List of gravitational wave observations

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The first measurement of a gravitational wave event

This is a list of observed gravitational wave events. Observation of gravitational waves, which commenced with the detection of an event by LIGO in 2015, constitutes part of gravitational wave astronomy. LIGO has played a role in all subsequent detections to date, with Virgo joining in August 2017.

Nomenclature[edit]

Gravitational wave events are named starting with the prefix GW. The next two numbers indicate the year the event was observed, the middle two numbers are the month of observation and the final two numbers are the day of the month on which the event was observed. This is similar to the systematic naming for other kinds of astronomical event observations, such as those of gamma-ray bursts. Probable detections that are not confidently identified as gravitational wave events are designated LVT ("LIGO-Virgo trigger").

List of gravitational wave events[edit]

List of binary merger events
GW event Detection
time (UTC)
Date
published
Location
area
[n 1]
(deg2)
Luminosity
distance

(Mpc)
[n 2]
Energy
radiated
(c2M)
[n 3]
Chirp mass (M)[n 4] Primary Secondary Remnant Notes Ref
Type Mass (M) Type Mass (M) Type Mass (M) Spin[n 5]
GW150914 2015-09-14
09:50:45
2016-02-11
600; mostly to the south
440+160
−180
3.0+0.5
−0.5
28.2+1.8
−1.7
BH
[n 6]
35.4+5.0
−3.4
BH
[n 7]
29.8+3.3
−4.3
BH
62.2+3.7
−3.4
0.68+0.05
−0.06
First GW detection; first BH merger observed; largest progenitor masses to date [3][4][2]
LVT151012 (fr) 2015-10-12
09∶54:43
2016-06-15
1600
1000+500
−500
1.5+0.3
−0.4
15.1+1.4
−1.1
BH
23+18
−6
BH
13+4
−5
BH
35+14
−4
0.66+0.09
−0.10
Not significant enough to confirm (~13% chance of being noise) [5]
GW151226 2015-12-26
03:38:53
2016-06-15
850
440+180
−190
1.0+0.1
−0.2
8.9+0.3
−0.3
BH
14.2+8.3
−3.7
BH
7.5+2.3
−2.3
BH
20.8+6.1
−1.7
0.74+0.06
−0.06
[6][7]
GW170104 2017-01-04
10∶11:58
2017-06-01
1200
880+450
−390
2.0+0.6
−0.7
21.1+2.4
−2.7
BH
31.2+8.4
−6.0
BH
19.4+5.3
−5.9
BH
48.7+5.7
−4.6
0.64+0.09
−0.20
Farthest confirmed event to date [8][9]
GW170608 2017-06-08
02:01:16
2017-11-16
520; to the north
340+140
−140
0.85+0.07
−0.17
7.9+0.2
−0.2
BH
12+7
−2
BH
7+2
−2
BH
18.0+4.8
−0.9
0.69+0.04
−0.05
Smallest BH progenitor masses to date [10]
GW170814 2017-08-14
10∶30:43
2017-09-27
60; towards Eridanus
540+130
−210
2.7+0.4
−0.3
24.1+1.4
−1.1
BH
30.5+5.7
−3.0
BH
25.3+2.8
−4.2
BH
53.2+3.2
−2.5
0.70+0.07
−0.05
First detection by three observatories; first measurement of polarization [11][12]
GW170817 2017-08-17
12∶41:04
2017-10-16
28; NGC 4993
40+8
−14
> 0.025
1.188+0.004
−0.002
NS
1.36 - 1.60[n 8]
NS
1.17 - 1.36[n 9]
BH
[n 10]
< 2.74+0.04
−0.01
[n 11]
First NS merger observed in GW; first detection of EM counterpart (GRB 170817A; AT 2017gfo); nearest event to date [1][15][16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The area of the sky within which it was possible to localize the source.
  2. ^ 1 Mpc is approximately 3.26 Mly.
  3. ^ c2M is about 1.8×103 foe; 1.8×1047 J; 1.8×1054 erg; 4.3×1046 cal; 1.7×1044 BTU; 5.0×1040 kWh, or 4.3×1037 tonnes of TNT.
  4. ^ The chirp mass, very roughly similar to the geometric mean of the binary's masses, is the binary parameter most relevant to the evolution of the inspiral gravitational waveform, and thus is the mass that can be measured most accurately.
  5. ^ Values of the dimensionless spin parameter cJ/GM2 for black holes range from zero to a maximum of one. The macroscopic properties of an isolated astrophysical (uncharged) black hole are fully determined by its mass and spin. Values for other objects can potentially exceed one. The largest value known for a neutron star is ≤ 0.4, and commonly used equations of state would limit that value to < 0.7.[1]
  6. ^ Spin estimate is 0.26+0.52
    −0.24
    .[2]
  7. ^ Spin estimate is 0.32+0.54
    −0.29
    .[2]
  8. ^ Mass based on presumption of low spin (constrained to match observations of binary neutron stars extrapolated to time of merger); the estimate without this assumption is 1.36 - 2.26 M.
  9. ^ Mass based on presumption of low spin; the estimate without this assumption is 0.86 - 1.36 M.
  10. ^ A hypermassive neutron star is believed to have formed initially and then collapsed into a black hole within milliseconds, as evidenced by the large amount of ejecta (much of which would have been swallowed by an immediately forming black hole) and the lack of evidence for emissions being powered by neutron star spin-down, which would occur for longer-surviving neutron stars.[13]
  11. ^ Based on total mass prior to merger for the presumption of low spin; the mass estimate for the binary without this assumption is 2.82+0.47
    −0.09
    M. Besides the loss of mass due to GW emission that occurred during the merger, the event is thought to have ejected 0.05 ±0.02 M of material.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration & Virgo Collaboration) (16 October 2017). "GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral". Physical Review Letters. 119 (16). arXiv:1710.05832Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.119p1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.161101. 
  2. ^ a b c The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration (3 June 2016). "An improved analysis of GW150914 using a fully spin-precessing waveform model". arXiv:1606.01210Freely accessible [gr-qc]. Bibcode:2016PhRvX...6d1014A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041014. 
  3. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (11 February 2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. 
  4. ^ Tushna Commissariat (11 February 2016). "LIGO detects first ever gravitational waves – from two merging black holes". Physics World. 
  5. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (21 October 2016). "Binary Black Hole Mergers in the first Advanced LIGO Observing Run". Physical Review X. 6: 041015. arXiv:1606.04856Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016PhRvX...6d1015A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041015. 
  6. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (15 June 2016). "GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence". Physical Review Letters. 116 (24): 241103. arXiv:1606.04855Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116x1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241103. PMID 27367379. 
  7. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (15 June 2016). "GW151226: A Second Confirmed Source of Gravitational Radiation". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. 
  8. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (1 June 2017). "GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2". Physical Review Letters. 118: 221101. arXiv:1706.01812Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.118v1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.221101. 
  9. ^ Overbye, Dennis (1 June 2017). "Gravitational Waves Felt From Black-Hole Merger 3 Billion Light-Years Away". New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  10. ^ Abbott, Benjamin P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (18 December 2017). "GW170608: Observation of a 19-solar-mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 851 (2). arXiv:1711.05578Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017ApJ...851L..35A. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9f0c. 
  11. ^ Abbott, Benjamin P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (2017-10-06). "GW170814: A three-detector observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole coalescence". Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 (14): 141101. arXiv:1709.09660Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.119n1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.141101. Lay summary (PDF). 
  12. ^ Overbye, Dennis (27 September 2017). "New Gravitational Wave Detection From Colliding Black Holes". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  13. ^ Margalit, B.; Metzger, B. D. (2017-12-01). "Constraining the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars from Multi-messenger Observations of GW170817". The Astrophysical Journal. 850 (2): L19. arXiv:1710.05938Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017ApJ...850L..19M. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa991c. 
  14. ^ Drout, M. R.; Piro, A. L.; Shappee, B. J.; et al. (2017-10-16). "Light curves of the neutron star merger GW170817/SSS17a: Implications for r-process nucleosynthesis" (PDF). Science: eaaq0049. arXiv:1710.05443Freely accessible [astro-ph.HE]. Bibcode:2017Sci...358.1570D. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0049Freely accessible. 
  15. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO, Virgo and other collaborations) (October 2017). "Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 848 (2): L12. arXiv:1710.05833Freely accessible [astro-ph.HE]. Bibcode:2017ApJ...848L..12A. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9Freely accessible. 
  16. ^ Cho, Adrian (16 October 2017). "Merging neutron stars generate gravitational waves and a celestial light show". Science. Retrieved 16 October 2017. 

External links[edit]