falsetti, A; Gill, P; Parson, W; Finelli, L (2009). "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis". PLoS ONE. 4 (3): e4838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. PMC 2652717Freely accessible. PMID 19277206. 
  11. ^ Caramelli, D; Lalueza-Fox, C; Capelli, C; Lari, M; Sampietro, ML; Gigli, E; Milani, L; Pilli, E; Guimaraes, S; Chiarelli, B; Marin, VT; Casoli, A; Stanyon, R; Bertranpetit, J; Barbujani, G. (November 2007). "Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca". Forensic Science International. 173 (1): 36–40. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.01.020. PMID 17320326. 
  12. ^ Joy Ibsen's mtDNA sequence: 16069T, 16126C, 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1C in Ashdown-Hill, John (2010). The Last Days of Richard III. Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 9780752454047. 
  13. ^ "Richard III dig: 'It does look like him'". BBC News. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
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