List of glossing abbreviations

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This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.

Abbreviations beginning with N- (a common prefix for non-) or ending with -Z (a common suffix for -izer) may not be listed separately. For example, NPST non-past and TRZ transitivizer are not listed below, as they are composable from N- non- + PST past and TR transitive + -Z -izer.

Abbreviations are generally written in all caps or—apart from the terms A, S, O and P—in small caps, to distinguish them from lexical words.

Gloss Meaning
direction of transitivity or possession
(2›3 may mean 2 acts on 3; 1sg›sg may mean a 1sg possessor and a singular possessum)
0 zero (null), covert form
(such as gender in a language where the word does not show it)
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person
A agent-like argument of canonical transitive verb
ABE abessive case (AKA caritive case or privative case: 'without')
ABL ablative case ('from')
ABS absolutive case
ACC accusative case
ACCOM accompanier
ACT active voice, actor role (in role and reference grammar)
ADJ adjective
ADE adessive case ('at'; more specific than LOC)
ADM admonitive mood (warning)
ADV adverb(ial), adverbial case
AFF affirmative
AG, AGT agentive case (cf ACT)
AGR agreement
ALL allative case ('to')
AL, ALLOC allocutive agreement
ALIEN alienable possession
AN animate gender (cf R)
AND andative ('going towards', cf venitive)
ANT anterior tense (used for PRF in some traditions)
ANTE antessive case ('before')
ANTIC anticausative
ANTIP, AP antipassive voice
AOR aorist (= PFV or PST.PFV)
APP apposition
APL, APPL applicative voice
APPR apprehensive mood
APRX approximative
ART article
ASP aspect
ASS associative case (= COM), assumptive mood, assertive mood
AT agent trigger (= AV agent voice)
ATT attenuative; attributive (= ATTR)
AUD auditory evidential
AUG augmentative
AUX auxiliary verb
B benefactive (when it is a core argument)
BE 'be' verb (a conflation of EXIST and COP)
BEN benefactive case ('for')
C common gender; complementizer
CAP (cap)ability, modal case
CAU, CAUS causative
CENT centric case
CF counterfactual conditional
CIRC circumfix
CIT citation form
CL, CLF classifier
CNJ conjunction (= CONJ)
CNSQ consequential mood
COL collective number
COM comitative case ('together with')
COMP comparative; complementizer
COMPL, CPL completive aspect
CONC concessive
COND conditional mood
CONJ conjunction (= CNJ)
CONN connective particle
CONT, CTN continuous aspect; continuative aspect
CNTR contrastive
COP copula
COR coreference
CRAS crastinal tense ('tomorrow')
CRS current relevance marker (as in the perfect)
CVB converb
D core dative case
DAT dative case
DE different event, change of event (cf DS)
DEC, DECL declarative mood
DEF definite
DEI, DEIX deixis, deictic
DEL delayed imperative (a command to do s.t. later)
DEL delative case ('off of'), deliberative mood
DEM demonstrative
DEO deontic mood
DEP dependent (as in DEP.FUT)
DES, DESI desiderative mood
DEST destinative aspect
DET determiner
DETR detransitive
DH motion downhill, seaward (cf DR)
DIM diminutive
DIR direct evidential (= EXP); directional (= LAT); direct case
DISJ disjunction
DIST distal demonstrative
DISTR distributive case
DITR ditransitive
DLM delimited
DM discourse marker
DO direct object
DR motion downriver (cf DH)
DS different-subject (change of subject) marker (cf DE)
DU dual number
DUB dubitative mood
DUR durative aspect, continuous aspect
DY, DYAD dyadic
DYN dynamic aspect
E epenthetic morpheme
-E (used to form various -essive cases)
ELA elative case ('out of')
EMP emphatic
EPIS epistemic mood or modality
ERG ergative case
ESS essive case
EV, EVID evidential
EVIT evitative case (= aversive case)
EX, EXCL exclusive person
EXCLAM exclamative
EX.DUR excessive duration
EXESS exessive case
EXH exhortative
EXIST existential ('there is')
EXO exocentric case
EXP, EXPER experiential, eyewitness, = direct evidential
EXPL expletive (dummy / meaningless form)
F, FEM feminine gender
FACT factive evidential
FAM familiar register (as the T–V distinction)
FIN finite verb
FOC focus
FORM formal register (as the T–V distinction)
FP final particle (joshi)
FR, FREQ frequentative aspect
FMR former, deceased
FUT future tense
G gender (G4 = the 4th gender)
GEN genitive case
GER gerund
GNO gnomic (generic) aspect
GT goal trigger (Austronesian; = GV goal voice)
HAB habitual aspect
HBL humble register
HEST hesternal tense ('yesterday')
HIST historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense
HOD hodiernal tense ('today')
HON honorific
HORT hortative
HSY hearsay, reported evidential
HUM human, anthropic gender (cf. HBL; R)
HYP hypothetical mood
I inflected
ID identical (~ NID)
IDENTIF identifiable
IDEO ideophone (≈ MIM)
IGNOR ignorative
ILL illative case ('into')
IMM immediate, as in immediate imperative mood, near future tense
IMP imperative mood
IMPERF imperfect (= PST.IPFV)
IMPR, IMPREC imprecative mood
IMPRS impersonal verb
IN, INCL inclusive person
INAL inalienable possession
INAN inanimate gender
INCH, INCHO, INCEP inchoative aspect, inceptive aspect
INCL inclusive person (= IN)
IND indicative mood
INDF, NDEF indefinite
INE inessive case ('in')
INF infinitive
INFER, INFR inferential mood
INEL inelative case ('from within')
INS, INSTR instrumental case
INT intensifier; interrogative (= Q)
INTEN intentional
INTR, NTR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
INV inverse
IO indirect object
IPFV imperfective aspect (= NPFV)
IRR irrealis mood
IS indirect speech
ITER iterative aspect
JUS jussive mood
-L (used to form various -lative cases)
L2 second language (code-switching)
LAT lative case (= MVMT, direction)
LD locative case + directional
LK linker
LOC locative case (includes essive case)
LOG logophoric
M, MASC masculine gender
MAN manner
MID middle voice
MIM mimetic (≈ IDEO)
MIR (ad)mirative
MLT, MLTP multiplicative case
MOD mood, modal, modal case
MOM single action verb (not iterative)
MVT movement
N, NEUT neuter gender
N- non- (e.g. NSG non-singular, NPST non-past, NF non-feminine)
NEG negation, negative
NF non-finite (nonfinite verb, non-finite clause) or non-feminine
NH non-human
NMZ, NZ, NOMI nominalizer/nominalization
NOM nominative case
NS non-subject (see oblique case)
NTR, INTR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
NUM numeral
O patient-like argument (object) of canonical transitive verb (= P)
OBJ, OB object; objective case
OBL oblique case
OBV obviative
OPT optative mood
P patient-like argument of canonical transitive verb (= O)
P pre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal)
PART participle (= PTCP,PCP); particle (= PTCL); partitive case (= PTV)
PAS, PASS passive voice
PAT patientive (= UND)
PA, PAU paucal number
PEG pegative case (a special case for the giver)
PER perlative case ('per', using)
PERF, PRF perfect (= RET)
PERS personal
PFV perfective aspect
PL plural
PLU, PLUR pluractional
PM phrase marker, predicate marker
PN, PRO pronoun
PO primary object
POL polite register
POS, POSS possessive marker
POST postposition, postpositional case
POSTE postessive case ('after')
POSTEL postelative case
POT potential mood
PP past / passive participle
PPFV past perfective
PPP past passive participle
PR proper noun
PREC precative mood (requests)
PRED predicate, predicative
PREP preposition, prepositional case
PRESP present participle
PRET, PRT preterite (= PFV.PST)
PRF, PERF perfect (= RET)
PRIV privative case
PRS, PRES present tense
PROB probability
PROG progressive aspect
PROH prohibitive mood ('don't!')
PROL prolative case (= VIA)
PROP propositive mood
PROS prosecutive case ('across', 'along')
PROSP, PRSP prospective aspect
PROT protasis
PROX proximal demonstrative; proximate
PST past tense
PT patient trigger
PTCL, PTC particle
PTCP, PCP participle
PTV partitive case ('some of')
PURP purposive case
Q question word or particle (= INT)
QUOT quotative (quotative case or quotative mood)
R rational gender (thinking beings)
REAL realis mood
REC recent past tense
RECP reciprocal voice
REF referential
REFL reflexive (reflexive pronoun, reflexive voice)
REL relative(izer)
REM remote past tense
REP reported evidential (= HSY); repetitive (cf ITER)
RES resultative; resumptive
RET Retrospective (synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions)
RFR referential
S single argument of canonical intransitive verb (cf CIT)
SBJ, SUB subject
SBJV, SJV subjunctive mood
SE same event (cf SS)
SEM semelfactive aspect ('once')
SENS sensory evidential mood (= VIS+AUD)
SEQ sequential
SG singular (but 1.SG = 1s, 3MASC.SG = 3ms)
SGV singulative number
SIM simultaneous aspect; similative
SJV, SBJV subjunctive mood
SPEC specifier; speculative mood
SS same-subject marker (cf SE)
STAT, STV stative aspect, stative verb
SUB, SU subject
SUBR, SUBORD, SBRD, SR subordinator
SUBE subessive case ('under')
SUBL sublative case ('onto', 'down onto')
SUC successive ('then')
SUP(L) superlative (SUPL); supine; supplicative
SUPE superessive case ('on')
-T trigger (used for AT, PT)
TAM tense, aspect, or mood
TEL telic aspect (cf PFV)
TEMP temporal case
TERM terminative case
TNS tense
TOP topic
TR, TRANS transitive verb, transitive case (rare)
TRANSL translative case (becoming)
TRI trial number
TRN trans-numeral (neither SG nor PL)
TVF truth-value focus
U uninflected
UH motion uphill, inland (cf UR)
UND undergoer role (cf PAT)
UR motion upriver (cf UH)
USIT usitative, for usual, customary or typical events
V, VB verb or verbal
VBZ verbalizer
VD verb, ditransitive
VEN venitive (coming towards; cf andative)
VER veridical, veridical mood (a certain conditional)
VIA vialis case
VIS visible, visual
VI verb, intransitive
VN verbal noun
VOC vocative case
VOL volitive mood
VT verb, transitive
WH.Q wh- question
-Z -(al)izer (e.g. TRZ transitivizer)
ZO zoic gender (animals)


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