List of heads of state of Italy

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This is a list of the heads of state of Italy, from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the present day.

From 1861 to 1946 the head of state was the King of Italy, who was the same person as the King of Sardinia according to the Constitution. Italy became a republic under the Constitution of 1948 and the monarch was replaced by a President.

Italian Monarchs[edit]

The succession to the throne of Italy was the same as the succession to the throne of the Sardinia.

Monarch Reign Position Royal House
# Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
1 VictorEmmanuel2.jpg Victor Emmanuel II
(1820–1878)
17 March 1861 9 January 1878 16 years, 298 days King of Italy House of Savoy
2 Umberto I di Savoia.jpg Umberto I
(1844–1900)
9 January 1878 29 July 1900 22 years, 201 days King of Italy House of Savoy
3 Vitorioemanuel.jpg Victor Emmanuel III
(1869–1947)
29 July 1900 9 May 1946
(Abdicated)
45 years, 284 days King of Italy
Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941)
King of Albania (1939–1943)
House of Savoy
4 Umberto II, 1944.jpg Umberto II
(1904–1983)
9 May 1946 18 June 1946
(Deposed)
40 days King of Italy House of Savoy

Provisional Head of State[edit]

After the constitutional referendum which took place at the same time as the general election 54.3% voted for a republic. The Constituent Assembly which had the power to rule Italy until a new constitution for the republic was drawn up. The provisional Head of State after Alcide De Gasperi who exercised the powers after the King of Italy left was Enrico De Nicola who was proclaimed in 1946 but he was called Temporary Chief of State because he did not want to be called President of the Republic until the constitution was law.

Portrait Name Term Tenure Election Year
Voter Percentage
Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
12 June
1946
1 July
1946
He exercised the powers of Provisional Head of State as Prime Minister between the departure of King Umberto II on 12 June 1946, and the proclamation of Enrico De Nicola as Head of State by the Constituent Assembly
1 De Nicola ritratto.jpg Enrico De Nicola
(1877–1959)
1 1 July
1946
25 June
1947
1946 — 78.57%
396
2 26 June
1947
1 January
1948
1947 — 93.96%
405

Italian Presidents[edit]

Under the Constitution, the first constitution of the Republic of Italy, the President replaced the monarch as ceremonial head of state. The President was elected by Parliament and Regional governments for a seven-year term. In the event of a vacancy the President of the Senate served as Acting President.

Parties

Traditionally, Presidents have not been members of any political party during their tenure, in order to be considered above partisan interests. The parties shown are those to which the President belonged at the time they took office.

  • 1946–1993:

  Christian Democracy   Democratic Party   Democratic Socialist Party   Liberal Party   Socialist Party

  • Since 1994:

  Democrats of the Left   Democratic Party   Independent

Status
  Denotes President of the Senate acting as President
Portrait Name Term Tenure Election Year
Voter Percentage
1 De Nicola ritratto.jpg Enrico De Nicola
(1877–1959)
2 1 January
1948
12 May
1948
1947 — 93.96%
405
2 Luigi Einaudi.jpg Luigi Einaudi
(1874–1961)
1 12 May
1948
11 May
1955
1948 — 59.40%
518
3 Giovanni Gronchi.jpg Giovanni Gronchi
(1887–1978)
1 11 May
1955
11 May
1962
1955 — 78.90%
658
4 Antonio Segni (1891-1972).jpg Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
1 11 May
1962
6 December
1964
1962 — 52.60%
443
Resigned
Emblem of Italy.svg Cesare Merzagora
(1898–1991)
6 December
1964
29 December
1964
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 1964 presidential election
5 Giuseppe Saragat.jpg Giuseppe Saragat
(1898–1988)
1 29 December
1964
29 December
1971
1964 — 68.90%
646
6 Leone303.jpg Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
1 29 December
1971
15 June
1978
1971 — 52.00%
518
Resigned
Amintore Fanfani crop.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
15 June
1978
9 July
1978
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 1978 presidential election
7 Pertini ritratto.jpg Sandro Pertini
(1896–1990)
1 9 July
1978
29 June
1985
1978 — 83.61%
832
Resigned
8 Cossiga Francesco.jpg Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
29 June
1985
3 July
1985
1 3 July
1985
28 April
1992
1985 — 75.20%
754
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 1985 presidential election which he won.
Resigned
Giovanni Spadolini.jpg Giovanni Spadolini
(1925–1994)
28 April
1992
28 May
1992
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 1992 presidential election
9 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 3.jpg Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
(1918–2012)
1 28 May
1992
15 May
1999
1992 — 67.06%
672
Resigned
Nicola Mancino.jpg Nicola Mancino
(1931–)
15 May
1999
18 May
1999
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 1999 presidential election
10 Ciampi ritratto.jpg Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920–)
1 18 May
1999
15 May
2006
1999 — 71.41%
707
Resigned
11 Presidente Napolitano.jpg Giorgio Napolitano
(1925–)
1 15 May
2006
20 April
2013
2006 — 54.85%
543
2 20 April
2013
14 January
2015
2013 — 74.10%
738
Resigned
Pietro Grasso - Festa Unità Roma 2012.JPG Pietro Grasso
(1945–)
14 January
2015
3 February
2015
As President of the Senate he acted as President until after the 2015 presidential election
12 Presidente Mattarella.jpg Sergio Mattarella
(1941–)
1 3 February
2015
2015 — 65.91%
665

Styles of the Heads of State[edit]

Country Years Title of Head of State
 Kingdom 1861 King of Italy
Re d'Italia
1861 - 1936 By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy
Con la grazia di Dio e per la Volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia
1936 – 1939 By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy, Emperor of Ethiopia
Con la grazia di Dio e per la Volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia, Imperatore d'Etiopia
1939 – 1943 By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy and of Albania, Emperor of Ethiopia
Con la grazia di Dio e per la Volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia e di Albania, Imperatore d'Etiopia
1943 - 1946 By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy
Con la grazia di Dio e per la Volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia
1946 King of Italy
Re d'Italia
 Republic 1946 – 1948 Temporary Chief of State
Capo provvisorio dello Stato
1948 – Present President of the Italian Republic
Presidente della Repubblica Italiana

Living former heads of state[edit]

Name Term Office Date of birth

References[edit]

External links[edit]