List of governors-general of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC).The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four (based in India) to assist the Governor General, and decision of council was binding on the Governor General during 1773–1784.

The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India. Lord William Bentinck was first to be designated as the Governor general of India in 1833.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, but the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India. The Council of India was later abolished by Government of India Act 1935.

Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'Viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in Warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the Sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the appointments of Governor-General of India which were made by the British Crown upon the advice of Secretary of State for India. The office of Governor-General continued to exist as a ceremonial post in each of the new dominions until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1957 respectively.

List of governors-general[edit]

Governors-General of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), 1773–1833
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notable events
Warren Hastings.jpg Warren Hastings
(1732–1818)
20 October
1773
[nb 1]
8 February
1785
  • Experimentation on land settlements. (1772-five years settlement, changed to 1 year in 1776)
  • English Translation of Bhagwat Gita by Charles Wilkins[3]
Captain John Macpherson (1726 - 1792) by anonymous (circa 1772-1792).jpg 8 February
1785
12 September
1786
Lord Cornwallis.jpg
The Earl Cornwallis
[nb 2]
(1738–1805)
12 September
1786
28 October
1793
JohnShore.jpg John Shore
(1751–1834)
28 October
1793
18 March
1798
Field Marshal Sir Alured Clarke.jpg Lt. Gen Sir Alured Clarke
(acting)
(1744–1832)
18 March
1798
18 May
1798
Richard Wellesley 2.JPG The Marquess Wellesley [nb 3]
(1760–1842)
18 May
1798
30 July
1805
Lord Cornwallis.jpg The Marquess Cornwallis
(1738–1805)
30 July
1805
5 October
1805
Sir George Barlow, 1st Bt from NPG crop.jpg Sir George Barlow, Bt
(acting)
(1762–1847)
10 October
1805
31 July
1807
Gilbert Eliot, 1st Earl of Minto by James Atkinson.jpg The Lord Minto
(1751–1814)
31 July
1807
4 October
1813
Francis, 1st Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira).jpg The Marquess of Hastings [nb 4]
(1754–1826)
4 October
1813
9 January
1823
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg John Adam
(acting)
(1779–1825)
9 January
1823
1 August
1823
Sir Thomas Lawrence - Lord Amherst.jpg The Earl Amherst[nb 5]
(1773–1857)
1 August
1823
13 March
1828
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg William Butterworth Bayley
(acting)
(1782–1860)
13 March
1828
4 July
1828
Governors-General of India, 1833–1858
Bentinck william.png Lord William Bentinck
(1774–1839)
4 July
1828
20 March
1835
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe by George Chinnery.jpg Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt
(acting)
(1785–1846)
20 March
1835
4 March
1836
  • Repealed 1823 Licensing Regulations
  • Known as Liberator of India Press
  • Establishment of Calcutta Public Library in 1836 (currently known as National Library of India)
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.png The Earl of Auckland[nb 6]
(1784–1849)
4 March
1836
28 February
1842
1stEarlOfEllenborough.jpg The Lord Ellenborough
(1790–1871)
28 February
1842
June
1844
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg William Wilberforce Bird
(acting)
(1784–1857)
June
1844
23 July
1844
Henryhardinge.jpg Henry Hardinge[nb 7]
(1785–1856)
23 July
1844
12 January
1848
Dalhousie.jpg The Earl of Dalhousie[nb 8]
(1812–1860)
12 January
1848
28 February
1856
Lord Viscount Canning.jpg The Viscount Canning[nb 9]
(1812–1862)
28 February
1856
31 October
1858
Governors-General and Viceroys of India, 1858–1947
Lord Viscount Canning.jpg The Viscount Canning[nb 9]
(1812–1862)
1 November
1858
21 March
1862
Elgin.png The Earl of Elgin
(1811–1863)
21 March
1862
20 November
1863
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala - Project Gutenberg eText 16528.png Robert Napier
(acting)
(1810–1890)
21 November
1863
2 December
1863
William Denison 2.jpg William Denison
(acting)
(1804–1871)
2 December
1863
12 January
1864
SirJohnLawrence 16246.jpg Sir John Lawrence, Bt
(1811–1879)
12 January
1864
12 January
1869
6th Earl of Mayo.jpg The Earl of Mayo
(1822–1872)
12 January
1869
8 February
1872
John Strachey (civil servant) (cropped).jpg Sir John Strachey
(acting)
(1823–1907)
9 February
1872
23 February
1872
FrancisNapier10thLordNapier.jpg The Lord Napier
(acting)
(1819–1898)
24 February
1872
3 May
1872
Arthur Stockdale Cope - Thomas George Baring, Earl of Northbrook.jpg The Lord Northbrook
(1826–1904)
3 May
1872
12 April
1876
Robert Bulwer-Lytton by Nadar.jpg The Lord Lytton
(1831–1891)
12 April
1876
8 June
1880
George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon.jpg The Marquess of Ripon
(1827–1909)
8 June
1880
13 December
1884
  • First Factory Act (1881)
  • Negotiable Instruments Act (1881)
  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
  • Ilbert Bill (1883)
  • foundation of Punjab university
  • Government resolution on local self-government (1882)
  • Appointment of Education Commission under Sir William Hunter
  • First complete Census
  • Father of local self-government in India (Ripon's Resolution of 1882)
Young Lord Dufferin.jpg The Earl of Dufferin
(1826–1902)
13 December
1884
10 December
1888
Marquess of Lansdowne crop.jpg The Marquess of Lansdowne
(1845–1927)
10 December
1888
11 October
1894
9thEarlOfElgin.jpg The Earl of Elgin (1849–1917) 11 October
1894
6 January
1899
George Curzon2.jpg The Lord Curzon of Kedleston[nb 10]
(1859–1925)
6 January
1899
18 November
1905
  • Indian famine of 1899–1900
  • Partition of Bengal (1905)
  • Official Secrets Act 1904 to curb free press
  • 2nd Delhi Durbar out of 3 (1903)
  • Appointment of Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer
  • Appointment of Raleigh University Commission (1902)
  • famine commission under Macdonell
  • new department commerce and industry was established
  • The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897-98 led him to create the Northwestern frontier province
  • PUSA agriculture institute in 1903
Earl Minto.jpg The Earl of Minto
(1845–1914)
18 November
1905
23 November
1910
Charles Hardinge01 crop.jpg The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst
(1858–1944)
23 November
1910
4 April
1916
  • Third Delhi Durbar (1911)
  • Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa in 1915
  • bomb was thrown at him near Chandni chowk but escaped unhurt
  • Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911)
  • Partition of Bengal to form Bihar province (1912)
  • McMahon border line was created between India and China in 1914
  • Ghadar Mutiny (1915)
Chelmsford Governor.jpg The Lord Chelmsford
(1868–1933)
4 April
1916
2 April
1921
Rufus Isaacs.jpg The Earl of Reading
(1860–1935)
2 April
1921
3 April
1926
1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg The Lord Irwin
(1881–1959)
3 April
1926
18 April
1931
Freeman Freeman-Thomas by Henry Walter Barnett.jpg The Earl of Willingdon
(1866–1941)
18 April
1931
18 April
1936
Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow.jpg The Marquess of Linlithgow
(1887–1952)
18 April
1936
1 October
1943
Archibald Wavell2.jpg The Viscount Wavell
(1883–1950)
1 October
1943
21 February
1947
Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, 1943. TR1230 (cropped).jpg The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
(1900–1979)
21 February
1947
15 August
1947
Governors-General of the Dominion of India, 1947–1950
Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, 1943. TR1230 (cropped).jpg The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma[nb 11]
(1900–1979)
Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari.jpg Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
21 June
1948
26 January
1950
  • Last Governor-General of India, before the office was permanently abolished in 1950
Notes
  1. ^ Originally joined on 28 April 1772
  2. ^ Earl Cornwallis from 1762; created Marquess Cornwallis in 1792.
  3. ^ Created Marquess Wellesley in 1799.
  4. ^ Earl of Moira prior to being created Marquess of Hastings in 1816
  5. ^ Created Earl Amherst in 1826.
  6. ^ Created Earl of Auckland in 1839.
  7. ^ Created Viscount Hardinge in 1846.
  8. ^ Created Marquess of Dalhousie in 1849.
  9. ^ a b Created Earl Canning in 1859.
  10. ^ The Lord Ampthill was acting Governor-General in 1904
  11. ^ Created Earl Mountbatten of Burma on 28 October 1947.

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Administrative Reforms of Robert clive". britannica.com. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  2. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rohilla". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 461.
  3. ^ Clarke, John James (1 January 1997). Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415133753.
  4. ^ Reddy, Vinodh (28 October 2015). "Governors-General of India (1772–1857)". EduGeneral. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  5. ^ Information Management Group, IIT Roorkee. "Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Index". www.iitr.ac.in.
  6. ^ Day B., Richard & Gaido Daniel (2009). Witnesses to Permanent Revolution: The Documentary Record. London: LEIDEN • BOSTON. p. 406. ISBN 978 90 04 167704.