List of herbivorous animals
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This is a list of herbivorous animals. Herbivores are animals that eat plants. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which a heterotrophic organism consumes other organisms, principally autotrophs[page needed] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in general are known as 1st level consumers.
- 1 Mammals
- 2 Reptiles
- 3 Birds
- 4 Amphibians
- 5 Fish
- 6 Invertebrates
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Mammals (formally Mammalia) are a class of vertebrate, air-breathing animals whose females are characterized by the possession of mammary glands while both males and females are characterized by hair and/or fur, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain. Herbivorous mammals include:
- European bison
- African buffalo
- Giant eland
- Mountain goat
- Uromastyx (spiny-tailed lizards) (primarily herbivorous,)
- Solomon Islands skink
- Iguanas (mostly herbivorous)
Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises)
Birds (class: Aves) are winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. There are around 10,000 living species, making them the most varied of tetrapod vertebrates. Some birds are herbivorous, and some are not.
Some extant Lissamphibians display semi-herbivorous habits:
- Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining healthy ecosystems, especially in tropical reefs, where they promote a balance between corals and macroalgae. Herbivorous fish include Acanthurus lineatus or lined surgeonfish (also known as blue banded surgeonfish, blue-lined surgeonfish, clown surgeonfish, pyjama tang, striped surgeonfish, and zebra surgeonfish), Acanthurus nigrofuscus known as the Lavender tang, Brown Tang, or Spot-Cheeked Surgeonfish, and Zebrasoma scopas known as the brown tang, twotone tang, scopas tang or brush-tail tang.
- The unicornfishes (Nasinae) genus is primarily herbivorous.
- Most of the nearly 100 species of the parrotfish family are herbivores.
- Campbell, N. A. (1996) Biology (4th edition) Benjamin Cummings, New York ISBN 0-8053-1957-3
- Nie, Yonggang; Zhang, Zejun; Raubenheimer, David; Elser, James J; Wei, Wei; Wei, Fuwen (2015). "Obligate herbivory in an ancestrally carnivorous lineage: The giant panda and bamboo from the perspective of nutritional geometry". Functional Ecology. 29: 26–34. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12302.
- Discovering Dinosaurs. Curriculum Corporation, 2003 ISBN 1876973064. 2001. ISBN 9781876973063. Retrieved 2010-08-08. templatestyles stripmarker in
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- Hill, R. L., Mendelson, J. R. & Stabile, J. L. 2015. Direct observation and review of herbivory in Sirenidae (Amphibia: Caudata). Southeastern Naturalist 14, N5-N9.
- Herbivory in Fish
- Lieske, E., and Myers, R. (1999). Coral Reef Fishes. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00481-1
- What Marine Animals are Herbivores?