List of heads of state of Haiti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article lists the heads of state of Haiti[1] since the beginning of the Haitian Revolution in 1791. Full independence of Haiti was declared in 1804.

Between 1806 and 1820 Haiti was divided between the northern State, renamed Kingdom in 1811, and the southern Republic. Between 1822 and 1844 the reunified Republic of Haiti ruled over the entire island of Hispaniola, during the Haitian occupation of Santo Domingo.

Saint-Domingue (1791–1804)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
Général Toussaint Louverture.jpg Toussaint Louverture
(1743–1803)
1 January 1791 6 May 1802 11 years, 125 days Independent Leader of the Haitian Revolution (1 January 1791 – 6 May 1802)
Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue (1797 – 7 July 1801)
Governor-General for Life of the entire island of Hispaniola (7 July 1801 – 6 May 1802)
Vacant (6 May 1802–1 January 1804)
Jean Jacques Dessalines.jpg Jean-Jacques Dessalines
(1758–1806)
1 January 1804 22 September 1804 265 days Independent Governor-General of Haiti

First Empire of Haiti (1804–1806)[edit]

Emperor
(Birth–Death)
Coat of arms Period of reign Royal house Consort
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign ended Duration
Jean Jacques Dessalines.jpg Jacques I
(1758–1806)
Jean-Jacques Dessalines Coat of arms.jpg 22 September 1804[a] 17 October 1806 2 years, 25 days Dessalines No image.png Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité
(1758–1858)

Divided Haiti (1806–1820)[edit]

State of Haiti (1806–1811)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
Henri Christophe.jpg Henri Christophe
(1767–1820)
17 October 1806 28 March 1811 4 years, 162 days Independent Provisional Chief of the Haitian Government (17 October 1806 – 17 February 1807)
President (17 February 1807 – 28 March 1811)
[b]

Kingdom of Haiti (1811–1820)[edit]

King
(Birth–Death)
Coat of arms Period of reign Royal house Consort
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign ended Duration
Henri Christophe.jpg Henry I
(1767–1820)[b]
Coat of arms of Kingdom of Haiti.svg 28 March 1811[c] 8 October 1820 9 years, 194 days Christophe No image.png Marie-Louise Coidavid
(1778–1851)

Republic of Haiti (1806–1820)[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Petion (President d'Haiti 1807-1818).jpg Alexandre Pétion
(1770–1818)
17 October 1806 29 March 1818 11 years, 163 days Independent President (17 October 1806 – 9 October 1816)
President for Life (9 October 1816 – 29 March 1818)
[d]
2 Président Jean-Pierre Boyer.jpg Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
30 March 1818 18 October 1820 2 years, 202 days Independent President for Life[e]

Republic of Haiti (1820–1849)[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
2 Président Jean-Pierre Boyer.jpg Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
18 October 1820 13 February 1843 22 years, 118 days Independent President for Life
3 Charles Rivière-Hérard.jpg Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
4 April 1843 3 May 1844 1 year, 29 days Independent President
4 Philippe Guerrier.jpg Philippe Guerrier
(1757–1845)
3 May 1844 15 April 1845 347 days Independent President
5 Pierrot (President d'Haiti 1845-1846) (cropped).jpg Jean-Louis Pierrot
(1761–1857)
16 April 1845 24 March 1846 342 days Independent President
6 Jean-Baptiste Riché.jpg Jean-Baptiste Riché
(1780–1847)
24 March 1846 28 February 1847 341 days Independent President
7 Faustin Soulouque.jpg Faustin Soulouque
(1782–1867)
2 March 1847 26 August 1849 2 years, 177 days Independent President

Second Empire of Haiti (1849–1859)[edit]

Emperor
(Birth–Death)
Coat of arms Period of reign Royal house Consort
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign ended Duration
(7) Faustin I.jpg Faustin I
(1782–1867)
Coat of arms of Haiti (1849-1859) - Second Empire of Haiti.svg 26 August 1849[f] 22 January 1859 9 years, 149 days Soulouque Adélina Lévêque, Empress of Haiti, c.1859 (edited).jpg Adélina Lévêque
(1820–1878)

Republic of Haiti (1859–1957)[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
8 Fabre Geffrard (President d'Haiti 1859-1867).jpg Fabre Geffrard
(1806–1878)
22 January 1859 13 March 1867 8 years, 50 days Independent President
9 Nissage Saget.jpg Jean-Nicolas Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
20 March 1867 2 May 1867 43 days Independent Provisional President
10 Sylvain Salnave .jpg Sylvain Salnave
(1827–1870)
4 May 1867 27 December 1869 2 years, 237 days Independent President
11 Nissage Saget.jpg Jean-Nicolas Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
27 December 1869 14 May 1874 4 years, 138 days Liberal Party President
12 Michel Domingue.jpg Michel Domingue
(1813–1877)
14 June 1874 15 April 1876 1 year, 306 days Independent President
13 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
23 April 1876 17 July 1879 3 years, 85 days Liberal Party Provisional President (23 April 1876 – 17 July 1876)
President (17 July 1876 – 17 July 1879)
14 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Joseph Lamothe
(?–1891)
26 July 1879 2 October 1879 68 days Independent Provisional President
15 Salomon 200.jpg Lysius Salomon
(1815–1888)
2 October 1879 10 August 1888 8 years, 313 days National Party President
16 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
10 August 1888 16 October 1888 67 days Liberal Party Provisional President
17 François Denys Légitime.jpg François Denys Légitime
(1841–1935)
16 October 1888 23 August 1889 311 days Liberal Party President
18 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Monpoint Jeune
(1830–1905)
23 August 1889 17 October 1889 55 days Independent Provisional President
19 Florvil Hyppolite official photo.jpg Florvil Hyppolite
(1828–1896)
17 October 1889 24 March 1896 6 years, 159 days National Party President
20 Tirésias Simon Sam portrait.jpg Tirésias Simon Sam
(1835–1916)
31 March 1896 12 May 1902 6 years, 42 days National Party President
21 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
26 May 1902 17 December 1902 205 days Liberal Party Provisional President
22 Picture of Pierre Nord Alexis.jpg Pierre Nord Alexis
(1820–1910)
21 December 1902 2 December 1908 5 years, 347 days Military President
23 Presidentsimon.jpg François C. Antoine Simon
(1843–1923)
6 December 1908 3 August 1911[2] 2 years, 240 days Liberal Party President
24 Cincinnatus Leconte.jpg Cincinnatus Leconte
(1854–1912)
15 August 1911 8 August 1912[3] 359 days National Party President[g]
25 Tancrede Auguste.jpg Tancrède Auguste
(1856–1913)
8 August 1912 2 May 1913 267 days National Party President
26 Michel Oreste portrait.jpg Michel Oreste
(1859–1918)
12 May 1913 27 January 1914[4] 260 days Independent President
27 Oreste Zamor portrait.jpg Oreste Zamor
(1861–1915)
8 February 1914 29 October 1914 263 days Military President
28 Joseph Davilmar Theodore portrait.jpg Joseph Davilmar Théodore
(1847–1917)
7 November 1914 22 February 1915 107 days Military President
29 Vilbrun Guillaume Sam portrait.jpg Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
(1859–1915)
25 February 1915 28 July 1915 153 days Military President[h]
30 Dartiguenave.jpg Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave
(1863–1926)
12 August 1915 15 May 1922 6 years, 276 days Independent President[i]
31 Louis Borno.jpg Louis Borno
(1865–1942)
15 May 1922 15 May 1930 8 years Independent President[i]
32 Louis Eugene Roy portrait.jpg Louis Eugène Roy
(1861–1939)
15 May 1930 18 November 1930 187 days Independent President[i]
33 Stenio Vincent portrait.jpg Sténio Vincent
(1874–1959)
18 November 1930 15 May 1941 10 years, 178 days Independent President[j]
34 Elie Lescot portrait.jpg Élie Lescot
(1883–1974)
15 May 1941 11 January 1946 4 years, 241 days Liberal Party President
35 Franck Lavaud portrait.jpg Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
11 January 1946 16 August 1946 217 days Military Chairman of the Military Executive Committee
36 Dumarsais estime portrait.jpg Dumarsais Estimé
(1900–1953)
16 August 1946 10 May 1950 3 years, 267 days Independent President
37 Franck Lavaud portrait.jpg Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
10 May 1950 6 December 1950 210 days Military Chairman of the Government Junta
38 Paul Magloire portrait.jpg Paul Magloire
(1907–2001)
1950 6 December 1950 12 December 1956 6 years, 6 days Peasant Worker Movement President
39 Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis portrait.jpg Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis
(1900–1966)
12 December 1956 3 February 1957 53 days Independent Provisional President
40 Franck Sylvain portrait.jpg Franck Sylvain
(1909–1987)
7 February 1957 2 April 1957 54 days Independent Provisional President
41 Daniel fignole portrait.jpg Daniel Fignolé
(1913–1986)
25 May 1957 14 June 1957 20 days Peasant Worker Movement Provisional President
42 Antonio Thrasybule Kebreau portrait.jpg Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau
(1909–1963)
14 June 1957 22 October 1957 130 days Military Chairman of the Military Council

Republic of Haiti during the Duvalier dynasty (1957–1986)[edit]

  • P Presidential referendum
  • C Constitutional referendum
  • Died in office
# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
43 Francois Duvalier of Haiti.jpg François Duvalier
(1907–1971)
1957
1961[P]
1964[C]
22 October 1957 21 April 1971[†][5][6] 13 years, 181 days National Unity Party President (22 October 1957 – 22 June 1964)
President for Life (22 June 1964 – 21 April 1971)
44 Baby Doc (centrée).jpg Jean-Claude Duvalier
(1951–2014)
1971[C]
1985[C]
21 April 1971[k] 7 February 1986[l] 14 years, 292 days National Unity Party President for Life

Republic of Haiti (1986–present)[edit]

  • I Indirect elections
# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party Title(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
45 EX president Haiti HENRI NAMPHY.png Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
7 February 1986 7 February 1988 2 years Military President of the National Council of Government
46 Leslie Manigat, 16 juin 1988.png Leslie Manigat
(1930–2014)
1988 7 February 1988 20 June 1988[m] 134 days Rally of Progressive National Democrats President
47 EX president Haiti HENRI NAMPHY.png Henri Namphy
(1932–2018)
20 June 1988 17 September 1988[n] 89 days Military President
48 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Prosper Avril
(born 1937)
17 September 1988 10 March 1990 1 year, 236 days Military President
49 Ertha Pascal-Trouillot on January 7, 1991.png Ertha Pascal-Trouillot
(born 1943)
13 March 1990 7 February 1991 331 days Independent Provisional President
50 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (cropped).jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(born 1953)
1990–91 7 February 1991 29 September 1991[o] 234 days Struggling People's Organization President
51 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Joseph Nérette
(1924–2007)
8 October 1991 19 June 1992 255 days Independent Provisional President
52 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Émile Jonassaint
(1913–1995)
15 June 1993 12 October 1994 1 year, 119 days Independent Provisional President
53 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (cropped).jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(born 1953)
12 October 1994 7 February 1996 1 year, 118 days Struggling People's Organization President[p]
54 Rene Preval.jpg René Préval
(1943–2017)
1995 7 February 1996 7 February 2001 5 years Fanmi Lavalas President
55 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (cropped).jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(born 1953)
2000 7 February 2001 29 February 2004[q] 3 years, 22 days Fanmi Lavalas President
56 Boniface Alexandre.jpg Boniface Alexandre
(born 1936)
29 February 2004 14 May 2006 2 years, 75 days Independent Provisional President
57 Rene Preval.jpg René Préval
(1943–2017)
2006 14 May 2006 14 May 2011 5 years Lespwa[r] President
Inite
58 Michel Martelly on April 20, 2011.jpg Michel Martelly
(born 1961)
2010–11 14 May 2011 7 February 2016 4 years, 269 days Repons Peyizan President
59 Jocelerme Privert (30186877591).jpg Jocelerme Privert
(born 1953)
2016 (Feb)[I] 14 February 2016 7 February 2017 359 days Inite Provisional President[s]
60 Kelly Craft poses a photo with Haitian President Moise (cropped).jpg Jovenel Moïse
(1968–2021)
2016 (Nov) 7 February 2017 7 July 2021[t] 4 years, 150 days Haitian Tèt Kale Party President

Timeline since 1804[edit]

Haiti Heads of state of Haiti (1804–present)
Ariel HenryClaude JosephJovenel MoïseJocelerme PrivertEvans PaulMichel MartellyBoniface AlexandreRené PrévalÉmile JonassaintMarc BazinJoseph NéretteRaoul CédrasJean-Bertrand AristideErtha Pascal-TrouillotHérard AbrahamProsper AvrilLeslie ManigatHenri NamphyJean-Claude DuvalierFrançois DuvalierAntonio Thrasybule KébreauDaniel FignoléFranck SylvainJoseph Nemours Pierre-LouisPaul MagloireDumarsais EstiméFranck LavaudÉlie LescotSténio VincentLouis Eugène RoyLouis BornoPhilippe Sudré DartiguenaveVilbrun Guillaume SamJoseph Davilmar ThéodoreOreste ZamorMichel OresteTancrède AugusteCincinnatus LeconteFrançois C. Antoine SimonPierre Nord AlexisTirésias Simon SamFlorvil HyppoliteMonpoint JeuneFrançois Denys LégitimeLysius SalomonJoseph LamothePierre Théoma Boisrond-CanalMichel DomingueSylvain SalnaveJean-Nicolas Nissage SagetFabre GeffrardFaustin SoulouqueJean-Baptiste RichéJean-Louis PierrotPhilippe GuerrierCharles Rivière-HérardJean-Pierre BoyerAlexandre PétionHenri ChristopheJean-Jacques Dessalines

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Crowned on 8 October 1804
  2. ^ a b Rule limited to the northern part of Haiti
  3. ^ Crowned on 2 June 1811
  4. ^ Rule limited to the southern part of Haiti
  5. ^ United the northern Kingdom and the southern Republic in 1820
  6. ^ Crowned on 18 April 1852
  7. ^ Great-Grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Emperor of Haiti 1804–1806)
  8. ^ Son of Tirésias Simon Sam (President of Haiti 1896–1902). Also the inspiration for Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones
  9. ^ a b c Served under the United States occupation
  10. ^ Served under the United States occupation until 1934
  11. ^ Succeeded his father as President for Life[5][7]
  12. ^ Deposed in the Anti-Duvalier protest movement[8]
  13. ^ Deposed in the June 1988 coup d'état
  14. ^ Deposed in the September 1988 coup d'état
  15. ^ Deposed in the 1991 coup d'état
  16. ^ Served under the United States occupation until 1995
  17. ^ Deposed in the 2004 coup d'état
  18. ^ Until November 2009
  19. ^ Presidential term expired on 14 June 2016
  20. ^ Assassinated[9][10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Haitian Heads of State". Embassy of Haiti, Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  2. ^ "HAITIAN REBELS WIN; SIMON NOW AN EXILE; Six Are Killed in a Riot as President Embarks -- His Daughter Is Hurt". The New York Times. 3 August 1911. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  3. ^ "EXPLOSION KILLS HAITIAN PRESIDENT; Leconte Perishes in Destruction of His Palace -- 400 Others Killed or Injured". The New York Times. 9 August 1912. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  4. ^ "HAITI'S PRESIDENT FLEES TO WARSHIP; Fighting in Capital -- Our Bluejackets Land -- Battleship Is Rushing to Port au Prince". The New York Times. 28 January 1914. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  5. ^ a b Homer Bigart (23 April 1971). "Duvalier, 64, Dies in Haiti; Son, 19, Is New President". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  6. ^ Albin Krebs (23 April 1971). "Papa Doc, a Ruthless Dictator, Kept the Haitians in Illiteracy and Dire Poverty". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  7. ^ "At 19, President for Life Jean‐Claude Duvalier". The New York Times. 26 April 1971. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  8. ^ Joseph B. Treaster (8 February 1986). "DUVALIER FLEES HAITI TO END FAMILY'S 28 YEARS IN POWER: GENERAL LEADS NEW REGIME; 20 REPORTED DEAD". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  9. ^ Beaumont, Peter; Phillips, Tom (7 July 2021). "Haiti president Jovenel Moïse assassinated". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Haiti President Jovenel Moïse assassinated at home". CNBC. 7 July 2021. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Le président Jovenel Moïse assassiné chez lui par un commando armé". Le Nouvelliste. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.