List of Presidents of Syria

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Coat of arms of Syria.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Syria

This article lists the Presidents of Syria since 1920.

Keys[edit]

Meaning
Acting president.
National Bloc
National Party
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Military
Arab Liberation Movement
National Union
People's Party
Syrian Regional Branch
(Ba'ath Party / Syrian Ba'ath Party)

Presidents[edit]

State of Syria, part of the French Mandate (1922–1930)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
1 Subhi barkat.jpg Subhi Barakat
(1889–1939)
28 June 1922 21 December 1925 Independent
François Pierre-Alype
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 Independent
2 Sy nami.png Ahmad Nami
(1879–1960)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 Independent
Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 Independent

Syrian Republic, part of the French Mandate (1930–1945)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 Independent
Léon Solomiac
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 Independent
3 Muhammad Ali al-Abid.jpg Muhammad Ali al-Abid
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 National Bloc
5 Bahij al-Khatib.jpg Bahij al-Khatib
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 Independent
Khalid al-Azm.jpg Khalid al-Azm
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 Independent
6 Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 Independent Hasani died in office.[1]
Jamil al-Ulshi.jpg Jamil al-Ulshi
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 Independent
7 Ata al-Ayyubi.jpg Ata al-Ayyubi
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 Independent
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 24 October 1945 National Bloc

Syrian Republic (1945–1958)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
24 October 1945 29 March 1949 National Bloc /
National Party
Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[2]
9 Husni al-Zaiim.jpg Husni al-Za'im
(1897–1949)
30 March 1949 14 August 1949 Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[3]
10 Sami al-Hinnawi.jpg Sami al-Hinnawi
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 Military
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 2 December 1951 National Party
Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 Syrian Social Nationalist Party
11 Fawzi Selu.jpg Fawzi Selu
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 Military
12 Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
11 July 1953 25 February 1954 Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[4] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[4]
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 National Party
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 National Party

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
13 Nasser portrait2.jpg Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918–1970)
22 February 1958 29 September 1961 National Union

Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 Independent
Sy izzat al-nuss.png Izzat al-Nuss
(1912–1976)[5]
20 November 1961 14 December 1961 Military
14 Nazim al=Kudsi.jpg Nazim al-Kudsi
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 People's Party The 1963 coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Nazim al-Kudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[6]
15 Luai al-Atassi.jpg Lu'ay al-Atassi
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 Independent Lu'ay al-Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[7] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[8]
16 Amin al-Hafez 1965.jpg Amin al-Hafiz
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Amin al-Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[9]
17 Nureddin Atassi.jpg Nureddin al-Atassi
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Nureddin al-Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[10] Assad initiated a coup in 1970, known as the Corrective Movement.[11]
Ahmad al-Khatib, the interim head of state who ruled Syria for four months from November 1970 to March 1971.png Ahmad al-Khatib
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
18 Hafez al-Assad official portrait.jpg Hafez al-Assad
(1930–2000)
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[12]
Abdul Halim Khaddam in 1974.jpg Abdul Halim Khaddam
(1932–)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
19 Bashar al-Assad (cropped).jpg Bashar al-Assad
(1965–)
17 July 2000 Incumbent Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)

Timeline[edit]

Bashar al-AssadAbdul Halim KhaddamHafez al-AssadAhmad al-KhatibNureddin al-AtassiAmin al-HafizLu'ay al-AtassiNazim al-KudsiIzzat al-NussGamal Abdel NasserMaamun al-KuzbariFawzi SeluAdib ShishakliSami al-HinnawiHusni al-Za'imShukri al-QuwatliAta al-AyyubiJamil al-UlshiKhalid al-AzmBahij al-KhatibHashim al-AtassiMuhammad Ali al-AbidLéon SolomiacTaj al-Din al-HasaniAhmad NamiFrançois Pierre-AlypeSubhi Barakat

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Bibliography
  • Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel & Silk: Men and Women who shaped Syria 1900–2000. Cune Press. ISBN 1-885942-40-0.
  • Seale, Patrick (1990). Asad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520069763.