List of genocides by death toll

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This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide. It does not include non strictly-genocidal mass killing (variously called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, classicide, war crimes) such as the Thirty Years War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Red Terror (100,000 to 1.3 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (1 to 15 million deaths), the Great Purge (0.6 to 1.75 million deaths) or the Great Leap Forward (15 to 55 million deaths).


The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".[1]

List of genocides[edit]

Event Location From To Lowest
Proportion of group killed
The Holocaust[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 5,750,000
Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[5]
Generalplan Ost[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 4,500,000
13.7% of the Soviet Union's population died during WWII

Deaths include 1.3 million Jews, which are included in the deaths of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust,[4] as well as the deaths of more than 3 million Soviet POWs.[4]

Holodomor (Голодомор)[N 2]
(Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1932 1933 1,800,000
Genocide of Ukrainians through artificial starvation by the Soviet regime.[28] At least 10% of Ukraine's population perished.[29] Its characterization as a genocide is disputed by some historians.[30][31][32]
Nazi genocide of Poles[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1939 1945 1,800,000
17% of Poland's population was killed or died during World War II
Cambodian genocide[N 3] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
10–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[45][46] including:

100% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N 4]
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic 1931 1933 1,300,000
Some historians assume that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[48] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[49]
Great Famine (Ireland)[N 5] United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1845 1849 775,000
Historians both Irish and foreign dispute that the famine was a genocide at all.[a][51] 25% of the Irish population at the time died in the famine or fled the country.
Armenian genocide Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N 6] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1922 700,000
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[52]
Indonesian genocide[N 7] Indonesia 1965 1966 500,000
Some scholars now argue that the Indonesian massacres constitute genocide by the legal definition.[65][55][59][66][67]
Rwandan genocide[N 8] Rwanda 1994 1994 500,000
70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed
1/3 of Twa in Rwanda killed
20% of Rwanda's total population killed
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 9] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey)
1914 1922 500,000
Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N 10] Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Circassian genocide[N 11] Circassia, Caucasus 1864 1867 400,000
90% to 97% of total Circassian population perished and deported by the Russian forces.[90][91][92]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 12] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbian Syrmia) 1941 1945 357,000
13% to 21% of the Serbian population of Croat ruled Yugoslavia was killed.[97] Estimates ranging between 200,000 and 500,000 Serbs killed by the Ustaše.[98][99][100][101]
(See death toll of Serbian genocide)
Genocide in Bangladesh[N 13] East Pakistan 1971 1971 300,000 3,000,000
2%[97] to 4%[105] of Bangladesh's total population killed
Over 20% of Bengali Hindus killed[106]
(Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
Demographic catastrophes in Algeria (1830-1871)[N 14] Ottoman Algeria and French Algeria





10%[117] to 1/3[118][116] of Algeria's population died during the period
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil[N 15] Brazil



87 out of 230 Brazilian tribes went extinct during the period[127]
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)[N 16]
Languedoc, France 1209 1229 200,000
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 17] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1923 200,000
Irish genocide[N 18] Ireland 1649 1653 200,000
20-40% of the population of Ireland perished during the Cromwellian conquest[137][138]
Wu Hu genocide[N 19] Northern China 350 351 200,000
Genocide of the Tencteri and Usipetes Germania 55 BC 55 BC 150,000
Battle of Carthage
(Punic genocide)
[N 20]
Carthage (territories of present-day Tunis, Tunisia) 149 BC 149 BC 150,000
150,000 Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[147]
Aardakh[N 21]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
Soviet Union, North Caucasus 1944 1948 144,704
[148][page needed][155][156][157]
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[154][148][page needed][149][150][157]
Romani genocide[N 22] German-occupied Europe 1935 1945 130,000
25% of Romani people in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 23] Soviet Union 1937 1938 111,091
Jewish genocide during the Russian White Terror[N 24] what is now Ukraine and Russia 1918 1923 100,000
An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia were killed in pogroms perpetrated by Denikin's forces as well as Petlyura's nationalist-separatists.
Darfur genocide[N 25] Darfur, Sudan



East Timor genocide[N 26] East Timor 1975 1999 85,320
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
1972 Genocide of Burundian Hutus[N 27] Burundi 1972 1972 80,000
5% of Burundi's population was killed in the 1972 genocide.[97]
Libyan genocide[N 28] Italian Libya 1923 1932 80,000
25% of Cyrenaican population killed[193]
Bambuti genocide[N 29] North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002 2003 60,000
40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 30]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[N 31] Eastern part of pre-war Poland 1943 1945 50,000
4% to 20% of the pre-war (1931) Second Polish Republic's total Polish population of Voivodeships: stanisławowskie, tarnopolskie and wołyńskie[208] where killed.
Genocide of Isaaqs[N 32] Somalia 1988 1991 50,000
Kurdish genocide[N 33] Iraq 1986 1989 50,000
8% of the Kurdish population of Iraq was killed.[97]
Chetnik war crimes[N 34] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sandžak) 1941 1945 47,000
Genocide in German South West Africa[N 35] German South-West Africa 1904 1908 34,000
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[239]) to 81.25% (65,000[242][243] out of 80,000[244]) of total Herero and 50%[239] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N 36] Guatemala 1962 1996 32,632
40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[97]
1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis[N 27] Burundi 1993 1993 25,000
Genocide of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Cossack insurgents[N 37] Zaporozhian Cossacks insurgents on territory of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ukraine and Belarus 1648 1657 18,000
45-50% of the Jewish population of Ukraine was killed.[254]
Latvian Operation of the NKVD
(Latvian genocide)[N 38]
Soviet Union 1937 1938 16,573
California genocide[N 39] California



9,492 - 16,094


Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 40] Queensland, Australia



3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[272] to 65,180[273] killed out of 125,600[274] 300,000[274] people)
Rohingya genocide[N 41] Myanmar



9,000 - 13,700


Bosnian genocide[N 42] 1992 1995 8,373
More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina perished during the Bosnian War.[290]
Decossackization[N 43] Former Russian Empire



fewer than 5,598


Chittagong Hill Tracts genocide[N 44] Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh 1977 1997 3,000
[N 45]
Selk'nam genocide[N 46] Chile, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.[310][311]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 47] northern Iraq and Syria 2014 Present 2,100
Genocide of the Moriori[N 48] Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1835 1863 1,900
1,900 95% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe.[319][320] All were enslaved and many were cannibalized.[321] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[322] The Moriori language is now extinct.[316][323] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[318]
Conquest of the Desert and Mapuche decline[N 49] Patagonia, modern day Argentina



Mapuche population reduced from 250,000 to 25,000.[325]
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 50]
Tasmania, Australia Mid 1820s 1832 400

Descriptions of the genocides[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-organized, persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the German Nazi government and its collaborators. Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[2]
    By extending its definition the Holocaust may also refer to the other victims of German war crimes during the rule of Nazism, such as the Romani genocide's victims, Poles and other Slavic civilian populations and POWs, victims of Germany's eugenics program, political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and civil hostages and resisters from all over Europe during World War II.
  2. ^ In 2003 Holodomor, the man-made famine in Ukraine, was recognized by the United Nations as the result of actions and policies of the Soviet government of Joseph Stalin that caused millions of deaths,[8] and in 2008 by the European Parliament as a crime against the Ukrainian people, and against humanity.[9] Holodomor is considered a genocide in Ukraine,[10], Australia,[11] Canada,[12] Colombia,[13] Ecuador,[14] Estonia,[15] Georgia,[15] Hungary,[15] Latvia,[15] Lithuania,[15] Mexico,[15] Paraguay,[15] Peru,[15] Poland,[16] and Vatican City,[15] while the Russian Federation views it as part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932-33.[17] Scholars are divided and their debate is inconclusive on whether the Holodomor falls under the definition of genocide.[18]
  3. ^ The Cambodian genocide was carried out by the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[34] who, planning to create a form of agrarian socialism founded on an extremist ideology coupled with ethnic hostility, forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labor, and starvation.
    [35][36][37] The genocide ended in 1979 with the Cambodian invasion by the Vietnamese army.[38] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[39] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[40] On 7 August 2014, two top leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, received life sentences for crimes against humanity.[41]
  4. ^ Genocide of Kazakhs through artificial starvation by the USSR.
  5. ^ The Irish Great Famine/Genocide refers to the British creating a Man-Made famine in Ireland from 1845-1849, causing a steep population drop due to mortality and emigration. It is disputed whether it was a genocide or an unintentional famine by many historians. I In 1996, Francis A. Boyle, a law professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, wrote a report commissioned by the New York-based Irish Famine/Genocide Committee, which concluded that the British government deliberately pursued a race- and ethnicity-based policy aimed at destroying the group commonly known as the Irish people and that the policy of mass starvation amounted to genocide per the Hague Convention of 1948 Ritschel, Dan (1996), The Irish Famine: Interpretive & Historiographical Issues, Department of History, University of Maryland, archived from the original on 21 February 2009
  6. ^ The extermination of the Armenians, carried out by the Young Turks, led to the coining of the word "genocide". It included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, mass starvation, and occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides. The State of Turkey denies a genocide ever occurred.
  7. ^ The Indonesian genocide,[54][55][56]:4 Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide,[57][58] or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government. It began as an anti-communist purge following a controversial attempted coup d'état by the 30 September Movement in Indonesia. The most widely published estimates were that 500,000 to more than one million people were killed,[56][59][60][61] with some more recent estimates going as high as two to three million.[62][63] The purge was a pivotal event in the transition to the "New Order" and the elimination of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as a political force, with impacts on the global Cold War.[citation needed] The upheavals led to the fall of President Sukarno and the commencement of Suharto's three-decade authoritarian presidency.
  8. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognized by the international community as a genocide.
  9. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000-1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  10. ^ Zunghar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Zunghar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Zunghar men and enslaving Zunghar women and children.[72] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[73][74] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Zunghars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Zunghar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[75][76][77] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[75][78] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[75] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[75] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[79]
  11. ^ The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement,[80] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenous Circassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.[81] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[82] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology; to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognize the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people.[83] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognized as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognized as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[84] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events.[84][85][86] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution[87] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  12. ^ Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. The government of the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and some dissident Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[93]
  13. ^ Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[102]
  14. ^ Over the course of the French conquest of Algeria there where a series of demographic catastrophes in Algeria due to a variety of factors. The demographic crisis was such that, in a more than 300 page demographic study, Dr. René Ricoux, head of demographic and medical statistics at the statistical office of the General Government of Algeria, foresaw the simple disappearance of Algerian "natives as a whole."[107] Algerian demographic change can be divided into three phases: an almost constant decline during the conquest period, up until it's most heavy drop from an estimated 2.7 million in 1861 to a brutal fall to 2.1 million in 1871, and finally moving into a gradual arising[108] to a level of three million inhabitants by 1890. Causes range from a series of famines, diseases, emigration;[109] to the violent methods used by the French army during their Pacification of Algeria which Turkey[110][111] and some historians[112] argue to constitute acts of genocide; however other sources contest this.[113][114]
  15. ^ The process that has been described as the genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil began with the Portuguese colonization of the Americas, when Pedro Álvares Cabral made landfall in what is now the country of Brazil in 1500. This started the process that led to the depopulation of the indigenous peoples in Brazil, because of disease and violent treatment by European settlers, and their gradual replacement with colonists from Europe and Africa. Over eighty indigenous tribes were destroyed between 1900 and 1957, and the overall indigenous population declined by over eighty percent, from over one million to around two hundred thousand. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution recognises indigenous peoples' right to pursue their traditional ways of life and to the permanent and exclusive possession of their "traditional lands", which are demarcated as Indigenous Territories.[119] In practice, however, Brazil's indigenous people still face a number of external threats and challenges to their continued existence and cultural heritage.[120] The process of demarcation is slow—often involving protracted legal battles—and FUNAI do not have sufficient resources to enforce the legal protection on indigenous land.[121][120][122][123][124]
  16. ^ The Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism, a Christian sect, in Languedoc, in southern France. The Catholic Church considered them heretics and ordered that they should be completely eradicated. Raphael Lemkin referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[128] Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Solveig Björnson describe it as "the first ideological genocide."[129]
  17. ^ The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  18. ^ The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament in August 1649. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, most of Ireland came under the control of the Irish Catholic Confederation. In early 1649, the Confederates allied with the English Royalists, who had been defeated by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. By May 1652, Cromwell's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars (or Eleven Years' War). However, guerrilla warfare continued for a further year. Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics (the vast majority of the population) and confiscated large amounts of their land. During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652. Its goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands.[citation needed] The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted in an attempt by the English to transfer the native population to the western fringes to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy was reflected in a phrase attributed to Cromwell: "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been described by historians as genocide.[134] The Biblical account of Joshua and the Battle of Jericho was used by Oliver Cromwell to justify genocide against Catholics.[135]:3[136]
  19. ^ When he heard of the Jie revolt against him, Ran Min issued his famous "extermination order", in which he called on the Chinese to kill all the Wu Hu. The Wu Hu had conquered Ran Wei half a century earlier. The effect of Ran Min's order was immense; some 200,000 Jie were killed in Yecheng (the Wei capital) in a few days, and brutal fighting broke out between Chinese and Wu Hu throughout North China.[139]
  20. ^ The massacre of Carthiginians (Punics) during their defeat by the Roman Republic is considered a genocide by many scholars.[142][143][144][145][146]
  21. ^ Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[148][page needed][149][150][151] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[152][153]
  22. ^ Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[158][159] In 1982, West Germany formally recognized that genocide had been committed against the Romani.[160] In 2011, the Polish Government passed a resolution for the official recognition of 2 August as a day of commemoration of the genocide.[161]
  23. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[165] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[166] Polish writer and commentator, Dr Tomasz Sommer, also refers to the operation as a genocide, along with Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz among others.[167][168][169][170][171][172][173]
  24. ^ It refers to the Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia were killed in pogroms perpetrated by Anton Denikin's armies as well as Petlyura's nationalist-separatists during the White Terror campaign of the Russian Civil War.
  25. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21at century.[177] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[178]
  26. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[181][182] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[183] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[184]
  27. ^ a b Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  28. ^ The Pacification of Libya,[189] also known as the Libyan Genocide[190][191][192][193] or Second Italo-Senussi War,[194] was a prolonged conflict in Italian Libya between Italian military forces and indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order that lasted from 1923 until 1932,[195][196] when the principal Senussi leader, Omar Mukhtar, was captured and executed.[197] The pacification resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica—one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict.[190] Italy committed major war crimes during the conflict; including the use of chemical weapons, episodes of refusing to take prisoners of war and instead executing surrendering combatants, and mass executions of civilians.[193] Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling 100,000 Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica, from their settlements that were slated to be given to Italian settlers.[189][198] Italy apologized in 2008 for its killing, destruction and repression of the Libyan people during the period of colonial rule, and went on to say that this was a "complete and moral acknowledgement of the damage inflicted on Libya by Italy during the colonial era."[199]
  29. ^ Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004.[201] [202]
  30. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000[203] implying a 40% decline
  31. ^ Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia was a genocide carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (the UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Eastern Galicia, parts of Polesia and Lublin region, beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945. On 22 July 2016, the Parliament of Poland passed a resolution recognizing the massacres as Genocide[204][205]
  32. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[209][210] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[211] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources,[212][213][214] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[215] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[216] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[217] and had caused 400,000[218][219] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[220] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[221][222][223] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[211] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[211]
  33. ^ The Kurdish genocide also known as al-Anfal campaign (Arabic: حملة الأنفال‎), [226] was a series of genocidal operations[227] against the Kurdish people and other non-Arab populations in northern Iraq, that was led by the Ba'athist Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and was headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War. The code name chosen by the former Iraqi Baathist government for this campaign takes its name from Surat al-Anfal, the eighth chapter of the Quran. The Anfal operations also targeted Assyrians, Shabaks, Iraqi Turkmens, Yazidis, Jews, Mandaeans, and many villages belonging to these ethnic groups were also destroyed. The Anfal campaign was recognized as a genocide by Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and South Korea.
  34. ^ Massacres of ethnic Croats and Muslims by Serbian Chetniks across large areas of the Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Sandžak) during World War II in Yugoslavia. Genocidal characteristics of the massacres can be seen through the Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, concerning the cleansing of non-Serbs on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia.[231][232][233] Death toll by ethnicity includes between 18,000 and 32,000 Croats and 29,000 to 33,000 Muslims.[234][235][236]
  35. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  36. ^ Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[245][246] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[247] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[248]
  37. ^ During the Khmelnytsky Uprising genocidal massacres were perpetrated against Jewish communities in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Ukrainian Cossacks and Crimean Tatars.[253]
  38. ^ The Latvian Operation refers to mass arrest and execution of Latvians during the Stalinist Great Purge.
  39. ^ The California genocide[262][263] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856 - 1859,[264] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[265] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  40. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[268] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[269][270][271][272]
  41. ^ The Rohingya genocide[275][276][277][278] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group.[279] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression".[280] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  42. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localized, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[283] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[284] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[285] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[286]
  43. ^ Decossackization (Russian: Расказачивание, Raskazachivaniye) was the Bolshevik policy of systematic repressions against Cossacks of the Russian Empire, especially of the Don and the Kuban, between 1917 and 1933 aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks as a separate ethnic, political, and economic entity.[291] This was the first example of Soviet leaders deciding to "eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory," which they had taken to calling the "Soviet Vendée"[291] Most authors[who?] characterize decossackization as a genocide of the Cossacks,[292][293][294][151][295] a process described by scholar Peter Holquist as part of a "ruthless" and "radical attempt to eliminate undesirable social groups" that showed the Soviet regime's "dedication to social engineering".[296][297]
  44. ^ In Bangladesh, the persecution of the indigenous tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts such as the Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Jumma people and others who are mainly Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, and Animists, has been described as genocidal, with Chackmas reportedly the worst affected.[300][301][302][303][304] The Chittagong Hill Tracts are located bordering India, Myanmar and the Bay of Bengal, and is the home to 500,000 indigenous people. The perpetrators were the Bangladeshi military and the Bengali people of the Chittagong division, who together have burned down Chackma homes, killed many Chakmas, and there were some reports of rape of the indigenous women. There are also accusations of Chakmas being forced to convert to Islam. The conflict started soon after Bangladeshi independence, in 1972 when the Constitution imposed Bengali as the sole official language of the country. Subsequently, the government encouraged and sponsored massive settlement by Bangladeshis in the region, which changed the demographics from 98 percent indigenous in 1972 to fifty percent by 1997. The government allocated a full third of the Bangladeshi military to the region to support Bengali settlers, sparking a protracted guerrilla war between Hill tribes and the military.[301] During this conflict, which officially ended in 1997, a large number of human rights violations against the indigenous peoples have been reported.[305] Amnesty International estimates that up to 90,000 indigenous families were displaced.[306] Following the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord in 1997, though no further violence have been reported, promised land reforms have only at best been partially fulfilled despite repeated promises by the Bangladeshi government reported Amnesty International in 2013.[306] Chakmas also live in India's Tripura state where a Tripuri separatist movement is going on.[307]
  45. ^
    • In 1980, Bangladeshi armed forces attacked the village of Kawkhali and left 300 dead.
    • Another massacre occurred on 3 March when the Bangladeshi armed forces killed between 3,000 and 4,000 people.
    • Another massacre occurred on 25 March 1981 in which settlers attacked and killed 500 people in Matiranga.
    • Another massacre occurred in 1989 in Longudu which left 40 Jumma peoples dead and displaced a further 13,000.
    • Another massacre occurred in 1992 in Logang which caused the deaths of hundreds <100-900> of people with reports that hundreds had been burned alive and others shot dead while trying to escape. The incident led to the EU passing a resolution requesting that Bangladesh put a halt to continued violence in the CHT.
    >Roy, Rajkumari Chandra (2000). Land Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 123. ISBN 978-8790730291. >Jonassohn, Kurt; Karin Solveig Björnson (1998). Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Transaction. p. 257. ISBN 1560003146. >The Election Archives. Shiv Lal. 2018-01-29. p. 218. >D'Costa, Bina (2012). Aspinall, Edward; Jeffrey, Robin; Regan, Anthony, eds. Diminishing Conflicts in Asia and the Pacific: Why Some Subside and Others Don't. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-0415670319. >Arens, Jenneke (2010). Samuel Totten, Robert K. Hitchcock, ed. Genocide of indigenous Peoples. Transaction. p. 141. ISBN 978-1412814959. >Jensen, Marianne (2001). Suhas Chakma, Marianne Jensen, ed. Racism Against Indigenous Peoples. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 209. ISBN 978-8790730468. >
  46. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[309]
  47. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[312] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[313] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
  48. ^ The genocide of the Moriori began in the fall of 1835. The invasions of the Chatham Islands left the Moriori people and their culture to die off. Those who survived were either kept as slaves or eaten and Moriori were not sanctioned to marry other Moriori or have children within their race. This caused their people and their language to be endangered. There were only 101 Moriori people left out of 2000 who had survived in 1863.[316]
  49. ^ The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s with the intent to establish Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia and ended the possibility of Chilean expansion there. The Conquest is highly controversial. Apologists have described the Conquest as bringing civilisation, while revisionists have labelled it a genocide.
  50. ^ The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[326] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[327] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.

Images of the genocides[edit]

See also[edit]

Political extermination campaigns[edit]


  1. ^ "genocide includes murderous intent, and it must be said that not even the most bigoted and racist commentators of the day sought the extermination of the Irish" [...most people in Whitehall] "hoped for better times for Ireland" [...the claim of genocide overlooks] "the enormous challenge facing relief agencies, both central and local, public and private"[50]


  2. ^ For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN 978-1453203064.
  3. ^ Gilbert 2001, p. 245.
  4. ^ a b c d "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  5. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3
  6. ^ Zemskov, Viktor N. (2013). "The Extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War".
  7. ^ Human losses of the Soviet Union during the second World War. St. Petersburg: Russian Academy of Sciences. 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0.
  8. ^ Works related to Joint Statement on Holodomor at Wikisource.
  9. ^ European Parliament resolution on the commemoration of the Holodomor, the Ukraine artificial famine (1932–1933)
  10. ^ "The Artificial Famine/Genocide (Holodomor) in Ukraine 1932-33". InfoUkes. April 26, 2009.
  11. ^ "Foreign Affairs: Ukrainian Famine (No. 680)" (PDF). Journals of the Senate. 114: 2652–53. 30 October 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2004.
  12. ^ "Journals of the Senate No.72, 2nd Session, 37th Parliament" (PDF). 19 June 2003: 994–995. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  13. ^ "Columbia declares Holodomor an act of genocide". Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union. 25 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  14. ^ "Aprueba resolución: Congreso se solidariza con pueblo Ucraniano" [Resolution passed: Congress is in solidarity with Ukrainian people]. National Congress of Ecuador (in Spanish). 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "International Recognition of the Holodomor". 28 November 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  16. ^ "Sprawozdanie - Komisji Ustawodawczej oraz Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych - o projekcie uchwały w sprawie rocznicy Wielkiego Głodu na Ukrainie" [Report of the Legislative Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee - on the project resolution concerning the anniversary of the Great Famine in Ukraine] (PDF). Senate of the Republic of Poland (in Polish). 14 March 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  17. ^ "Russian lawmakers reject Ukraine's view on Stalin-era famine". Sputnik International. RIA Novosti. April 2, 2008.
  18. ^ David Marples (November 30, 2005). "The great famine debate goes on..." ExpressNews. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008.
  19. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2001). "Current knowledge of the level and nature of mortality in the Ukrainian famine of 1931–3" (PDF). In V. Vasil'ev; Y. Shapovala (eds.). Komandiri velikogo golodu: Poizdki V.Molotova I L.Kaganovicha v Ukrainu ta na Pivnichnii Kavkaz, 1932–1933 rr. Kyiv: Geneza.
  20. ^ Vallin, Jacques; France Meslé; Serguei Adamets; Serhii Pyrozhkov (2002). "A new estimate of Ukrainian population losses during the crises of the 1930s and 1940s" (PDF). Population Studies. 56 (3): 249–264. doi:10.1080/00324720215934. ISSN 0032-4728. PMID 12553326. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  21. ^ Meslé, France; Gilles Pison; Jacques Vallin (May 2005). "France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History" (PDF). Population and Societies (413): 1–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2006.
  22. ^ Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques (2003). Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXème siècle (in French). Contributions by Vladimir Shkolnikov, Serhii Pyrozhkov, Serguei Adamets. Institut National d'Études Démographiques (INED). ISBN 978-2733201527.
  23. ^ Rosefielde, Steven (1983). "Excess Mortality in the Soviet Union: A Reconsideration of the Demographic Consequences of Forced Industrialization, 1929–1949". Soviet Studies. 35 (3): 385–409. doi:10.1080/09668138308411488. JSTOR 151363.
  24. ^ Наливайченко назвал количество жертв голодомора в Украине [Nalyvaichenko called the number of victims of Holodomor in Ukraine] (in Russian). 14 January 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  25. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. London, UK: The Bodley Head. p. 53. ISBN 978-0224081412. One demographic retrojection suggests a figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about 2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation, carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine, provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933.
  26. ^ Marples, David R. (2007). Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Central European University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-963-7326-98-1. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  27. ^ "Ukraine - The famine of 1932–33". Encyclopædia Britannica. The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians. ... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine. ... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself.
  28. ^ Brent Bezo; Stefania Maggi (2015). "Living in "survival mode:" Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933 in Ukraine". Social Science & Medicine. 134: 87–94. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.009. PMID 25931287.
  29. ^ Paul R. Bartrop, Steven Leonard Jacobs (2014). Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection [4 volumes]: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 2064. ISBN 9781610693646.
  30. ^ Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2004). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9.
  31. ^ Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89. ISSN 2163-839X.
  32. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 115–142. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
  33. ^ "Genocide of Poles During World War II". Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  34. ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and International Justice. Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN 978-0816073108.
  35. ^ The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University.
  36. ^ Terry, Fiona (2002). Condemned to Repeat?: The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Cornell University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0801487965.
  37. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Reed, Holly E.; Keely, Charles B. (eds.). Forced Migration and Mortality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  38. ^ Mayersan, Deborah (2013). ""Never Again" or Again and Again". In Mayersen, Deborah; Pohlman, Annie (eds.). Genocide and Mass Atrocities in Asia: Legacies and Prevention. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 978-0415645119.
  39. ^ DeMello, Margo (2013). Body Studies: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-0415699303.
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  41. ^ McKirdy, Euan (April 7, 2014). "Top Khmer Rouge leaders found guilty of crimesagainst humanity, sentenced to life in prison". CNN. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  42. ^ Documentation Center of Cambodia
  43. ^ Yale Cambodian Genocide Program
  44. ^ The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust, and Modern Conscience. Touchstone. 1985. p. 115–16.
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  51. ^ Donnelly 2005.
  52. ^ a b Ginsborg, Paul (2014). Family Politics: Domestic Life, Devastation and Survival, 1900-1950. Yale University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780300211054.
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  60. ^ a b Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 p. 80.
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  63. ^ a b Gellately, Robert; Kiernan, Ben (July 2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 290–291. ISBN 978-0-521-52750-7. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
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  65. ^ Robinson, Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66. Princeton University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9781400888863. And while there is still no consensus on the matter, some scholars have described the Indonesian violence as genocide.
  66. ^ McGregor, Katharine; Melvin, Jess; Pohlman, Annie, eds. (2018). The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-71454-7.
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  68. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, 17 May 2011, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), p. 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Seven out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
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  89. ^ Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). "The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide". In Levine, Mark D and Penny Roberts, Massacres in History, pg. 154: "The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million"
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  91. ^ Ellen Barry (May 20, 2011). "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". The New York Times.
  92. ^ Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide, pg. 132:
    "If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported."
  93. ^ Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–10. ISBN 978-1557534552.
  94. ^ a b Excluding the Jews and Roma people sent to the German extermination camps.
  95. ^ a b "Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia - Croatia". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  96. ^ Other sources give higher numbers for Serbian deaths, as in Ball, Howard (2011). Genocide: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-488-7. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  97. ^ a b c d e Sunday, 20 February 2011 GENOCIDES from 1915 to 2006
  98. ^ Yeomans 2013, p. 18.
  99. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 719.
  100. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 114.
  101. ^ Pavlowitch 2008, p. 34.
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  103. ^ "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 25 March 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  104. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose commentsDawn Newspapers Online.
    Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website.
  105. ^ Quoting from "Bangladesh Genocide Archive".:[better source needed]
    As R.J. Rummel writes:

    "The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide [Rummel's 'death by government'] are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. ... The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II)." (Rummel, Death By Government, pg. 331.)

    1 in 25 is equal to 4%

  106. ^ Koenraad Elst Was There an Islamic "Genocide of Hindus?" 2 million deaths out of 9.5 million Hindus
  107. ^ The figurative demography of Algeria , Paris, Masson, 1880.
  108. ^ Kamel Kateb, Europeans, "Indigenes" and Jews in Algeria (1830-1962) , Paris, Ined / Puf, 2001.
  109. ^ The famine of 1866-1868 ( read online
  110. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique. "Turkey accuses France of genocide in Algeria". The Guardian.
  111. ^ "Turkey accuses France of genocide in colonial Algeria". BBC News.
  112. ^ Kiernan, Ben. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. p. 374.
  113. ^
  114. ^ To put an end to colonial repentance ( read online
  115. ^ Abderahman Bouchène, Jean-Pierre Peyroulou, Ouanassa Siari Tengour Sylvie Thenault, History of Algeria during the colonial period, from 1830 to 1962 ( read onlineérie+300,000&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=2pc2VfP_H8mOsAHA1ICIBQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false).
  116. ^ a b Kiernan, Ben. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. p. 364-365.
  117. ^ Jean-Baptiste Rivoire, The crime of Tibhirine: Revelations about those responsible ( read online ).érie+200,000+morts&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Fn05Va32D8KnsAH89YGYBw&ved=0CCYQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q&f=false
  118. ^ Colonize Exterminate. On War and the Colonial State , Paris, Fayard, 2005. See also the book by the American historian Benjamin Claude Brower, A Desert named Peace. The Violence of France's Empire in the Algerian Sahara, 1844-1902 , New York, Columbia University Press.
  119. ^ Federal Constitution of Brazil. Chapter VII Article 231.
  120. ^ a b "2008 Human Rights Report: Brazil". United States Department of State: Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 25 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  121. ^ "Indigenous Lands > Introduction > About Lands". Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Instituo Socioambiental (ISA). Archived from the original on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  122. ^ Borges, Beto; Combrisson, Gilles. "Indigenous Rights in Brazil: Stagnation to Political Impasse". South and Meso American Indian Rights Center. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  123. ^ Schwartzman, Stephan; Valéria Araújo, Ana; Pankararú, Paulo (1996). "Brazil: The Legal Battle Over Indigenous Land Rights". NACLA Report on the Americas. 29 (5). Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  124. ^ "Brazilian Indians 'win land case'". BBC News. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  125. ^
    Rudolph Rummel estimates the following Indian deaths:
    • Under republic (1900-30): 50,000 democides
    • Under Vargas (1930-45): 60,000
    • Under Dutra/Vargas (1945-64): 50,000
    • Under military (1964-85): 75,000
    TOTAL: 235,000
  126. ^ Robert Hitchcock & Tara Twedt: Indian population of Brazil declined from 1.0M to 0.2M between 1900 and 1957, a net loss of 800,000 (in Century of Genocide, Samuel Totten, ed., (1997))
  127. ^ Darcy Ribeiro, "Indigenous Cultures and Languages in Brazil", in Indians of Brazil in the Twentieth Century, Janice Hopper, ed. (1967): 87 Indian tribes in Brazil went extinct between 1900 and 1957 (Out of an original 230)
  128. ^ Lemkin, Raphael (2012). Jacobs, Steven Leonard (ed.). Lemkin on Genocide. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5.
  129. ^ Jonassohn, Kurt; Björnson, Karin Solveig (1998). Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4128-2445-3.
  130. ^ Tatz, Colin Martin; Higgins, Winton (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. ABC-CLIO. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4408-3161-4.
  131. ^ Robertson, John M. (1902). A Short History of Christianity. London, UK: Watts & Co. p. 254.
  132. ^ Travis, Hannibal. "'Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, pp. 327–371.
  133. ^ Assyrian Genocide; Lexicorient
  134. ^ genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • O'Leary, Brendam; McGarry, John (24 November 1995). Albert Breton (ed.). Regulating nations and ethnic communities. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-48098-7. Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'
    • Tim Pat Coogan (5 January 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide.
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (9 February 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene 2005 "[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state."
  135. ^ Daniel Chirot. Why Some Wars Become Genocidal and Others Don't (PDF). Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 17, 2008.
  136. ^ Robert Carrol; Stephen Prickett (1997). The Bible: Authorized King James Version with Apocrypha. Oxford University Press. p. 337. ISBN 9780192835253.
  137. ^ a b Mícheál Ó Siochrú/RTÉ ONE, Cromwell in Ireland Part 2. Broadcast 16 September 2008.
  138. ^ a b Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998, p. 278. Scott Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland.
  139. ^ a b Li and Zheng, pg 402
  140. ^ Julius Caesar battlefield unearthed in southern Netherlands, The Guardian (11 December 2015)
  141. ^ Ben Kiernan: Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur; Yale University Press, 2007.
  142. ^ a b Kiernan, Ben (2004-08-01). "The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC". Diogenes. 51 (3): 27–39. doi:10.1177/0392192104043648. ISSN 0392-1921.
  143. ^ Leavesley, Jordana. "Melos and Carthage: Genocide in the Ancient World".
  144. ^ Rubinstein, William D. (2014-07-10). Genocide. Routledge. ISBN 9781317869962.
  145. ^ Mann, Michael (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521538541.
  146. ^ Carthage: The Roman Holocaust (TV Movie 2004), retrieved 2017-08-13
  147. ^ a b "Atrocity statistics from the Roman Era". Retrieved 2017-08-13.
  148. ^ a b c Nekrich, Punished Peoples
  149. ^ a b Dunlop. Russia Confronts Chechnya, pp. 62-70
  150. ^ a b Gammer. Lone Wolf and the Bear, pp. 166-71
  151. ^ a b R. J. Rummel (1990). Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-887-3. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  152. ^ UNPO: Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944
  153. ^ Press-Release: February 23, World Chechnya Day - Save Chechnya Campaign Archived 2013-02-27 at the Wayback Machine
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  155. ^ Dunlop. Russia Confronts Chechnya, pp 62-70
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  157. ^ a b "Soviet Transit, Camp, and Deportation Death Rates". Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  158. ^ Milton, Sybil (February 1992). "Nazi Policies towards Roma and Sinti 1933-1945". Journal of Gypsy Lore Society. 5. 2 (1): 1–18. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  159. ^ "Holocaust Encyclopedia - Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939-1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). Retrieved August 9, 2011.
  160. ^ "Holocaust Memorial Day: 'Forgotten Holocaust' of Roma finally acknowledged in Germany". The Telegraph. January 27, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
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  163. ^ "Germany unveils Roma Holocaust memorial: Memorial commemorates the 500,000 Roma victims of the Nazi Holocaust during World War II". October 25, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  164. ^ Some estimates are higher, e.g. Sybil Milton: "Something between a half-million and a million-and-a-half Romanies and Sinti were murdered in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe between 1939 and 1945" in Latham, Judith, ed. (1995). "First US Conference on Gypsies in the Holocaust". Current Affairs Bulletin (3–23928).
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  168. ^ Franciszek Tyszka. "Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków z lat 1937-38 to zbrodnia większa niż Katyń (Genocide of Poles in the years 1937-38, a Crime Greater than Katyn)". Super Express. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  169. ^ "Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (To Execute the Poles. Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)". Historyton. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  170. ^ Andrzej Macura, Polska Agencja Prasowa (2010-06-24). "Publikacja na temat eksterminacji Polaków w ZSRR w latach 30 (Publication on the Subject of Extermination of Poles in the Soviet Union during the 1930s)". Portal Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  171. ^ Prof Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (22 March 2011). "Rozkaz N.K.W.D.: No. 00485 z dnia 11-VIII-1937, a Polacy". Polish Club Online. Retrieved April 28, 2011. See also, Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union), article published by The Polish Review vol. LV, No. 4, 2010.
  172. ^ "Sommer, Tomasz. Book description (Opis)". Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim w latach 1937-1938. Dokumenty z Centrali (Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union). Księgarnia Prawnicza, Lublin. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  173. ^ "Konferencja "Rozstrzelać Polaków – Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim" (Conference on Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union), Warsaw". Instytut Globalizacji oraz Press Club Polska in cooperation with Memorial Society. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  174. ^ Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press; ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. pg. 217.
  175. ^ Joshua Rubenstein. "The Devils' Playground". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011. Rubenstein is the Northeast regional director of Amnesty International USA and a co-editor of The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories.
  176. ^ a b Florinsky, Michael T. (1961). Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union. McGraw-Hill. p. 258. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
  177. ^ Williams 2012, p. 192.
  178. ^ Elhag 2014, p. 210.
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  180. ^ Quantifying Genocide in Darfur
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  181. ^ Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies.
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  184. ^ Chega! The CAVR Report Archived May 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  185. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    • This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.

    Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!
    Chega! The CAVR Report Archived May 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  186. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
    Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!,; accessed April 16, 2018.
    Chega! The CAVR Report Archived May 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
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  189. ^ a b Cardoza, Anthony L. (2006). Benito Mussolini: the first fascist. Pearson Longman. p. 109.
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  197. ^ "Detailed description of some fights" (in Italian). Regioesercito.
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  199. ^ Oxford Business Group (2008). The Report: Libya 2008. p. 17.
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  202. ^ Penketh 2004.
  203. ^ a b c "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Raja Seshadri (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  204. ^ "Senate recognizes Volhynia massacre to be genocide."
  205. ^ Radio Poland "Polish MPs adopt resolution calling 1940s massacre genocide",Polish-MPs-adopt-resolution-calling-1940s-massacre-genocide
  206. ^ Magocsi; A History of Ukraine, p 681
  207. ^ Terles In Ethnic Cleansing p61
    Czesław Partacz Prawda historyczna na prawda polityczna w badaniach naukowych. Przykład ludobójstwa na Kresach Południowo-Wschodniej Polski w latach 1939-1946
    Lucyna Kulińska "Dzieci Kresów III", Kraków 2009, p. 467
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  208. ^ Grzegorz Hryciuk Przemiany narodowościowe i ludnościowe w Galicji Wschodniej i na Wołyniu w latach 1931–1948, Toruń 2005, Wyd. Adam Marszałek , ISBN 83-7441-121-X s.139, Robert Potocki, Polityka państwa polskiego wobec zagadnienia ukraińskiego w latach 1930–1939, Lublin 2003, wyd. Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej, ISBN 83-917615-4-1, s.47-50.
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  226. ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul R. (2007). Dictionary of Genocide. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 252. ISBN 978-0313346422. Kurdish Genocide in Northern Iraq, (U.S. Response to). Well aware of the genocidal Al-Anfal campaign waged against the Kurds in northern Iraq by Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.
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  228. ^ Wong, Edward (5 April 2006). "Hussein Charged With Genocide in 50,000 Deaths". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  229. ^ Ochsenwald, William; Nettleton Fisher, Sydney (2003). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 659. ISBN 978-0072442335.
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  232. ^ Lerner 1994, p. 105.
  233. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 42.
  234. ^ Geiger, Vladimir Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  235. ^ Samuel Totten; William S. Parsons (1997). Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts. Routledge. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-203-89043-1. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  236. ^ Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. New York: Tylor and Francis. p. 84. ISBN 978-0714656250.
  237. ^ Geiger, Vladimir Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  238. ^ Geiger, Vladimir Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  239. ^ a b c Nuhn, Walter (1989). Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5852-4.
  240. ^ According to the 1985 United Nations' Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907.
  241. ^ Moses 2008, p. 296.
    Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy (2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 142. ISBN 978-0313362569.
    Schaller, Dominik J. (2008). From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. NY: Berghahn Books. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-8454-5452-4.
    Friedrichsmeyer, Sara L.; Lennox, Sara; Zantop, Susanne M. (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0472096824.
    Nuhn 1989.
    Hoffmann, Anette (2007). Marie-Aude Baronian; Stephan Besser; Yolande Jansen (eds.). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 978-90-420-2129-7. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  242. ^ "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC. August 14, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  243. ^ "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  244. ^ "UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985". Prevent Genocide International. paragraphs 14 to 24, pages 5 to 10
  245. ^ "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  246. ^ "Guatemala Memory of Silence" (PDF). Commission for Historical Clarification Conclusions and Recommendations. Guatemala City. 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  247. ^ CEH 1999, p. 20.
  248. ^ CEH 1999, p. 23.
  249. ^ Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  250. ^ Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  251. ^ Totten, p. 331
  252. ^ Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 978-0415944304.
  253. ^
    • "A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 ..." Samuel Totten. Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.
  254. ^ a b Stampfer, Shaul: Jewish History, vol 17: "What Actually Happened to the Jews of Ukraine in 1648?", pages 165–178. 2003. Abstract free
  255. ^ Edward H. Flannery. The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism, Paulist Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8091-4324-0, p. 158 and footnote 33, p. 327.
  256. ^ Max I. Dimont, Jews, God, and History, Signet Classic, 2004, ISBN 0-451-52940-5, p. 247.
  257. ^ Martin Gilbert, Jewish History Atlas, London, 1976, p. 530, cited in Herbert Arthur Strauss. Hostages of modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism 1870–1933/39, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, p. 1013, ISBN 3-11-013715-1 (footnote 3).
  258. ^ Other 1960s–1980s estimates of Jews killed:
    • "In 1648, under the leadership of Chmielnicki, they ravaged the land with fire and sword. Their hatred of the Jews was boundless and they rarely attempted to persuade the unfortunate to convert. These persecutions were characterized by hitherto-unknown atrocities. Children were torn apart or thrown into the fire before the eyes of their mothers, women were burned alive, men were skinned and mutilated. People must have thought hell had let loose all the tormenting monsters that medieval painters had portrayed dragging the condemned to eternal punishment. The roads were choked with thousands of refugees trying to escape the murderous hordes. The famous rabbis of the Talmud schools died by the hundreds as martyrs for their faith. The total number of the dead was estimated at about one hundred thousand." Hannah Vogt. The Jews: A Chronicle for Christian Conscience, Association Press, 1967, p. 72.
    • "In their revolt, the Ukrainians slaughtered over one hundred thousand Jews." Richard L. Rubenstein. Power Struggle: An Autobiographical Confession, Scribner, 1974, p. 95.
    • "Thus, when in 1648, the Ukrainians under Chmielnicki rose against Polish dominion the Jews were to bear the main brunt of their fury. Within eighteen months over three hundred Jewish townships were destroyed and over one hundred thousand Jews—about a fifth of Polish Jewry—perished. It was the greatest calamity the Jews were to experience until the rise of Hitler". Chaim Bermant. The Jews, Redwood Burn, 1978, ISBN 0-297-77419-0, p. 12.
    • "Under the leadership of the barbaric Bogdan Chmielnitski, they exploded in a revolt of terrible violence in which their anger at their Polish lords also turned against Jewish 'infidels,' some of whom had been used by the Poles as tax collectors... In the ten years between 1648 and 1658 no fewer than 100,000 Jews were killed." David Bamberger. My People: Abba Eban's History of the Jews, Behrman House, 1978, ISBN 0-87441-263-3, pp. 184–185.
    • "... set off bloody massacres, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657), in which nearly 300,000 Eastern European Jews were killed or uprooted." Gertrude Hirschler. Ashkenaz: The German Jewish Heritage, Yeshiva University Museum, 1988, p. 64.
  259. ^ Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
    • "Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule; 100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed." Judaism Timeline 1618–1770, CBS News. Accessed May 13, 2007.
    • "The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat Bogdan Chmielnicki. ... It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed". Oscar Reiss. The Jews in Colonial America, McFarland & Company, 2004, ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp. 98–99.
    • "Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki pogroms during the preceding century." Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, 2005,ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352.
    • "... as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage." Martin Gilbert. Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219.
    • "A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 ..." Samuel Totten. Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.
    • "In response to Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648 killed an estimated 100,000 Jews." Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7735-2976-4, p. 26
    • "Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the process?" Colin Martin Tatz. With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Verso, 2003, ISBN 1-85984-550-9, p. 146.
    • "... massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier." Mosheh Weiss. A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 0-7425-4402-8, p. 193.
  260. ^ Werth, Nicolas (20 May 2010). "The NKVD Mass Secret National Operations (August 1937 - November 1938)" (PDF). Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. pp. 4 of 10. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  261. ^ Werth, Nicolas (May 20, 2010). "The NKVD Mass Secret National Operations (August 1937 - November 1938)" (PDF). Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. pp. 4 of 10. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  262. ^ a b Benjamin Madley
    An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe,1846-1873
  263. ^ a b c "Retired Site | PBS Programs | PBS".
  264. ^ Blood and Soil A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur
    Chapter 8 Genocide in the United States
    Ben Kiernan pages: 310 - 363
  265. ^ Heizer 1993, Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper pages: 35 - 36
  266. ^ Only the range of deaths caused by massacred
  267. ^ The total population decline of the period overall
  268. ^ Ørsted-Jensen (2011).
  269. ^ The Partial Case for Queensland Genocide, Ray Gibbons
  270. ^ Queensland's Frontier Killing Times Facing Up to Genocide, by Hannah Baldry, Alisa McKeon, Scott McDougal
  271. ^ Colonial and modern genocide: explanations and categories, Alison Palmer
  272. ^ a b c Tatz, Colin (2006). "8. Confronting Australian Genocide". In Roger Maaka, Chris Andersen. The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Canadian Scholars Press. ISBN 978-1551303000.
  273. ^ a b Evans, Raymond & Ørsted–Jensen, Robert: 'I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier" (paper at AHA 9 July 2014 at University of Queensland) publisher Social Science Research Network
  274. ^ a b 40%-(Ørsted-Jensen, Robert (2011). Frontier History Revisited – Queensland and the 'History War'. Cooparoo, Brisbane, Qld: Lux Mundi Publishing. ISBN 9781466386822. ) of 314,000-(Hugo, Graeme (March 2012). "Population Distribution, Migration and Climate Change in Australia: An Exploration" (PDF). NCCARF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. / Gough, Myles (11 May 2011). "Prehistoric Australian Aboriginal populations were growing". Cosmos Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. )to 750,000-(Thomson, Neil (2001). "Indigenous Australia: Indigenous Health". In Jupp, James. The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their Origins. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0. ) people
  275. ^ R.C. (23 May 2018). "The Rohingya crisis bears all the hallmarks of a genocide". The Economist. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  276. ^ Camilla Siazon (8 May 2018). "The Rohingya Crisis and the Meaning of Genocide". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  277. ^ Associated Press (1 February 2018). "UN official says Rohingya crisis has 'hallmarks of genocide'". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  278. ^ Azeem Ibrahim (23 October 2017). "There's only one conclusion on the Rohingya in Myanmar: It's genocide". Cable News Network. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  279. ^ BBC (24 April 2018). "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  280. ^ BenarNews (23 August 2017). "Southeast Asia's Newest Rebel Group Calls Bangladesh 'Great Neighbor'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  281. ^ James Bennett (14 December 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  282. ^ Laignee Barron (8 March 2018). "More Than 43,000 Rohingya Parents May Be Missing. Experts Fear They Are Dead". Time. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  283. ^ Irwin, Rachel (13 December 2012). "Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  284. ^ Gutman, Roy (1993). A Witness to Genocide. Lisa Drew Books. ISBN 978-0020329954.
  285. ^ Thackrah, John Richard (2008). Routledge Companion to Military Conflict since 1945. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0-203-01470-7.
  286. ^ "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  287. ^ The figure considers only the estimated number of killed people in Srebrenica massacre based on the list of missing persons."Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica 1995". Potočari Memorial Center. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. The International Commission on Missing Persons recovered and identified 6,930 remains."Facts and Figures on Srebrenica". 31 July 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  288. ^ Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. (eds.). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4. Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  289. ^ The two figures consider all Bosniak civilians killed during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For the second figure, see: Ball, Patrick; Tabeau, Ewa; Verwimp, Philip (17 June 2007). "The Bosnian Book of Dead: Assessment of the Database" (PDF). Falmer: The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  290. ^ THE 1992-95 WAR IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: CENSUS-BASED MULTIPLE SYSTEM ESTIMATION OF CASUALTIES’ UNDERCOUNT1 Jan Zwierzchowski* and Ewa Tabeau** 1 February 2010 Conference Paper for the International Research Workshop on ‘The Global Costs of Conflict’ The Households in Conflict Network (HiCN) and The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) 1–2 February 2010, Berlin Page 15
  291. ^ a b Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p. 98
  292. ^ Orlando Figes. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN 0-14-024364-X
  293. ^ Donald Rayfield. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him Random House, 2004. ISBN 0-375-50632-2
  294. ^ Mikhail Heller & Aleksandr Nekrich. Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present.
  295. ^ Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed Archived December 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine University of York Communications Office, 21 January 2003
  296. ^ Making War, Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914-1921 - Peter Holquist - Google Boeken. 1917-03-08. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  297. ^ Peter Holquist. "Conduct merciless mass terror": decossackization on the Don, 1919"
  298. ^ Futoryansky L.I. Cossacks in the flames of the civil war in Russia (1918−1920). . - Orenburg: GOU OGU, 2003. - 474 p.
  299. ^ Reshetnikov L.P. Return to Russia. The third way, or dead ends of hopelessness. - M .: FIV, 2014. P.119
  300. ^ Gray 1994.
  301. ^ a b O'Brien 2004.
  302. ^ Mey 1984.
  303. ^ Moshin 2003.
  304. ^ Roy 2000.
  305. ^ Chakma & Hill 2013.
  306. ^ a b "Bangladesh: Indigenous Peoples engulfed in Chittagong Hill Tracts land conflict". Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  307. ^ "Tipraland movement: Autonomy is core to Tripura's tribal politics, but gaining power in state Assembly would be wiser".
  308. ^ Jonassohn, Kurt; Karin Solveig Björnson (1998). Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Transaction. p. 257. ISBN 1560003146.
  309. ^ a b Chapman, Anne (2010). European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, Before and After Darwin (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052151379-1.
  310. ^ a b Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos (in German). 79 (4/6): 645–7.
  311. ^ Ray, Leslie (2007). Language of the Land: The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. Copenhagen: IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). p. 95. ISBN 978-879156337-9.
  312. ^ "UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria: ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis". United Nations - Office of the High Commissioner. 16 June 2016.
  313. ^ HRC (2016). They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis (PDF). Human Rights Council Thirty-second session Agenda item 4. pp. 8–9, 21, 36.
  314. ^ a b Cetorelli, Valeria (9 May 2017). "Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey". PLOS Medicine. 14 (5): e1002297. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002297. PMC 5423550. PMID 28486492.
  315. ^ It is impossible to ascertain a precise figure which anyway is higher than some thousands (HRC 2016).
  316. ^ a b "The Genocide". Moriori Genocide. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  317. ^ Kopel et al., 2003.
  318. ^ a b Tommy Solomon Archived 23 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  319. ^ King, M. The Silence Beyond. Penguin, 2011; p. 190.
  320. ^ Denise Davis & Māui Solomon (28 Oct 2008). "Moriori: The impact of new arrivals". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. NZ Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  321. ^ Michael King (2000). Moriori: a People Rediscovered; revised ed. Published by Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0. Original edition 1989; pp. 57-58.
  322. ^ Murihiku timeline (Abandoned website) Backup copy at the Wayback Machine.
  323. ^ King, Michael (1989). "Moriori: A People Rediscovered". Auckland: Viking: 136.
  324. ^ The Argentine Military and the Boundary Dispute With Chile, 1870-1902, George V. Rauch, p. 47, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999
  325. ^ a b Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide, 109.
  326. ^ Henry Reynolds, "Genocide in Tasmania?",in A. Dirk Moses (ed.) Genocide and settler society:frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian History. Berghan Books, 2004 p.128
  327. ^ Clements 2014, p. 4
  328. ^ a b Clements 2013, pp. 329–331


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