List of heads of state of Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Head of State of Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies with the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union.[1] Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current one. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president remained in office an average of fifteen months.[2]

This list also includes the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.

First Mexican Empire (1821–1823)[edit]

First Regency[edit]

After the end of the Mexican War of Independence, a Provisional Board of Governing consisting of thirty-four persons was set up. The Board decreed and signed the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire and appointed a regency composed of six people.

Members[3] Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Juan O'Donoju.jpg Juan O'Donojú 28 September 1821 8 October 1821

(died in office)

10 days
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png Agustín de Iturbide 28 September 1821 11 April 1822 195 days
Manuel de la Bárcena.jpg Manuel de la Barcéna 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
Manuel Velázquez de León.jpg Manuel Velázquez de León 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
Antonio Pérez Martínez y Robles.jpg Antonio Pérez Martínez 8 October 1821 11 April 1822 185 days

Second Regency[edit]

Members Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png Agustín de Iturbide 11 April 1822 18 May 1822 37 days
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez
Agustin de Eyzaguirre.jpg Miguel Valentín
Manuel de Heras Soto.jpg Manuel de Heras
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo

Monarchy of Agustín de Iturbide I[edit]

Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Reign Royal house Coat of arms
Reign start Reign end Duration
Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg Agustín I
(1783–1824)
19 May 1822 19 March 1823 304 days Iturbide Escudo de Armas de S.M.I. Agustín.svg

Provisional Government (1823–1824)[edit]

The Provisional Government of 1823–1824 was an organization that served as the Executive in the government of Mexico after the abdication of Agustín I, monarch of Mexican Empire in 1823.[4] The provisional government was responsible for convening the body that created the Federal Republic and existed from 1 April 1823 to 10 October 1824.[5]

Head of State[6][7][8] Term of office
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo 31 March 1823 10 October 1824 1 year, 193 days
Guadalupe Victoria Cruces y Campa.png Guadalupe Victoria
Pedro Celestino Negrete.jpg Pedro Celestino Negrete
Jose mariano michelena.jpg José Mariano Michelena 1 April 1823 10 October 1824 1 year, 192 days
Miguel dominguez.jpg Miguel Domínguez
Vicente Guerrero (1865).png Vicente Guerrero

First Federal Republic (1824–1835)[edit]

The president and vice president did not run jointly and could be from different parties.

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Political party Vice President Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Guadalupe Victoria - 02.jpg Guadalupe Victoria
(1786–1843)
10 October 1824 31 March 1829 4 years, 172 days Independent Nicolás Bravo First constitutionally elected President of Mexico, and the only President who completed his full term in almost 30 years of independent Mexico.[9]
2 Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña.png Vicente Guerrero
(1782–1831)
1 April 1829 17 December 1829 260 days Liberal Party Anastasio Bustamante He was appointed by Congress after the "resignation" of president-elect Manuel Gómez Pedraza.[10][11]
3 José María Bocanegra.png José María Bocanegra
(1787–1862)
17 December 1829 23 December 1829 6 days Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
Vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Guerrero left office to fight the rebellion of his conservative Vice President Bustamante.[12][13]
Triunvirato 1830.png Vélez -Quintanar-Alaman
(Triumvirate)
23 December 1829 31 December 1829 8 Days Liberal Party

(Pedro Vélez)

independent (Luis Quintanar and Lucas Alamán)

Vacant Pedro Vélez president of the Supreme Court, he was appointed by the Council of Government as head of the executive triumvirate along with Lucas Alamán and Luis Quintanar.[14]
4 Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
1 January 1830 13 August 1832 2 years, 225 days Conservative Party Vacant As Vice President he assumed the presidency after the conservative coup against Guerrero.[15]
5 Melchor Muzquiz.png Melchor Múzquiz
(1790–1844)
14 August 1832 24 December 1832 132 days Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Bustamante left office to fight the rebellion of Santa Anna.[16][17][18]
6 Manuel Gómez Pedraza.png Manuel Gómez Pedraza
(1789–1851)
24 December 1832 31 March 1833 97 days Federalist York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
Vacant He assumed the presidency to conclude the term he would have begun in 1829, had he not "resigned" prior to inauguration, as the winner of the elections of 1828.[19][20]
7 Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
1 April 1833 16 May 1833 45 days Liberal Party Himself As Vice President he assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, along with whom he was elected in the elections of 1833.
[21][22][23]
8 Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
16 May 1833 3 June 1833 18 days Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías He assumed the presidency as the constitutionally-elected president. He alternated in the presidency with Vice President Gómez Farías four more times until 24 April 1834.
[22][24][25][26]
Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
3 June 1833 18 June 1833 15 days Liberal Party Himself
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 June 1833 5 July 1833 17 days Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
5 July 1833 27 October 1833 114 days Liberal Party Himself
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
27 October 1833 15 December 1833 47 days Conservative Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
16 December 1833 24 April 1834 135 Days Liberal Party Himself He promoted several liberal reforms that led to the discontent of conservatives and the church. Santa Anna took office again aligned with conservatives; Gómez Farías went into exile.[23][27]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
24 April 1834 27 January 1835 288 days Conservative Party Valentín Gómez Farías He cancelled the liberal reforms. On 27 January, the Sixth Constituent Congress dismissed Gómez Farías as Vice President.[23][27][28]
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 1 year,

30 days

Liberal Party Vacant He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Santa Anna left office to fight the rebellion of Zacatecas. On 23 October, Congress enacted the Constitutional Basis, which voided the Constitution of 1824 and the federal system. He served both as the last president of the First Federal Republic and the first of the Centralist Republic.[29][30][31][32]

Centralist Republic (1835–1846)[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 1 year,

30 days

Liberal Party He left office because of a serious illness. He died two days later.[29]
10 Jose Justo Corro.PNG José Justo Corro
(1794–1864)
27 February 1836 19 April 1837 1 year,

51 days

Conservative Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress to conclude the presidential term.
During his term, he enacted the Seven Laws and
Spain recognized the Independence of Mexico.
[33][34][35]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 April 1837 18 March 1839 1 year, 339 Days Conservative Party He took office as constitutional elected president.
He was elected in the elections of 1837 for an eight years term.
[36][37]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 March 1839 10 July 1839 115 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by the Supreme Conservative Power when Bustamante left office to fight federalist rebellions.[24][38]
11 Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
11 July 1839 19 July 1839 8 days Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president when Santa Anna left office.[26][39][40]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 July 1839 22 September 1841 2 years, 65 days Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency.[26][41]
12 Francisco Javier Echeverría (recortado).png Francisco Javier Echeverría
(1797–1852)
22 September 1841 10 October 1841 18 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president when Bustamante left office to fight a rebellion headed by Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, Santa Anna, and Gabriel Valencia.
He resigned after the triumph of the rebellion.
[42][43][44]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
10 October 1841 26 October 1842 1 year,

16 days

Conservative Party He was appointed provisional president by a Junta de Representantes de los Departamentos (Board of Representatives of the Departments).[45][46][47]
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
26 October 1842 4 March 1843 29 Days Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president by Santa Anna when he left office.[40][47]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 March 1843 4 October 1843 224 days Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency as provisional president.[48]
13 Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
4 October 1843 4 June 1844 244 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by Santa Anna when he left office.[49][50]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 June 1844 12 September 1844 100 days Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency after being elected constitutional president by Congress on 2 January 1844.[51][52]
14 Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
12 September 1844 21 September 1844 9 days Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to replace the interim president Valentin Canalizo.[52][53]
Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
21 September 1844 6 December 1844 76 days Conservative Party He assumed the presidency as interim president.[54]
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
6 December 1844 30 December 1845 1 year,

24 days

Liberal Party He was appointed interim, and after, constitutional president by Senate
after Canalizo was arrested for trying to dissolve the Congress.
[53][55][56]
15 Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga (480x600).png Mariano Paredes
(1797–1849)
31 December 1845 28 July 1846 271 Days Conservative Party He assumed office via a coup against De Herrera.
On 12 June, he was appointed interim president.
[57][58]
Vice President[58]
Nicolás Bravo
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
28 July 1846 4 August 1846 7 days Conservative Party He took office when Paredes left the presidency to fight the Americans in the Mexican–American War.
He was deposed by a federalist rebellion led by Jose Mariano Salas and Valentin Gomez Farias.
[59][60][61]
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 140 days Conservative Party He assumed office as provisional president after the triumph of the federalist rebellion (Plan de la Ciudadela).
He put in force the Constitution of 1824 on 22 August.
[62][63][64]
He served both as last president of the Centralist Republic and first of the Second Federal Republic.

Second Federal Republic (1846–1863)[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 140 days Conservative Party After he restored federalism, he called elections.
Santa Anna won the election and was appointed interim president by Congress and Valentin Gomez Farias as vice president.
[62][65]
Valentín Gómez Farías, portrait.JPG Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
23 December 1846 21 March 1847 94 Days Liberal Party As vice president, he took office in place of Santa Anna, who was fighting the invading U.S. Army in the Mexican–American War.[66]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
21 March 1847 2 April 1847 12 days Conservative Party He took office as elected interim president.[67]
Vice President
Valentín Gómez Farías
17 Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
2 April 1847 20 May 1847 48 days Liberal Party Santa Anna left office to fight in the Mexican–American War. Congress abolished the vice presidency and he was appointed as substitute president.[68][69][70]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 May 1847 15 September 1847 135 days Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency when De Anaya left office to fight in the Mexican–American War.[71][72]
18 Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
16 September 1847 13 November 1847 65 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he assumed the presidency after Santa Anna's resignation.[73][74]
Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
13 November 1847 8 January 1848 46 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Congress when De la Peña y Peña left office in order to negotiate peace with the United States.
Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
8 January 1848 3 June 1848 146 Days Liberal Party He reassumed office as provisional president when De Anaya resigned
after refusing to give any land to the United States.
[75]
During his term, he signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
3 June 1848 15 January 1851 3 years, 247 days Liberal Party He was the second president to finish his term and peacefully turned over the presidency to the winner of the elections of 1850, General Mariano Arista.[76]
19 Mariano Arista Oleo (480x600).png Mariano Arista
(1802–1855)
15 January 1851 5 January 1853 1 years, 356 days Liberal Party He resigned when Congress refused to give him extraordinary powers to fight the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio, the goal of which was to bring to Santa Anna once again to the presidency.[77]
20 Juan Bautista Ceballos Oleo (480x600).png Juan Bautista Ceballos
(1811–1859)
6 January 1853 7 February 1853 32 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was proposed by President Arista as his successor and confirmed the same day as interim president by Congress.[78]
21 Manuel María Lombardini.PNG Manuel María Lombardini
(1802–1853)
8 February 1853 20 April 1853 72 days Conservative Party He was appointed provisional president by Congress when Ceballos resigned because of the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio.[79]
Antonio López de Santa Anna, siglo XIX, óleo sobre tela.png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 April 1853 5 August 1855 2 years, 106 days Conservative Party He swore as President but ruled as dictator.
He called himself "Su Alteza Serenisima" (Serene Highness).
[80][81]
The Mexican National Anthem was composed during his presidency.[82][83]
22 Martín Carrera.PNG Martín Carrera
(1806–1871)
5 August 1855 12 September 1855 38 days Conservative Party He was appointed interim president after the triumph of the Plan of Ayutla
but he took office until 15 August.
[83][84]
23 Rómulo Díaz de la Vega.PNG Rómulo Díaz de la Vega
(1800–1877)
12 September 1855 3 October 1855 21 days Conservative Party He served as de facto president after Carrera's resignation.[85][86]
24 Juan Alvarez.PNG Juan Álvarez
(1790–1867)
4 October 1855 11 December 1855 69 days Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by a council integrated with one representative of each state after the triumph of the Revolution of Ayutla.[87][88]
25 Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
11 December 1855 17 December 1857 2 years,

6 days

Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Juan Alvarez when he resigned.
He became constitutional president on 1 December 1857.
[89][90]

Reform War 1858-60[edit]

There were two rival governments during the civil war of the Reform, which the liberals won.

President recognized by the Liberals[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
26 Benito Juárez - José Escudero y Espronceda.jpg Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 18 July 1872 15 years, 212 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the self-coup of Ignacio Comonfort against the Constitution of 1857. He was arrested and freed by Comonfort. He established a liberal constitutional government on 18 January 1858.
The struggle between the Liberal and Conservative forces is known as Reform War.
[91]

Presidents recognized by the Conservatives[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
17 December 1857 21 January 1858 35 days Liberal Party After the declaration of Plan of Tacubaya, Congress declared that he was no longer president but he was recognized by conservatives as president with absolute powers.[92][93]
27 Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
11 January 1858 24 December 1858 347 Days Conservative Party After disowning Comonfort, Zuloaga was appointed president by the Conservative Party.[94]
28 Manuel Robles Pezuela Oleo (480x600).png Manuel Robles Pezuela
(1817–1862)
24 December 1858 23 January 1859 30 days Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency with the support of the Plan de Navidad.[95][96]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
24 January 1859 1 February 1859 8 days Conservative Party He was restored to the presidency by counter-rebellion led by Miguel Miramón.[95][97]
29 Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
2 February 1859 13 August 1860 1 year, 201 days Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency as substitute when Zuloaga left office.[98]
30 José Ignacio Pavón.PNG José Ignacio Pavón
(1791–1866)
13 August 1860 15 August 1860 2 days Conservative Party As president of the Supreme Court of the conservative government,
he took office for two days when Miramón left office.
[99]
Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
15 August 1860 24 December 1860 131 days Conservative Party He took office as interim president of the conservative government after he was elected
by a group of "Representatives of the States" who supported the conservatives.
He was defeated at the Battle of Calpulalpan, resigned the presidency and fled the country.
[100]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
23 May 1861 28 December 1862 1 year, 229 days Conservative Party Despite having been defeated, the conservatives appointed Zuloaga as president until 28 December, when they recognized the Regency who was seeking to reestablish the Mexican Empire.[101]

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)[edit]

Regency[edit]

On 22 June 1863, a "Superior Governing Board" was established. On 11 July, the Board became the Regency of the Empire.[102][103]

Members[3] Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Time in office
Gral. Juan Nepomuceno Almonte.png Juan Nepomuceno Almonte 11 July 1863 10 April 1864 Conservative Party
Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
Pelagio Antonio de Labastida.png Pelagio Antonio de Labastida 19 October 1863 10 April 1864

Monarchy of Maximilian I[edit]

Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Reign Royal house Coat of arms
Reign start Reign ended Duration
Emperador Maximiliano I de Mexico.jpg Maximilian I
(1832–1867)
10 April 1864 19 June 1867 3 years, 70 days Habsburg-Lorraine Coat of arms of Mexico (1864–1867).svg

Restored Republic (1867–1876)[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
Benito Juárez - José Escudero y Espronceda.jpg Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 11 June 1861 15 years, 212 days Liberal Party The first term he was interim president during the Reform War.
The second term resulted from his being appointed constitutional president by Congress after the elections of 1861. His constitutional period began on 1 December.
The third term was an extension of the second, a consequence of the invasion.
The fourth and fifth terms followed the triumph of the Republic.
1861 11 June 1861 30 November 1865
1 December 1865 30 November 1867
1867 1 December 1867 30 November 1871
1871 1 December 1871 18 July 1872
31 Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada Oleo (480x600).png Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
(1823–1889)
18 July 1872 30 November 1872 4 years, 125 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the death of Juarez. He was the winner or the extraordinary election of 1872 and became constitutional president. He was overthrown by the Revolution of Tuxtepec and left office ten days before the end of his constitutional term.[104]
1872 1 December 1872 20 November 1876
32 José María Iglesias Oleo (480x600).png José María Iglesias
(1823–1891)
26 October 1876 28 November 1876 33 days Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he voided, on grounds of fraud, the reelection of Lerdo de Tejada after Congress had declared this reelection valid, and then declared himself interim president. When Lerdo de Tejada went to exile on 20 November, he became constitutional interim president.[105]

Porfiriato (1876–1911)[edit]

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
33 Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
28 November 1876 6 December 1876 8 days Liberal Party He became provisional president when Iglesias went to exile.[106]
34 Juan Nepomuceno Méndez Oleo (480x600).png Juan N. Méndez
(1820–1894)
6 December 1876 17 February 1877 72 days Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Díaz when he left office to fight the supporters of Lerdo de Tejada.[107]
Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
1877 17 February 1877 30 November 1880 3 years,

296 days

Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency. On 5 May, he was appointed constitutional president by Congress.[108]
35 President Manuel Gonzalez.jpg Manuel González Flores
(1833–1893)
1880 1 December 1880 30 November 1884 4 years Liberal Party He was the winner of the 1880 general election.[109]
Porfirio diaz.jpg Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
1884 1 December 1884 30 November 1888 26 years, 176 days National Porfirist Party
National Reelectionist Party
He was the winner of the general election in 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1910.
He resigned during his 7th term after the triumph of the Mexican Revolution.
[110]
1888 1 December 1888 30 November 1892
1892 1 December 1892 30 November 1896
1896 1 December 1896 30 November 1900
1900 1 December 1900 30 November 1904
1904 1 December 1904 30 November 1910 Vice President
Ramón Corral
(since 1904)
1910 1 December 1910 25 May 1911

Revolution (1911–1928)[edit]

Political parties

  Progressive Constitutionalist Party
  Independent

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
36 Francisco León.jpg Francisco León de la Barra
(1863–1939)
25 May 1911 5 November 1911 164 days Independent According to the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, he assumed office as interim president. Immediately called for elections.[111]
37 [112] Madero Retrato (Castillo de Chapultepec).png Francisco I. Madero
(1873–1913)
1911 6 November 1911 19 February 1913 1 years,

106 days

Progressive Constitutionalist Party He was the winner of the 1911 general election.
He was overthrown by a coup known as the Ten Tragic Days organized by Victoriano Huerta, Félix Díaz and the U.S. ambassador Henry L. Wilson. He was murdered two days later along with the vice president Pino Suárez.
[113][114]
Vice President
José María Pino Suárez
38 Pedro Lascurain.jpg Pedro Lascuráin
(1856–1952)
19 February 1913 about 45 minutes Independent As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he assumed office as interim president according to the constitution. In about 45 minutes, he appointed Victoriano Huerta as Secretary of the Interior and then resigned the Presidency.[115]
39 V Huerta.jpg Victoriano Huerta
(1850–1916)
19 February 1913 15 July 1914 1 year,

139 days

Independent He assumed office via a coup against Francisco I. Madero. He was defeated by the Constitutional Army led by Governor of Coahuila, Venustiano Carranza.[116][117]
40 Francisco Sebastián Carvajal.jpg Francisco S. Carvajal
(1870–1932)
15 July 1914 13 August 1914 29 days Independent He assumed office as Interim President after the resignation of Huerta.
He resigned after the signing of the Treaties of Teoloyucan.
[118]

Presidents recognized by the Convention of Aguascalientes[edit]

The Conventionists were followers of revolutionary generals Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. They fought a civil war with the followers of revolutionaries under Venustiano Carranza.

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Term of office Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
41 Eulalio Gutierrez sentado.png Eulalio Gutiérrez
(1881–1939)
6 November 1914 16 January 1915 71 days He was appointed provisional president.[119]
42 Roque González Garza.PNG Roque González Garza
(1885–1962)
16 January 1915 10 June 1915 115 days He was appointed provisional president after Gutierrez left Mexico City.[120]
43 Francisco Lagos Chazaro.png Francisco Lagos Cházaro
(1878–1932)
10 June 1915 10 October 1915 122 days He assumed office as provisional president when González Garza resigned.[121]

Constitutionalist victory and restoration of democracy[edit]

The revolutionary Constitutionalist Army under the authority "First Chief" Venustiano Carranza defeated the Army of the Convention in 1915, with a new constitution drafted in 1916-17.

Political parties

  Liberal Constitutionalist Party
  Laborist Party

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
44 Venustiano Carranza en la silla presidencial.jpg Venustiano Carranza
(1859–1920)
1917 Head of the Executive Power
First Chief of the Constitutional Army
2 years,

261 days

Liberal Constitutionalist Party He served as Head of the Executive Power after the resignation of Carvajal.
He did not immediately call for presidential elections, which he had promised under the Plan of Guadalupe but ruled as the "pre-constitutional" head of government. He convoked a Constituent Convention which enacted the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. He won the 1917 general election and took office as Constitutional President on 1 May 1917.
He died during the Rebellion of Agua Prieta, led by three revolutionary generals.
[122]
13 August 1914 30 April 1917
President of Mexico 3 years,

21 days

1 May 1917 21 May 1920
45 Adolfo de la Huerta.png Adolfo de la Huerta
(1881–1955)
1 June 1920 30 November 1920 182 days Liberal Constitutionalist Party He was one of the leaders of the coup against Carranza, who had attempted to impose a civilian successor in 1920. De la Huerta was appointed provisional president by Congress.[123]
46 Portrait of Alvaro Obregón 1.png Álvaro Obregón
(1880–1928)
1920 1 December 1920 30 November 1924 4 years Laborist Party He was the most successful general of the Constitutionalist Army and joined the rebellion against Carranza. When elections were held in the aftermath of the coup, he was the winner of the 1920 general election.[124] Obregón designated Plutarco Elías Calles as his successor; fellow Sonoran general Adolfo de la Huerta rebelled with considerable revolutionary army support, but Obregón crushed the rebellion.
47 Plutarco Elías Calles recorte.png Plutarco Elías Calles
(1877–1945)
1924 1 December 1924 30 November 1928 4 years Laborist Party He was the winner of the 1924 general election.[125] He changed the constitution to allow non-consecutive election of a president, allowing Obregón to run again in 1928. Obregón was re-elected but was assassinated before being sworn in. Calles then founded the political party that managed presidential succession until 2000.

Maximato (1928–1934)[edit]

President-elect Obregón was assassinated before he was inaugurated for a six-year presidential term. Calles brought together revolutionaries to found a political party. Calles could not succeed himself as president, but he remained the power behind the presidency as the jefe máximo (maximum chief).

Political parties

  National Revolutionary Party

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
48 Emilio Portes Gil.PNG Emilio Portes Gil
(1890–1978)
1 December 1928 4 February 1930 1 year,

65 days

National Revolutionary Party He was appointed interim president by Congress, after the assassination of the winner of the 1928 general election, president-elect Álvaro Obregón.[126]
49 Pascual Rubio, portrait.jpg Pascual Ortiz Rubio
(1877–1963)
1929 5 February 1930 4 September 1932 2 years,

213 days

National Revolutionary Party He was the winner of the 1929 general election.
He resigned due to the intervention of Calles in his government.
[127][128]
50 AbelardoLRodriguez.png Abelardo L. Rodríguez
(1889–1967)
4 September 1932 30 November 1934 2 years,

87 days

National Revolutionary Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to conclude the 1928–1934 term.[129]

Modern Mexico (1934–present)[edit]

After the constitutional reform of 1926, the presidential term in Mexico was extended to six years starting in 1928; with a formal ban on reelection. After the 1934 general election, all the presidents have completed their six-year terms.

Political parties

  Institutional Revolutionary Party
  National Action Party
  National Regeneration Movement

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
51 Lázaro Cárdenas, Retrato.png Lázaro Cárdenas
(1895–1970)
1934 1 December 1934 30 November 1940 6 years National Revolutionary Party
52 Manuel Ávila Camacho, Retrato.png Manuel Ávila Camacho
(1897–1955)
1940 1 December 1940 30 November 1946 6 years Party of the Mexican Revolution
53 Retrato de Miguel Alemán Valdés.png Miguel Alemán Valdés
(1900–1983)
1946 1 December 1946 30 November 1952 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
54 Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, Retrato.png Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
(1889–1973)
1952 1 December 1952 30 November 1958 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
55 Retrato de Adolfo López Mateos.png Adolfo López Mateos
(1909–1969)
1958 1 December 1958 30 November 1964 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
56 Retrato de Gustavo Díaz Ordaz.png Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
(1911–1979)
1964 1 December 1964 30 November 1970 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
57 Luis Echeverria 1970.jpg Luis Echeverría
(1922–2022)
1970 1 December 1970 30 November 1976 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
58 Lopez Portillo.jpg José López Portillo
(1920–2004)
1976 1 December 1976 30 November 1982 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
59 De la madrid1.jpg Miguel de la Madrid
(1934–2012)
1982 1 December 1982 30 November 1988 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
60 Carlos Salinas de Gortari in 1989.jpeg Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(born 1948)
1988 1 December 1988 30 November 1994 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
61 Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon Official Photo 1999.jpg Ernesto Zedillo
(born 1951)
1994 1 December 1994 30 November 2000 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
62 Vicente Fox Official Photo 2000 (Cropped).jpg Vicente Fox
(born 1942)
2000 1 December 2000 30 November 2006 6 years National Action Party
63 Presidente Felipe Calderon (cropped).jpg Felipe Calderón
(born 1962)
2006 1 December 2006 30 November 2012 6 years National Action Party
64 Enrique Pena Nieto 2.jpg Enrique Peña Nieto
(born 1966)
2012 1 December 2012 30 November 2018 6 years Institutional Revolutionary Party
65 AMLO 2021.jpg Andrés Manuel López Obrador
(born 1953)
2018 1 December 2018 Incumbent
(Term ends 30 September 2024)[130]
4 years, 62 days National Regeneration Movement

Presidents who died in office[edit]

President Term of office Date of death Notes
Benito Juárez 1857–1872 18 July 1872 (aged 66) Only President of Mexico who died of natural causes while in office.
Venustiano Carranza 1914–1920 21 May 1920 (aged 60) Only President of Mexico to be assassinated while in office.

Timeline[edit]

Andrés Manuel López ObradorEnrique Peña NietoFelipe CalderónVicente FoxErnesto ZedilloCarlos Salinas de GortariMiguel de la MadridJosé López PortilloLuis EcheverríaGustavo Díaz OrdazAdolfo López MateosAdolfo Ruiz CortinesMiguel Alemán ValdésManuel Ávila CamachoLázaro CárdenasAbelardo L. RodríguezPascual Ortiz RubioEmilio Portes GilPlutarco Elías CallesÁlvaro ObregónAdolfo de la HuertaVenustiano CarranzaLagos ChazaroGonzales GarzaEulalio GutiérrezFrancisco S. CarvajalVictoriano HuertaPedro LascuráinFrancisco I. MaderoFrancisco León de la BarraManuel González FloresJuan Nepomuceno MéndezPorfirio DíazJosé María IglesiasSebastián Lerdo de TejadaMaximilian I of MexicoPelagio Antonio de LabastidaJuan Nepomuceno AlmonteBenito JuárezIgnacio ComonfortJuan ÁlvarezRómulo Díaz de la VegaMartín CarreraManuel María LombardiniJuan Bautista CeballosMariano AristaManuel de la Peña y PeñaPedro María de AnayaJosé Mariano SalasMariano ParedesJosé Joaquín de HerreraValentín CanalizoFrancisco Javier EcheverríaJosé Justo CorroMiguel BarragánAntonio López de Santa AnnaValentín Gómez FaríasManuel Gómez PedrazaMelchor MúzquizAnastasio BustamantePedro VélezJosé Maria BocanegraVicente GuerreroMiguel DomínguezMariano MichelenaPedro Celestino NegreteGuadalupe VictoriaNicolás BravoManuel de HerasMiguel ValentínManuel Velázquez de LeónJosé Isidro YañezManuel de la BarcénaAntonio Pérez MartínezJuan O'DonojúAgustín de Iturbide

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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