Gardiner's sign list
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Gardiner lists only the common forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs, but he includes extensive subcategories, and also both vertical and horizontal forms for many hieroglyphs. He includes size-variation forms to aid with the reading of hieroglyphs in running blocks of text. In contrast, for example, the Budge Reference has about 1000 hieroglyphs listed in 50 pages, but with no size variations.
Gardiner does not cross-index signs; once put on the list, other significant uses may be overlooked. One example of this is G16, nbtỉ, the ideogram for The Two Ladies, goddesses Wadjet as the cobra and Nekhbet as the white vulture. These are the protective and patron goddesses of the separate Egyptian kingdoms that joined into Ancient Egypt, who were both then displayed on the uraeus of Wadjet when the unification occurred and afterward considered jointly to be the protectors of Egypt and the pharaohs. This ideogram is listed only on the bird list as G16, and overlooked on the deity list and the reptile list.
A. Man and his occupations
Group A consists of 57 symbols and can be subdivided into 30 sitting men, 20 standing men as well as various other lying, standing or falling figures
B. Woman and her occupations
C. Anthropomorphic deities
D. Parts of the human body
F. Parts of mammals
H. Parts of Birds
I. Amphibious Animals, Reptiles, etc.
K. Fish and parts of fish
L. Invertebrates and lesser animals
M. Trees and plants
N. Sky, earth, water
O. Buildings, parts of buildings, etc.
P. Ships and parts of ships
Q. Domestics and funerary furniture
R. Temple furniture and sacred emblems
S. Crowns, dress, staves, etc.
T. Warfare, hunting, butchery
U. Agriculture, Crafts, and Professions
V. Rope, fiber, baskets, bags, etc.
W. Vessels of stone and earthenware
X. Loaves and cakes
Y. Writings, games, music
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- List of Egyptian hieroglyphs:
- Alan Gardiner
- Egyptian biliteral signs
- Egyptian hieroglyphs
- Egyptian numerals
- Egyptian triliteral signs
- List of cuneiform signs
- Sa-sub4 (Luwian hieroglyph)
- Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
- Budge, Sir E.A.Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, in Two Volumes, Sir E.A.Wallis Budge, (Dover Publications, Inc. New York), c 1920, Dover Edition, c 1978. (Large categorized listings of Hieroglyphs, Vol 1, pp. xcvii–cxlvii (97–147) (25 categories, 1000+ hieroglyphs), 50 pgs.)
- Gardiner, Alan, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd Ed., pub. Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1957 (1st edition 1927), ISBN 0-900416-35-1
- Wilkinson, Richard, Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture, Richard H. Wilkinson, with 450 Illustrations, (Thames & Hudson Ltd, London), c 1992.