List of governors of Georgia

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Governor of Georgia
Seal of Georgia.svg
David Perdue and Brian Kemp (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Brian Kemp

since January 14, 2019
ResidenceGeorgia Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderArchibald Bulloch
FormationJuly 12, 1775
Salary$139,339 (2013)[1]
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

The governor of Georgia is the head of the executive branch of Georgia's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor also has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either veto or approve bills passed by the Georgia Legislature, and the power to convene the legislature.[2] The current governor is Republican Brian Kemp, who assumed office on January 14, 2019.

There have officially been 77 governors of the state of Georgia, including 11 who served more than one distinct term. The early days were chaotic, with several gaps and schisms in the state's power structure, as the state capital of Savannah was captured during the American Revolutionary War.[3] After independence was achieved, the office was solidly Democratic-Republican until the 1830s, when the office began to be contested by Democrats and Whigs for a few decades. The state seceded and was part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, after which it had several governors appointed by the President of the United States and the military occupation. During Reconstruction, it had two Republican governors, but after local rule was re-established, Democrats would be the only party elected for the next 131 years.

The longest-serving governors are George Busbee, Joe Frank Harris, Zell Miller, Sonny Perdue, and Nathan Deal, each of whom served two full four-year terms; Joseph E. Brown, governor during the Civil War, was elected four times, serving seven and a half years. The shortest term of the post-revolutionary period is that of Matthew Talbot, who served 13 days after succeeding his predecessor who died in office. One man, Eugene Talmadge, died before taking office in his second distinct term, leading to a dispute in which three people claimed the office.

Governors[edit]

For the period before independence, see the list of colonial governors of Georgia.

Georgia was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and ratified the Constitution of the United States on January 2, 1788.[4] It seceded from the Union on January 19, 1861,[5] and was a founding member of the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861.[6] Following the end of the American Civil War, Georgia during Reconstruction was part of the Third Military District, which exerted control over governor appointments and elections.[7] Georgia was readmitted to the Union on July 25, 1868,[8], expelled from Congress for failures in Reconstruction on March 3, 1869,[9] and again readmitted on July 15, 1870.[10]

In Georgia's Rules and Regulations of 1776, considered by some to be the first constitution, the chief executive was a president chosen by the legislature every six months.[11] This was quickly superseded by the 1777 constitution, which called for a governor to be chosen by the legislature each year,[12] with a term limited to one year out of every three.[13] The governor's term was lengthened to two years in the 1789 constitution,[14] and an 1824 amendment provided for popular election of the governor.[15] While the 1861 secessionist constitution kept the office the same, the 1865 constitution, following Georgia's surrender, limited governors to two consecutive terms of two years each, allowing them to serve again after a gap of four years.[16] The Reconstruction constitution of 1868 increased the governor's term to four years.[17] The 1877 constitution, after the end of Reconstruction, returned the office to the provisions of the 1865 constitution.[18] An amendment in 1941 lengthened terms to four years, but governors could no longer succeed themselves, having to wait four years to serve again.[19] The constitution does not specify when terms start, only that the governor is installed at the next session of the General Assembly.[20] The current constitution of 1983 allows governors to succeed themselves once before having to wait four years to serve again.[21]

Originally, in the event of a vacancy, the president of the executive council acted as governor.[22] This was changed in 1798 to the president of the senate.[23] The 1945 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor, who would act as governor if that office became vacant;[24] in 1983, this was changed so that the lieutenant governor now becomes governor in the event of a vacancy.[25]

The revolutionary government was thrown into disarray by the capture of Savannah in 1778, which led to several governments with varying levels of influence; they would reunite in 1780. The Official and Statistical Register of Georgia ignores the Council of Safety of William Ewen in favor of Archibald Bulloch's government, and omits the government of William Glascock and Seth John Cuthbert. The Register includes colonial governors in its numbering, listing Archibald Bulloch as the 7th governor.[26]

Governors of the State of Georgia[a]
No.[b] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[c]
7 Archibald Bulloch 1.jpg   Archibald Bulloch January 22, 1776

February 22, 1777
(died in office)
None [d] Office did not exist
8 Button Gwinnett.jpg Button Gwinnett March 4, 1777

May 8, 1777
None [e]
9 John Adam Treutlen.jpg John A. Treutlen May 8, 1777

January 10, 1778
None
10 John Houstoun January 10, 1778

December 29, 1778[f]
None
Vacant December 29, 1778

August 6, 1779
Government in
chaos after fall
of Savannah
[g]
11 John Wereat.jpg   John Wereat August 6, 1779

November 1779[g]
None
12 George Walton (ca 1749-1804).jpg George Walton November 1779[g]

January 4, 1780
None
13 Richard Howly January 4, 1780

February 5, 1780
(resigned)[h]
None [i]
14 Stephen Heard.jpg Stephen Heard February 18, 1780

August 18, 1781
None [i][j]
15 Nathan Brownson August 18, 1781

January 3, 1782
(term limited)
None 1781
16 John Martin January 3, 1782

January 8, 1783
(term limited)
None 1782
17 Lyman Hall.jpg Lyman Hall January 8, 1783

January 9, 1784
(term limited)
None 1783
10 John Houstoun January 9, 1784

January 6, 1785
(term limited)
None 1784
18 SamuelElbert01.jpg Samuel Elbert January 6, 1785

January 9, 1786
(term limited)
None 1785
19 Edward Telfair January 9, 1786

January 9, 1787
(term limited)
None 1786
20 George Mathews from The Nation Makers by Howard Pyle.jpg George Mathews January 9, 1787

January 26, 1788
(term limited)
None 1787
21 George Handley January 26, 1788

January 7, 1789
(term limited)
None 1788[k]
12 George Walton.jpg George Walton January 7, 1789

November 9, 1789
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
Jan. 1789
19 Edward Telfair November 9, 1789

November 7, 1793
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
Nov. 1789[l]
1791
20 George Mathews from The Nation Makers by Howard Pyle.jpg George Mathews November 7, 1793

January 15, 1796
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1793
22 Jared Irwin.jpg Jared Irwin January 15, 1796

January 12, 1798
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1795
23 JamesJackson.jpg James Jackson January 12, 1798

March 3, 1801
(resigned)[m]
Democratic-
Republican
1797
1799
24 David Emanuel March 3, 1801

November 7, 1801
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
25 Josiah Tattnall November 7, 1801

November 4, 1802
(resigned)[n]
Democratic-
Republican
1801
26 Milledge.jpg John Milledge November 4, 1802

September 23, 1806
(resigned)[o]
Democratic-
Republican
1802
(special)[p]
1803
1805
22 Jared Irwin.jpg Jared Irwin September 23, 1806

November 10, 1809
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
1807
27 Davidbrydiemitchell.jpg David Brydie Mitchell November 10, 1809

November 5, 1813
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1809
1811
28 GovernorPeterEarly.jpg Peter Early November 5, 1813

November 20, 1815
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
1813
27 Davidbrydiemitchell.jpg David Brydie Mitchell November 20, 1815

March 4, 1817
(resigned)[q]
Democratic-
Republican
1815
29 William Rabun March 4, 1817

October 24, 1819
(died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
1817
30 Matthew Talbot.jpg Matthew Talbot October 24, 1819

November 5, 1819
(successor took office)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
31 John Clark.jpg John Clark November 5, 1819

November 7, 1823
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1819
1821
32 George M. Troup.jpg George Troup November 7, 1823

November 7, 1827
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1823
1825
33 JohnForsythSoS11.jpg John Forsyth November 7, 1827

November 4, 1829
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1827
34 George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg George Rockingham Gilmer November 4, 1829

November 9, 1831
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1829
35 Wilson Lumpkin.jpg Wilson Lumpkin November 9, 1831

November 4, 1835
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1831
1833
36 William Schley.jpg William Schley November 4, 1835

November 8, 1837
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1835
34 George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg George Rockingham Gilmer November 8, 1837

November 6, 1839
(not candidate for election)
State Rights (Whig) 1837
37 CharlesJamesMcDonald.jpg Charles James McDonald November 6, 1839

November 8, 1843
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1839
1841
38 GeorgeWCrawford.jpg George W. Crawford November 8, 1843

November 3, 1847
(not candidate for election)
Whig 1843
1845
39 GeorgeWashTowns.jpg George W. Towns November 3, 1847

November 5, 1851
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1847
1849
40 Howell Cobb-crop.jpg Howell Cobb November 5, 1851

November 9, 1853
(not candidate for election)
Constitutional Union 1851
41 Herschel V. Johnson cph.3a02862.jpg Herschel Vespasian Johnson November 9, 1853

November 6, 1857
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1853
1855
42 Joseph Emerson Brown.jpg Joseph E. Brown November 6, 1857

June 17, 1865[r]
(resigned)[s]
Democratic 1857
1859
1861
1863
43 JJohnson Governor.jpg James Johnson June 17, 1865

December 14, 1865[t]
(provisional term ended)
Democratic Provisional
governor
appointed by
President
[u]
44 CharJenkins.jpg Charles J. Jenkins December 14, 1865

January 13, 1868
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1865[v]
45 Thomas H. Ruger.jpg Thomas H. Ruger January 13, 1868

July 4, 1868
(state readmitted)
Military
occupation[w]
46 Rufus Bullock - Brady-Handy.jpg Rufus Bullock July 4, 1868[x]

October 30, 1871[y]
(resigned)[z]
Republican 1868[aa]
47 Benjamin Conley.jpg Benjamin F. Conley October 30, 1871

January 12, 1872
Republican President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
48 JamesMiltonSmith.jpg James Milton Smith January 12, 1872

January 12, 1877
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1871
(special)[ab]
1872
49 Alfred Holt Colquitt.jpg Alfred H. Colquitt January 12, 1877

November 4, 1882
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1876
1880[ac]
50 Alexander Stephens.jpg Alexander H. Stephens November 4, 1882

March 4, 1883
(died in office)
Democratic 1882
51 James S. Boynton.jpg James S. Boynton March 4, 1883

May 10, 1883
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
52 HenryDickersonMcDaniel.jpg Henry Dickerson McDaniel May 10, 1883

November 9, 1886
(not candidate for election)[ad]
Democratic 1883
(special)[ae]
1884
53 Jbgordon.jpg John Brown Gordon November 9, 1886

November 8, 1890
(term limited)
Democratic 1886
1888
54 William J. Northen.jpg William J. Northen November 8, 1890

October 27, 1894
(term limited)
Democratic 1890
1892
55 William Yates Atkinson.jpg William Yates Atkinson October 27, 1894

October 29, 1898
(term limited)
Democratic 1894
1896
56 Allen D. Candler.jpg Allen D. Candler October 29, 1898

October 25, 1902
(term limited)
Democratic 1898
1900
57 JosephMTerrell.jpg Joseph M. Terrell October 25, 1902

June 29, 1907
(term limited)
Democratic 1902
1904[af]
58 M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg M. Hoke Smith June 29, 1907

June 26, 1909
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1906
59 JosephMacBrown.jpg Joseph Mackey Brown June 26, 1909

July 1, 1911
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1908
58 M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg M. Hoke Smith July 1, 1911

November 15, 1911[ag]
(resigned)[ah]
Democratic 1910
60 John Marshall Slaton.jpg John M. Slaton November 16, 1911

January 25, 1912
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
59 JosephMacBrown.jpg Joseph Mackey Brown January 25, 1912

June 28, 1913
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
(special)[ai]
60 John Marshall Slaton.jpg John M. Slaton June 28, 1913

June 26, 1915
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
61 Nathaniel Harris 1882.png Nathaniel Edwin Harris June 26, 1915

June 30, 1917
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1914
62 Hugh Dorsey.jpg Hugh Dorsey June 30, 1917

June 25, 1921
(term limited)
Democratic 1916
1918
63 Senator Thomas Hardwick.jpg Thomas W. Hardwick June 25, 1921

June 30, 1923
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1920
64 GovernorCliffWalker.jpg Clifford Walker June 30, 1923

June 25, 1927
(term limited)
Democratic 1922
1924
65 Hardman222.jpg Lamartine Griffin Hardman June 25, 1927

June 27, 1931
(term limited)
Democratic 1926
1928
66 Richard RussellJr.jpg Richard Russell Jr. June 27, 1931

January 10, 1933
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1930[aj]
67 Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge January 10, 1933

January 12, 1937
(term limited)
Democratic 1932
1934
68 E. D. Rivers Georgia Governor.jpg Eurith D. Rivers January 12, 1937

January 14, 1941
(term limited)
Democratic 1936
1938
67 Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge January 14, 1941

January 12, 1943
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1940
69 Ellis Arnall January 12, 1943

January 14, 1947
(term limited)
Democratic 1942[ak]
Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge Died before taking office Democratic 1946[al]   Melvin E. Thompson
HermanTalmadge.jpg Herman Talmadge January 14, 1947

March 18, 1947
(removed from office)
Democratic
70 Melvin E. Thompson March 18, 1947

November 17, 1948
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
71 HermanTalmadge.jpg Herman Talmadge November 17, 1948

January 11, 1955
(term limited)
Democratic 1948
(special)[am]
Marvin Griffin
1950
72 Marvingriffin.gif Marvin Griffin January 11, 1955

January 13, 1959
(term limited)
Democratic 1954 Ernest Vandiver
73 Ernest Vandiver (1962).jpg Ernest Vandiver January 13, 1959

January 15, 1963
(term limited)
Democratic 1958 Garland T. Byrd
74 Carl Sanders.jpg Carl Sanders January 15, 1963

January 11, 1967
(term limited)
Democratic 1962 Peter Zack Geer
75 Lester Maddox.jpg Lester Maddox January 11, 1967

January 12, 1971
(term limited)
Democratic 1966 George T. Smith
76 Jimmy Carter official portrait as Governor.jpg Jimmy Carter January 12, 1971

January 14, 1975
(term limited)
Democratic 1970 Lester Maddox
77 George Busbee.jpg George Busbee January 14, 1975

January 11, 1983
(term limited)
Democratic 1974 Zell Miller
1978
78 Joe Frank Harris.jpg Joe Frank Harris January 11, 1983

January 14, 1991
(term limited)
Democratic 1982
1986
79 Zell B Miller (cropped).jpg Zell Miller January 14, 1991

January 11, 1999
(term limited)
Democratic 1990 Pierre Howard
1994
80 Governor Roy Barnes.jpg Roy Barnes January 11, 1999

January 13, 2003
(lost election)
Democratic 1998 Mark Taylor[an]
81 Sonny Perdue at rally.jpg Sonny Perdue January 13, 2003

January 10, 2011
(term limited)
Republican 2002
2006 Casey Cagle
82 Nathan Deal, April 25, 2017.jpg Nathan Deal January 10, 2011

January 14, 2019
(term limited)
Republican 2010
2014
83 David Perdue and Brian Kemp (cropped).jpg Brian Kemp January 14, 2019

present[ao]
Republican 2018 Geoff Duncan

Succession[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Data is sourced from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia[26], unless supplemental references are required.
  2. ^ The state says Brian Kemp is the 83rd governor; this number is derived from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia, last published by the Office of Secretary of State in 1978. It continues the numbering from the colonial governors and omits repeat governors, thus marking Archibald Bulloch as 7th and George Busbee as 77th.[26]
  3. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was created in 1945, first being filled in 1947.
  4. ^ The revolutionary government did not necessarily follow any schedule or term lengths, and thus the election year is omitted until 1781, when it becomes easier to determine.
  5. ^ Gwinnett was elected by the council to succeed Bulloch.[27]
  6. ^ The date given is the capture of Savannah, where the New Georgia Encyclopedia says his last official act as governor was to flee.[3]
  7. ^ a b c The capture of Savannah threw the government into disarray and exile, and records are scarce as to dates and leadership. William Glascock (elected January 21, 1779)[28] and Seth John Cuthbert (elected July 24, 1779), while often included in lists of governors, are omitted from the official state register, likely because of this reason. A school pamphlet from 1977 notes, "This confusing situation resulted in a number of radical Whigs, mainly from Wilkes County, organizing a second government with George Walton as governor and Glascock as speaker of the assembly. ... As a result of this makeshift election, there were two Whig governments plus the restored loyalist government."[29]
  8. ^ Howly resigned to be a delegate to the Continental Congress.[30]
  9. ^ a b George Wells succeeded Howly, but was killed in a duel on February 16, 1780; he is omitted from nearly every list of governors, including the official register. Stephen Heard then became governor.[31]
  10. ^ Some sources say Myrick Davies was elected in August 1780 and served until his death;[32] however, he is omitted from the official state register.
  11. ^ James Jackson was elected in 1788, but declined the position, citing inexperience.[33]
  12. ^ First term under the 1789 constitution, which lengthened terms to two years.[14]
  13. ^ Jackson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[33]
  14. ^ Tattnall resigned due to declining health.[34]
  15. ^ Milledge resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[35]
  16. ^ Special election for the remainder of Josiah Tattnall's term[36]
  17. ^ Mitchell resigned to be agent to the Creek Indians.[37]
  18. ^ One source states Brown left office on June 25, which could make sense as it would take several days for news of Johnson's appointment to reach Georgia. However, this source has not been corroborated.[38]
  19. ^ Brown resigned following the defeat of the Confederate States of America.[39]
  20. ^ At least one source states Johnson left office "five days after" Jenkins took office, which would be December 19.[40] However, more contemporary sources say he left office on December 14.[41]
  21. ^ Johnson was appointed provisional governor by the Union occupation.[40]
  22. ^ Jenkins was removed from office by the military because he refused to allow state funds to be used for a racially integrated state constitutional convention; the state was still under military occupation during Reconstruction.[42]
  23. ^ Provisional governor appointed by General George Meade[43]
  24. ^ Some sources state Bullock took office on July 21, but more contemporary sources say July 4.[41]
  25. ^ Some sources state Bullock resigned on October 23, but that is when he secretly submitted his resignation; it did not take effect until October 30.[44]
  26. ^ Bullock resigned and fled the state to avoid impeachment; he was arrested in 1876 and found not guilty of embezzlement.[44]
  27. ^ First term under the 1868 constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.[17]
  28. ^ Special election for the remainder of Rufus Bullock's term[45]
  29. ^ First term under the 1877 constitution, which shortened terms to two years.[18]
  30. ^ McDaniel's first term was shortened, so it is not known if he can be considered term limited.
  31. ^ Special election for the remainder of Alexander Stephens' term[46]
  32. ^ The start of a gubernatorial term has always been set by the legislature, rather than the constitution; it appears the start of this term changed from the last Saturday in October to the last Saturday in June, lengthening it by eight months.
  33. ^ Sources are split on whether Smith resigned on November 15 or November 16, with contemporary sources leaning towards November 15.[47]
  34. ^ Smith resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[48]
  35. ^ Special election for the remainder of Hoke Smith's term[49]
  36. ^ The start of the term changed from the last Saturday in June to the second Tuesday in January, shortening this term by five months.[50]
  37. ^ First term under the 1941 amendment to the constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.[19]
  38. ^ Eugene Talmadge was elected to a third term in 1946, but died before taking office. Ellis Arnall, governor at the time, claimed the office, as did Lieutenant Governor Melvin Thompson. The state legislature chose Eugene Talmadge's son, Herman Talmadge, to be governor, but during what came to be called the "Three Governors controversy", the state supreme court declared this unconstitutional and declared Thompson rightful governor, and Talmadge stepped down after 67 days. Talmadge later defeated Thompson in a special election.[51]
  39. ^ Special election to fill Eugene Talmadge's term[51]
  40. ^ Represented the Democratic Party
  41. ^ Kemp's first term expires January 9, 2023.

References[edit]

General
  • "Former Georgia Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  • "The New Georgia Encyclopedia". Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  • A History of Georgia, second ed. Kenneth Coleman, general editor. University of Georgia Press: 1991.
  • The Revolutionary Records of the State of Georgia Volume 1. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. I. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466015. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ GA Const. art. V
  3. ^ a b "John Houstoun". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  4. ^ "Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Georgia - January 2, 1788". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  5. ^ "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  6. ^ Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America Archived August 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, accessed July 8, 2015
  7. ^ Bradley, Mark L. (2015). The Army and Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (PDF). United States Army Center of Military History. p. 31. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  8. ^ Meyers, Christopher C. (2008). The Empire State of the South. ISBN 978-0-88146-111-4. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1910). "Georgia". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 757. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  10. ^ 16 Stat. 363
  11. ^ 1776 Const. art. I
  12. ^ 1777 Const. art. II
  13. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIII
  14. ^ a b 1789 Const. art. 2, § 1
  15. ^ 1798 Const. Amendment 7
  16. ^ 1865 Const. art III, § 1
  17. ^ a b 1868 Const. art. IV, § 1
  18. ^ a b 1877 Const. art. 5, § 1 par. 2
  19. ^ a b "Georgia's Official Register, 1939-1941-1943" (PDF). Georgia Department of Archives and History. p. 6. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  20. ^ GA Const. art V, § 1 par. 2
  21. ^ GA Const. art V, § 1 par. 4
  22. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIX
  23. ^ 1798 Const. art. II, § 4
  24. ^ 1945 Const. art. V, § 1 par. 7
  25. ^ GA Const. art. V, § 1 par 5
  26. ^ a b c "Georgia Official and Statistical Register, 1977-1978 - page 1145". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  27. ^ "Button Gwinnett". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  28. ^ Autobiography of a Colony: The First Half-Century of Augusta, Georgia. University of Georgia Press. 2009. p. 127. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  29. ^ "Political Changes in Georgia 1775-1787" (PDF). Georgia Department of Education. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  30. ^ "Richard Howley". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  31. ^ JSTOR 40579633
  32. ^ "Stephen Heard". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "James Jackson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  34. ^ "Josiah Tattnall". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  35. ^ "John Milledge". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  36. ^ "Georgia 1802 Governor, Special". Tufts University. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  37. ^ "David Brydie Mitchell". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  38. ^ Otto, John Henry (2004). Memoirs of a Dutch Mudsill. Kent State University Press.
  39. ^ "Joseph Emerson Brown". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  40. ^ a b "James Johnson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  41. ^ a b The Government of the People of the State of Georgia. 1896. pp. 184–186. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  42. ^ "Charles Jones Jenkins (1805-1883)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  43. ^ "Thomas Ruger (1833-1907)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  44. ^ a b "This Day in Georgia History - October 23, 1871: Rufus Bullock Resigned". Georgia Library Learning Online. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  45. ^ "James Milton Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  46. ^ "Henry Dickerson McDaniel". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  47. ^ Official Congressional Directory. 1919. p. 17. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  48. ^ "Hoke Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  49. ^ "Joseph Mackey Brown". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  50. ^ "Richard Brevard Russell". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  51. ^ a b "Three Governors Controversy". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.