List of high-speed railway lines

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This article provides a list of operated high-speed rail networks, listed by country or region.

High-speed rail is public transport by rail at speeds of at least 200 km/h (120 mph) for upgraded track and 250 km/h (160 mph) or faster for new track.[1][2]

Contents

Overview[edit]

Countries with high-speed rail

The following table is an overview of high speed rail in service or under construction by country, ranked by the amount in service. It shows all high speed lines (speed of 200 km/h (120 mph) or over) in service. The list is based on UIC figures (International Union of Railways),[3][4] updated with other sources.[5]

Rank Country/Region Continent In
operation
(km)
Under
construction
(km)
Total
country
(km)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Length
per 100,000 people
(km)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1  China Asia 31,000 7,207[6] 38,207 3.23 2.21 350[7][8] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Shanghai Maglev: 430 km/h max;[9] exclude 26 km of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong section; projected length in the end of 2019 – 32200 km; 38875 km including approved (45000 km in long-term). The only country in the world to provide overnight sleeping high-speed trains at 250 km/h
2  Spain Europe 3,240[10] 2,285 5,525[11] 6.4 6.9 310 25 kV 50 Hz 1435[12] The longest High-Speed dedicated network in Europe
3  France Europe 3300.2 570[13] 3870.2[14] 5.98 4.9 320[15] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Including 726.8 km of upgraded lines. 2,000 km under planning, claimed to be completed in 2020, and a further package of 2,500 km in the longer term.[16]
4  Germany Europe 3045.9 550.08 3595.98[17] 8.53 3.7 300 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines
5  Japan Asia 2,764.6[18] 657.1 3421.7[19] 9 2.19 320[20] 25 kV 50 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435[21] The first network ever opened; 6411.7 km including approved
6  Sweden Europe 1706[22] 710 2,416 3.79 16.7 205[23] 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Only upgraded lines
7  United Kingdom Europe 1377 620 1997[24] 5.67 2.09 300[25] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines
8  Turkey Asia 1213[26] 3798 5011[27] 1.55 1.5 250[28] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 11700 km total under planning, claimed to be completed in 2023
9  Italy Europe 1191.7 505 1624.7 3.96 1.97 300 3 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz AC
1435 After its neighbour country France ended parcel service, Italy became the only country to provide freight services at high-speed track
10  South Korea Asia 1104.5 376 1480.5 11.03 2.15 305[29] 25 kV 60 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines; 49 km extra approved
11  Finland Europe 944.3 95 1039.3 2.79 17.1 220[30] 25 kV 50 Hz 1524[31] Only upgraded lines; including Espoo–Salo line under construction
12  Russia Europe 845 1181 2026[32] 0.04 0.58 250[33] 3 kV DC 1520 Only upgraded lines; total 4595 km to be under construction no later than 2024
13  Uzbekistan Asia 741 0 741 1.34 1.8 250 25 kV 50 Hz 1520 Including upgraded lines
14  Greece Europe 700 0 700 5.3 6.5 200[34] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Only upgraded lines; full operation since 2019[35]
15  Portugal Europe 624 0 624 6.77 6.06 220 25 kV 50 Hz 1668 Only upgraded lines
16  Saudi Arabia Asia 453 663 1116 0.21 1.37 300 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Opened in September 2018
17  Austria Europe 352 208 560 4.2 3.97 250 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines
18  Taiwan Asia 345 0 345 9.37 1.46 300 25 kV 60 Hz 1435[21]
19  Belgium Europe 326 0 326 8.25 2.9 300 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines
20  Morocco Africa 186[36] 137 323[37] 0.28 0.5 320 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Inaugurated in November 2018
21  Netherlands Europe 175 34.9 209.9 4.18 1 300[38] 1.5 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz AC
1435 Hanzelijn is expected to start high-speed services
22  Poland Europe 143 322 465 0.46 0.37 200 3 kV DC 1435 Only upgraded lines; 484 km extra approved
23   Switzerland Europe 136.7 311.31 448.01 3.32 1.73 250 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435
24  Norway Europe 103.5 270 373.5 0.32 1.94 210 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435
25  Denmark Europe 65 229 294 1.51 1.1 250 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
26  United States America 54.6[39] 2006.8[40][41] 2061.4[42] 0.01 0.02 240[43][44] 12 kV 25 Hz,
12 kV 60 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435 Only upgraded lines
27  Hong Kong Asia 26 0 26 9.44 0.3 200 25 kV 50 Hz 1435

By region. China is listed separately due to high density of its network.

Rank Country/Region Continent In
operation
(km)
Under
construction
(km)
Total
country
(km)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1 China[45] Asia 31,000 7,207[6] 38,207 3.23 350[7] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Shanghai Maglev: 430 km/h max;[9] exclude 26 km of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong section; 38875 km including approved (45000 km in long-term)
2 Europe (including non-EU states) Europe 18,230.6 10,059.29 28,334.59 1.79 320 different 1435; 1520; 1668 Excluding Turkey since it is listed in Asia section (because only small part of it is in the West to Bosphorus); 33,539.08 km including approved
3 European Union Europe 17,190.1 8,063.98 25,254.08 3.84 320 different 1435; 1520; 1668 West and Central Europe have more dense network, starting from the 1970s
4 Asia (Pacific region; excluding China) Asia 4214.1[46][47][48] 3532.4 7746.5 1.88 320 25 kV 50 Hz; 25 kV 60 Hz 1435 10736.5 km including approved
5 Western Asia, Central Asia Asia; Africa 2,265.6[49][50][51] 7410.4 9,676 0.22 300 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Turkey is listed here
6 North Africa Africa 186 1037 1223 0.02 320 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Morocco and Egypt
7 United States America 54.6[39] 2006.8[40][41] 2061.4[42] 0.01 240[43][44] 12 kV 25 Hz,
12 kV 60 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435 Only upgraded lines. Planned or under construction lines do not include core city hub and are developing independently (unlike other countries do)
8 Australia Oceania 1098 1098[52] 0.14 200 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Upgrading
9 South Asia Asia 0 738 738 0.14 320 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 India and Bangladesh

High-speed networks under construction

Rank Country/Region Continent Under
construction
(km)[53]
Total
country
(km) (Including approved)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Legth per 100,000 people (km) Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1  Kuwait;  Bahrain;  Qatar;  UAE;  Oman Asia 1,544 1,544 6.06 220 6.8 No 1435 Excludes Saudi Arabia listed at "In operation"
2  Thailand Asia 1,876 2,566 5 300+ 3.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
3  Australia Oceania 1098[52] 1740 0.2 350 6.9 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
4  Egypt[54] Africa 900 900 0.89 300+ 0.94 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
5  Estonia Latvia Lithuania Europe 870 973 5.56 240 16.1 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 All sections to be under construction after 2019-2020, Latvain section faces with delay
6  India Asia 508 1,288[55] 3.04 320 0.76 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Out of 10,000 km total under EIS phase
7  Malaysia;  Singapore Asia 350 350 1.06 350 0.9 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
8  Ireland Europe 266 266 3.15 225 4.1 No (until 2030) 1435
9  Bangladesh Asia 230 230 1.56 250 0.14 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
10  Serbia Europe 184 184 2.08 200 2.6 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
11  Hungary Europe 152 392 4.21 200 4 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
12  Bulgaria Europe 150 150 1.35 200 2.1 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
13  Indonesia Asia 142.3 142.3 0.07 250 0.05 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Exclude slower 600 km of phase 2
14  Vietnam Asia 139 1559 4.71 350 1.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
15  Iceland Europe 49 49 0.48 250 13.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
16  Kazakhstan Asia 0 1011 0.37 350 5.5 25 kV 50 Hz 1520
17  Iran Asia 410 1,351 0.82 300 1.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Of which 410 km is under EIS
18  Ukraine Europe 0 300+ 0.5 350 0.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
19  Czech Republic Europe 0 660 8.37 250 6.2 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
20  Romania Europe 497 657 2.76 250 3.4 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Excludes 400 km proposed
21  Canada North America 0 65 0.01 400 0.17 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Part of 500+ km Pacific Northwest Corridor under EIS phase in 2019
22  Panama Central America 0 391 0.86 250 9.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Chinese proposal in 2019[56]

Austria[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Western Railway (Austria) Wien MeidlingAttnang-Puchheim 250 km/h (160 mph) December 9, 2012 237 km (147 mi)
New Lower Inn Valley railway Innsbruck HauptbahnhofWörgl Hauptbahnhof 250 km/h (160 mph) December 9, 2012 40 km (25 mi)

Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Rail Baltica TallinnRigaKaunas and Riga Airport branch diverging from mainline 250 km/h (160 mph) construction 2019-2023; test operation 2023-2026; to be in full service from 2026 870 km (540 mi)
KaunasJoniškisRiga 200 km/h 2026+ 250 km (160 mi)
HelsinkiTallinn Not decided 2024[57] 103 km (64 mi)
Moscow-Riga High-speed Railway MoscowRiga 300 km/h Postponed due to Baltic States 2008-2010 crysis 850 km (530 mi)
Tallinn-Tartu-Riga High-speed Railway TallinnRiga (via Tartu) 200+ km/h Proposed in 2019; existing railway can be uprageded no earlier than 2023 when ETCS level 3 installation will be finished at Tallinn–Tapa railway 450 km (280 mi)

Exits to Russian, Polish and Finnish high-speed railways are under planning.

Belgium[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
HSL 1 LGV NordBruxelles-Sud 300 km/h (190 mph) December 14, 1997 88 km (55 mi)
HSL 2 Bruxelles-NordLiège-Guillemins 300 km/h (190 mph) December 15, 2002 95 km (59 mi)
HSL 3 Liège-GuilleminsCologne-Aachen 260 km/h (160 mph) June 14, 2009 56 km (35 mi)
HSL 4 Antwerpen-CentraalHSL Zuid 300 km/h (190 mph) 2009 87 km (54 mi)

China[edit]

Quick overview[edit]

Network name Length Maximum speed Opening Notifications
Country total 31,000 km (19,000 mi) (37,807 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2005–present
4+4 National Grid unknown 350 km/h (220 mph) 2005-2020 Original plan
8+8 National Grid unknown 350 km/h (220 mph) 2016-2025 Extended plan
Regional Railways 1,306 km (812 mi) (4130 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2008-2020
Intercity Railways 7,210 km (4,480 mi) (7846 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2008-2020 Built to expand almost few communter services existed before
Class 1 Railways 3,487.5 km (2,167.0 mi) (5056.9 with under construction) 250 km/h (160 mph) 2012-2019 Slower service than intercity, but still high-speed
Shanghai Maglev 30.5 km (19.0 mi) 431 km/h (268 mph) 2004 The fastest commercial service in the world
Hong Kong Rail Link 26 km (16 mi) 200 km/h (120 mph) 2018-09-23 With several mainland destinations

Denmark[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Øresund Line PeberholmOresund Bridge 200 km/h (120 mph) July 1, 2000 5 km (3.1 mi)
Copenhagen–Ringsted Line CopenhagenRingsted 250 km/h (160 mph) 2019 60 km (37 mi)
Ringsted-Fehmarn Line RingstedFehmarn 200 km/h (120 mph) 2021 115 km (71 mi)
Ringsted-Odense Line RingstedOdense 200 km/h (120 mph) 2021 (likely to be postponed) 96 km (60 mi)
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link 200 km/h (120 mph) planned (construction 2020-2028) 18 km (11 mi)

Finland[edit]

New main lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Lahti Main Line KeravaLahti 220 km/h (140 mph) 2006 75.7 km (47.0 mi)
Espoo–Salo Railway EspooSalo 300 km/h (190 mph) 2031 (planned) 95 km (59 mi)
Helsinki-Tampere High Speed Railway (partially Lahti Main Line) HelsinkiTampere 300 km/h (190 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 100 km (62 mi)
Lentorata HelsinkiVantaa Airport 220 km/h (140 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 30 km (19 mi)
East Rail Connection VantaaPorvooMikkeli 300 km/h (190 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 126 km (78 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
Finnish Coastal Railway HelsinkiTurku 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1902 approximately 50 km (31 mi) (high speed section); 195.8 km (total)
Helsinki–Riihimäki Railway HelsinkiRiihimäki 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1862 71.4 km (44.4 mi)
Lahti–Kouvola Railway LahtiKouvola 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1870 61.4 km
Karelian Railway KouvolaJoensuu 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1894 60 km (37 mi) (high-speed section); 325,8 km (total)
Savo Railway KouvolaIisalmi 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1902 ~15 km (9.3 mi) (high-speed section); 357,8 km (total)
Riihimäki–Tampere Railway RiihimäkiTampere 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1862–1876 116 km (72 mi)
Seinäjoki–Oulu Railway (Seinäjoki–Kokkola section) SeinäjokiKokkola 200 km/h (120 mph) 2010-2013 1886 134 km (83 mi)
Seinäjoki–Oulu Railway (Kokkola-Oulu section) KokkolaOulu 200 km/h (120 mph) 2010-2017 1886 200.8 km (124.8 mi)
Tampere–Seinäjoki Railway TampereSeinäjoki 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1880 160 km (99 mi)

France[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Sud-Est Paris Gare de LyonLyon-Perrache 300 km/h[58] 1981 409 km
LGV Atlantique Paris Gare MontparnasseCourtalain 300 km/h 1990 130 km
CourtalainTours 102 km
CourtalainLe Mans 52 km
LGV Rhône-Alpes Lyon-PerracheSaint-Quentin-Fallavier 300 km/h 1992 37 km
Saint-Quentin-FallavierValence 1994 78 km
LGV Nord Gare du NordChannel Tunnel 300 km/h 1993 333 km
LGV Interconnexion Est LGV NordLGV Sud-Est 300 km/h 1994 57 km
LGV Méditerranée ValenceLes Angles 300 km/h[59] 2001-06-10 127 km
Les AnglesNîmes 25 km
Les AnglesMarseille 320 km/h[59] 91 km
LGV Est Paris Gare de l'EstBaudrecourt (Part 1) 320 km/h 2007-06-10 300 km
BaudrecourtStrasbourg (Part 2) 320 km/h 2016-07-03 107 km
LGV Perpignan–Figueres PerpignanFigueres 320 km/h 2010-12-19 44.4 km
LGV Rhin-Rhône Eastern branch CollongesPetit-Croix (Part 1) 320 km/h 2011-12-11 140 km
DijonCollonges & Petit-CroixMulhouse (Part 2) 320 km/h (50 km)
LGV Sud Europe Atlantique ToursBordeaux 350 km/h[60] 2017-07-02 279 km
LGV Bretagne-Pays de la Loire Le MansRennes 350 km/h 2017-07-02 182 km
Contournement Nîmes–Montpellier NîmesMontpellier 220 km/h 2018-07-08 80 km
LGV Bordeaux–Toulouse BordeauxToulouse 320 km/h 2024 (planned) 200 km
Total 2577 km

Dedicated high-speed line approved[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Lyon–Turin 1st part Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne–border (on cross-border section) Construction[61] (220 km/h ready) 2030 (expected) 45 km (in France)
LGV Lyon–Turin 2nd part LyonSaint-Jean-de-Maurienne (with 18,8 km upgraded) Approved[62] (220 km/h ready). Italian side of the project, however, can be rejected in 2019, so it would end this project permanently. After 2030 (expected) 130 km
LGV Picardie Paris-Calais Approved personally by President in 2018 After 2030 (expected) 283 km
CDG Airport Line Paris - Charles-de-Gaulle Airport Insisted by government[63] 2024 32 km
Total 570 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
(Paris–) Étampes–Orléans–Vierzon ÉtampesVierzon 200 km/h 1967 1847 143 km[64]
(Paris–) Étampes–Orléans–Bordeaux ÉtampesBordeaux 220 km/h 1971 1861 380.4 km[64]
(Paris–) Connerré–Brest ConnerréBrest 220 km/h 1990 1865 29.3 km[64]
Le Mans–Nantes Le MansGare de Nantes 220 km/h 1990 1863 117.4 km[64]
Strasbourg–Mulhouse StrasbourgMulhouse 220 km/h 1995 1844 123.1 km[64]
Total 726.8 km

Germany[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Hanover–Berlin high-speed railway WolfsburgBerlin 250 km/h 1998–09 258 km
Hanover–Wurzburg high-speed railway HanoverWurzburg 280 km/h 1991 327 km
Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway MannheimStuttgart 280 km/h 1991-05-09 99 km
Köln–Frankfurt high-speed rail line CologneFrankfurt 300 km/h 2002-08-01 180 km
Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway NurembergIngolstadt 300 km/h 2006-05-13 171 km
Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway ErfurtLeipzig 300 km/h 2015-12-09 123 km
Frankfurt–Mannheim high-speed railway FrankfurtMannheim Planned (300 km/h ready) unknown 85 km
Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway NurembergErfurt 300 km/h 2017 190 km
Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway KarlsruheBasel 250 km/h 2030 182 km
Stuttgart–Wendlingen high-speed railway StuttgartWendlingen 250 km/h 2025 25 km
Wendlingen–Ulm high-speed railway WendlingenUlm 250 km/h 2022 (under construction) 59.58 km
Hanau-Gelnhausen high-speed railway HanauGelnhausen Planned (300 km/h ready) 2023 (expected) 55 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
Berlin–Halle railway BerlinHalle 200 km/h 1992–2006 1841–1859 161.6 km (new line in parallel at Leipzig-Halle section)
Berlin–Hamburg Railway BerlinHamburg 230 km/h 1997–2004 1846 284.1 km
Wanne-Eickel–Hamburg railway Wanne-EickelHamburg 200 km/h 1978–1990 1870–1874 355 km
Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway KölnAachen 250 km/h 2002 1841 70 km
Cologne–Duisburg railway KölnDuisburg 200 km/h 1991 1845–1846 64 km
Hanover–Hamburg railway HanoverHamburg 200 km/h 1984–1987 1846–1847 181.2 km
Hamm–Minden railway HammMinden 200 km/h 1980 1847 112 km
Hanover–Minden railway HanoverMinden 200 km/h 1984–1985 1847 64.4 km
Leipzig–Dresden railway LeipzigDresden 200 km/h 1994–2014 1837–1839 117 km
Nuremberg–Würzburg Railway NurembergWürzburg 200 km/h 1992–1999 1854–1865 102.2 km
Rhine Railway Mannheim-Karlsruhe MannheimKarlsruhe 250 km/h 1987 1840–1855 61 km (upgraded southern section 200 km/h)
Rhine Railway Karlsruhe-Rastatt KarlsruheRastatt Süd 250 km/h 2024 1840–1855 ~30 km (under construction)
Rhine Railway Rastatt-Offenburg Rastatt Süd–Offenburg 250 km/h 2001 1840–1855 ~50 km
Rhine Railway Offenburg-Basel OffenburgBasel 250 km/h unknown 1840–1855 ~120 km[65]
Mannheim–Frankfurt railway MannheimFrankfurt 200 km/h 1985–1999 1869–1879 74.8 km
Frankfurt–Bebra railway FrankfurtBebra 200 km/h 1866–1875
Munich–Augsburg railway MunichAugsburg 230 km/h 1977–2011 1839–1854 61.9 km
Waghäusel Saalbach – Graben-Neudorf railway Waghäusel Saalbach–Graben-Neudorf 200 km/h 1977-1988 1980s 7.94 km
Mannheim–Saarbrücken railway Mannheim–Saarbrücken 160 km/h (some sections are 200 km/h ready) 1847-1904 2003-2019 (under upgrading) 130.5 km
Nuremberg–Augsburg railway NurembergAugsburg 200 km/h 1978–1981 1841–1869 36.5 km (high-speed section); 137.1 km (total)

Hungary[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Length
Slovak Border-Budapest 250 km/h Planned

Upgraded lines[edit]

Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Length
Serbian Border-Budapest 200 km/h 2020 (construction delayed) 152 km
Romanian Border-Budapest 200 km/h planned 240 km

India[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Network Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Diamond Quadrilateral Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor MumbaiAhmedabad 320 km/h (200 mph) 2022 (under construction) 508 km (316 mi)
MumbaiPune 320 km/h (200 mph) 2022+ (proposed) 142 km (88 mi)
Delhi–Kolkata high-speed rail corridor New DelhiVaranasi 320 km/h (200 mph) 2022+ (planned; suggested as the next after Mumbai–Ahmedabad corrdor) 720 km (450 mi)
VaranasiKolkata 320 km/h (200 mph) 2025+ (approved) 780 km (480 mi)
Chennai-Mysore line ChennaiBangaloreMysore 320 km/h (200 mph) 2030 (proposed with German government's help) 435 km (270 mi)

Italy[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Florence–Rome high-speed railway FlorenceRome 250 km/h (160 mph) 1992 (full length) 254 km (158 mi)
Rome–Naples high-speed railway RomeNaples 300 km/h (190 mph) 2005 (full length) 205 km (127 mi)
Turin–Milan high-speed railway TurinMilan 300 km/h (190 mph) 2009 (full length) 125 km (78 mi)
Milan–Bologna high-speed railway MilanBologna 300 km/h (190 mph) 2009 215 km (134 mi)
Bologna–Florence high-speed railway BolognaFlorence 300 km/h (190 mph) 2009 78 km (48 mi)
Milan–Verona high-speed railway MilanVerona 300 km/h (190 mph) 2023 (under construction)[66] 165 km (103 mi)
Tortona–Genoa high-speed railway TortonaGenova 250 km/h (160 mph) 2022 (under construction) 53 km (33 mi)
Brenner Base Tunnel 250 km/h (160 mph) December 21, 2025 56 km (35 mi)
Verona-Brenner 250 km/h (160 mph) 2025 276 km (171 mi)
Turin–Lyon high-speed railway Turin-French border (tunnel) 220 km/h (140 mph) 2025 72 km (45 mi) (Italian section); 270 km (170 mi) (total)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length Notes
Florence-Rome Firenze Santa Maria NovellaRoma Termini 250 km/h (160 mph) 1866; upgraded in 1977 314.8 km (195.6 mi) Dedicated line in parallel opened in 1992

Japan[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Tokaido Shinkansen TokyoShin-Osaka 285 km/h October 1, 1964 515.4 km
Sanyo Shinkansen Shin-OsakaOkayama 300 km/h March 15, 1972 553.7 km
OkayamaHakata March 10, 1975
Tohoku Shinkansen TokyoUeno 110 km/h (130 km/h by 2020)[67] June 20, 1991 674.9 km
UenoOmiya November 15, 1985
OmiyaUtsunomiya 275 km/h June 23, 1982
UtsunomiyaMorioka 320 km/h
MoriokaHachinohe 260 km/h (320 km/h soon)[67] December 1, 2002
HachinoheShin-Aomori December 4, 2010
Joetsu Shinkansen OmiyaNiigata 240 km/h (275 km/h soon)[68] November 15, 1982 269.5 km
Hokuriku Shinkansen TakasakiNagano 260 km/h October 1, 1997 470.6 km
NaganoKanazawa March 14, 2015
KanazawaTsuruga construction (260 km/h ready) 2022 (expected)
TsurugaOsaka to be approved 2030+ (most likely 2045) five routes proposed, one to be approved
Kyushu Shinkansen HakataShin-Yatsushiro 260 km/h March 12, 2011 256.8 km
Shin-YatsushiroKagoshima-Chuo March 13, 2004
Takeo-OnsenNagasaki construction 2023 (expected, likely to be delayed until 2025) 66.7 km
HakataTakeo-Onsen on hold 2030+ 90 km
Hokkaido Shinkansen Shin-AomoriShin-Hakodate-Hokuto 260 km/h March 26, 2016 360.2 km
Shin-Hakodate-HokutoSapporo construction 2030 (expected)

Maglev lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Chuo Shinkansen ShinagawaNagoya 505 km/h 2027 (Demonstrating operation since 2020) 285.6 km (42.8 km ready as test track)
Chuo Shinkansen (extension) NagoyaOsaka 505 km/h 2037 152.4 km
Chuo Shinkansen (extension) ShinagawaTokyo 200 km/h 2027+ (proposed) 6.8 km

Morocco[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Tanger–Kénitra TangerKénitra 320 km/h (200 mph) (350 km/h ready) 2018-11-15 200 km (120 mi)

Upgraded line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Kénitra–Casablanca KénitraCasablanca 160 km/h (320 km/h ready after upgrades) 2020 150 km

Dedicated high-speed lines planned[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Rabat–Oujda RabatOujda Before 2030 (expected) About 600 km
LGV Casablanca–Agadir CasablancaAgadir Before 2030 (expected) About 550 km
Total About 1150 km

Netherlands[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
HSL-Zuid Amsterdam CentraalHSL 4 300 km/h 2009-09-07 125 km
Hanzelijn Lelystad–Zwolle 160 km/h (200 km/h ready) December 2012 (high-speed since 2021) 50 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Rhine Railway Amsterdam–Utrecht 140/160 km/h (200 km/h ready after further electrification upgrades) 2020+ 34.9 km

Norway[edit]

Line Speed Length Construction began Expected start of revenue services
Gardermobanen 210 km/h 67 km 1994 1999
Vestfold Line 200–250 km/h 36.5 km 1993 2012–2018
Dovre Line 200–300 km/h 110 km 2012 2024–2030
Oslo–Ski 250 km/h 22.5 km 2014 2021 (postponed for December, 2022[69])
Østfoldbanen 250 km/h 77 km 2019 2024–≈2030
Other lines (planned for 2036) 300 km/h 61 km Unknown 2026–≈2036

Poland[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Warsaw–Gdańsk railway (PKP rail line 9) WarsawGdańsk 200 km/h (120 mph) December 2019 (planned) 40-45% of 323 km total
PKP rail line 4 WłoszczowaZawiercie 200 km/h (120 mph)


230-250 km/h (140-160 mph) scheduled in 2023

2014-12-14 58 km (36 mi)[70]
Grodzisk MazowieckiIdzikowice 2017-12-10 85 km (53 mi)[70]
other upgradable sections 230–250 km/h (140–160 mph) 2023 (projected) 81 km (50 mi)[70]
Warsaw-Białystok-Ełk-Suwałki-national border (Rail Baltica, partially new line between Ełk and national border) Warsaw-Trakiszki 200 km/h (120 mph) Warszawa-Ełk


250 km/h (160 mph) Ełk-national border

2025 (projected)
PKP rail line 131 Bydgoszcz-Tczew 200 km/h (120 mph) After 2023

Dedicated lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Y-shape line Phase 1:

Warsaw-Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Lodz


Phase 2: Sieradz-Poznan/Wrocław

250 km/h (160 mph) Phase 1: 2027-2029 (with Central Transport Hub)
CMK Północ / PKP rail line 5 Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Płock-Włocławek-Grudziądz-Tczew/Gdańsk 250 km/h (160 mph) After 2030 ~295 km
Connector between Y-shape line, PKP rail line 4 and PKP rail line 5 Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Korytów 250 km/h (160 mph) 2027-2029 (with Central Transport Hub)
Shortcut in PKP rail line 9 Warszawa Choszczówka-Nasielsk/Kątne/Świercze 250 km/h (160 mph) ? ~33 km
V4 rail corridor (loose concept) WarsawBratislavaBudapest 250 km/h (160 mph) ? 900 km (560 mi) (total; including foreign line)

Romania[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Length
Bucharest-Cluj 200 km/h 2020 (construction delayed) 497 km
Cluj-Hungarian border 200 km/h Planned 160 km
Bucharest-Iasi 200 km/h Proposed 400 km

Russia[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Moscow–Saint Petersburg Railway MoscowSaint Petersburg 250 km/h (160 mph) (5% of tracks), 100–200 km/h (the rest) 2009-12-26 650 km (400 mi)
Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg Railway RiihimäkiSaint Petersburg 220 km/h (140 mph) (Finnish section), 140–200 km/h (Russian section) 2010-12-12 385 km (239 mi)
(190 km in Finland)

Dedicated lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
High Speed Main Line Moscow-Kazan Zheleznodorozhnaya (Balashikha, Moscow's suburb)–Gorokhovets 360 km/h (220 mph) or 400 km/h (250 mph) (different sources) Planned, to be built until 2024, construction delayed 301 km (187 mi)
Nizhiy Novgorod–Cheboksary 360 km/h (220 mph) or 400 km/h (250 mph) (different sources) To be constructed after 2024 232.5 km (144.5 mi)
KazanNaberezhnye Chelny 360 km/h (220 mph) or 400 km/h (250 mph) (different sources) Proposed in 2029 220 km (140 mi)
Naberezhnye ChelnyYekaterinburg 360 km/h (220 mph) or 400 km/h (250 mph) (different sources) Proposed in 2036 550 km (340 mi)
Ural High-Speed Rail ChelyabinskYekaterinburg 300 km/h (190 mph) 2021-2025 (planned)[71] 220 km (140 mi)
Border Main Line MoscowKrasnoe, Belarus border 300 km/h (190 mph) Proposed in 2017 as international corridor, waiting for approval in 2019 450 km (280 mi)
Moscow–Rostov-Adler MoscowRostov-On-DonAdler 400 km/h (250 mph) Proposed to be constructed after 2024; extension to Grozny was considered as unprofitable 1,540 km (960 mi)
Moscow–St.Petersburg MoscowSt.Petersburg 400 km/h (250 mph) Suspended[72] 660 km (410 mi)

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Haramain HSR MeccaMedina 300 km/h 2018-10-11 453 km
Gulf Railway (Saudi section) 220 km/h until 2023 663 km

Serbia[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Budapest–Belgrade international corridor BelgradeStara Pazova 200 km/h (120 mph) end of 2020 (upgrading) 34.5 km (21.4 mi)
Stara PazovaNovi Sad 200 km/h (120 mph) November 2021 43 km (27 mi)
Novi Sad-Hungarian Border 200 km/h (120 mph) 2022+ (upgrading after 2019, delayed) 106.5 km (66.2 mi)

South Korea[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Gyeongbu HSR SeoulDongdaegu 305 km/h (350 km/h ready) 2004-04-01 286.8 km
DongdaeguBusan 2010-11-01 130.7 km
Honam HSR OsongGwangju Songjeong 305 km/h (350 km/h ready) 2015-04-02 182.3 km
Suseo–Pyeongtaek HSR SuseoJijePyeongtaek Junction 300 km/h 2016-12-09 61.1 km

New main lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Gyeonggang Line SeowonjuGangneung 250 km/h 2017-12-22 120.7 km
Bujeon–Masan Line Bujeon–Chilsan Junction Construction (250 km/h) 2020 (expected) 32.7 km
Seohae Line Wonsi–Hongseong Construction (250 km/h) 2020 (expected) 89.2 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Jeolla Line IksanSuncheon 200 km/h (230 km/h ready) 2011-10-05 145.6 km
Suncheon–Yeosu Expo 230 km/h 34.8 km
Donghae Line Geoncheon InterconnectionPohang 200 km/h 2015-04-02 38.7 km
Geoncheon Interconnection–Taehwagang Upgrading (200 km/h) 2020 (expected) 41.6 km
Jungang Line CheongnyangniSeowonju 230 km/h 2017-12-22 86.4 km
SeowonjuJecheon Upgrading (250 km/h) 2018 (expected) 44.1 km[73]
Jecheon–Dodam 150 km/h (250 km/h ready) 2011-03-31 17.4 km
Dodam–Yeongcheon Upgrading (250 km/h) 2020 (expected) 148.1 km
Yeongcheon–Singyeongju Upgrading (250 km/h) 2020 (expected) 20.4 km

Spain[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line (operational)[edit]

Line Connected cities Year of inauguration Operational top speed Type of trains
North-western corridor
HSR Madrid – Galicia Ourense · Santiago de Compostela 2011 250 km/h or 155 mph S-121, S-730
Madrid Chamartín · Segovia · Olmedo · Zamora 2015
HSR Atlantic Axis Santiago de Compostela · A Coruña 2011 250 km/h or 155 mph S-121, S-730
Vigo · Pontevedra · Santiago de Compostela 2015
North corridor
HSR Madrid – León Madrid Chamartín · Segovia · Valladolid 2007 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-114
Valladolid · Venta de Baños · Palencia · León 2015
North-eastern corridor
HSR Madrid – Barcelona Madrid Atocha · Guadalajara–Yebes · Calatayud · Zaragoza · Lleida 2003 310 km/h or 193 mph S-100, S-103, S-112, S-120, S-121
Lleida · Camp de Tarragona 2006
Camp de Tarragona · Barcelona-Sants 2008
HSR Barcelona – Perpignan Figueres · Perpignan (France) 2009 300 km/h or 186 mph S-100, SNCF TGV Duplex
Barcelona-Sants · Barcelona-Sagrera · Girona · Figueres 2013
HSR Madrid – Huesca Madrid Atocha · Guadalajara–Yebes · Calatayud · Zaragoza · Tardienta · Huesca 2005 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102
Eastern corridor
HSR Madrid – Castellón Madrid Atocha · Cuenca · Requena-Utiel · Valencia 2010 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-112, S-130
Valencia · Castellón 2018 S-112, S-130
HSR Madrid – Alicante Madrid Atocha · Cuenca · Albacete 2010 300 km/h or 186 mph S-112, S-130
Albacete · Villena · Alicante 2013
Southern corridor
HSR Madrid – Seville Madrid Atocha · Ciudad Real · Puertollano · Córdoba · Sevilla 1992 300 km/h or 186 mph S-100, S-102, S-103, S-112, S-104
Sevilla · Jerez de la Frontera · Cádiz 2015 200 km/h or 124 mph S-130
HSR Madrid – Málaga Madrid Atocha · Ciudad Real · Puertollano · Córdoba · Puente Genil-Herrera · Antequera-Santa Ana · Málaga 2007 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-103, S-112, S-104
HSR Madrid – Toledo Madrid Atocha · Toledo 2005 250 km/h or 155 mph S-104
HSR Antequera – Granada Antequera-Santa Ana · Granada 2019 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-112

North-western corridor[edit]

Map of the high-speed rail network (newly built and upgraded lines). Also shows under construction, planned or in study lines.

Madrid–Zamora[edit]

The Madrid–Zamora line is the open section of the under construction Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line connecting Madrid to Zamora via Segovia. The line shares a common section with the Madrid–Leon line for the part between Madrid and Olmedo. The Madrid–Zamora line entered revenue service on 17 December 2015 by Alvia S-730 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) trains that cover the distance in 1 hour and 33 minutes.[74] Part of the line up to Medina del Campo is also used for the Alvia Madrid–Salamanca service.

The Atlantic Axis[edit]

The Atlantic Axis high-speed railway line is connecting the two main cities of Vigo and A Coruña (Corunna) via Santiago de Compostela in the northwestern Spanish region of Galicia. The railway, 155.6 km in length, is an upgrade of the former non electrified single railway line between the town of Ferrol and the Portuguese border for the part between A Coruña and Vigo, into a double electrified high-speed line. The new rebuilt railway permits mixed use traffic with a maximum design speed of 250 km/h for passenger trains.[75] The new railway was inaugurated in April 2015 and shortened the distance between the two cities by 22 km, from 178 km to 156 km, and cut the travel time from around 3 hours on the old railway down to 1 hour and 20 minutes on the new one. 37 tunnels totalling 59 km and 34 bridges totalling 15 km form part of the rebuilt railway.[76] The line is served by Alvia S-121 or S-730 (max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) train-sets for the routes between A Coruña and Vigo[77] and between A Coruña and Ourense and by Alvia S-730 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) train-sets connecting Galicia with other Spanish regions. The line will be connected at Santiago de Compostela with the Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line, which as of 2015 is under construction.

North corridor[edit]

Madrid–León[edit]

The Madrid–Leon high-speed rail line connects Madrid with León passing the cities of Segovia, Valladolid and Palencia. The line supports the longest railway tunnel in Spain at 28 km in length and is served by up to two S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains per day with the fastest schedule lasting 2 hours and 6 minutes. Other trainsets used on the Madrid–Leon line include S-120 (max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) and S-130 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) for the Alvia services.

North-eastern corridor[edit]

Madrid–Barcelona[edit]

Madrid–Barcelona high-speed railway line connects Madrid with Barcelona in the north east of Spain passing through the cities of Guadalajara, Calatayud, Zaragoza (Saragossa), Lleida (Lérida) and Tarragona where the future Tarragona–Valencia high-speed railway line will connect. The line has a length of 621 km and a travel time of two and a half hours for the direct trains using the route avoiding entering Zaragoza (Saragossa) and Lleida (Lérida). The line is served by S-103 (max speed 350 km/h or 217 mph) trains. Seventeen trains run now every day between 6:00 and 21:00 hrs. Direct trains Barcelona–Seville and Barcelona–Malaga that do not make a stop in Madrid are also scheduled combining the Madrid–Barcelona line with one of the southern corridor's existing lines. S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains are used for these services and cover these distances in less than 6 hours.

Barcelona–Perpignan (France)[edit]

The international high-speed section across the border, PerpignanFigueres (44.4 km), of the Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed rail line opened in December 2010. Since then, French TGV trains operate from Paris. The Spanish high-speed section Barcelona–Figueres opened on 7 January 2013.[78][79] Nine Spanish services initially serviced the line, with 8 being a through service to Madrid, which also connected with two French TGV services from Paris. Previously French TGV services connected Paris and Barcelona by means of a shuttle train on the standard Barcelona–Figueres line.[80][81][82] Direct Barcelona-Paris, Madrid-Marseille, Barcelona-Lyon and Barcelona-Toulouse high-speed trains between France and Spain started on December 15, 2013.[83]

Madrid–Huesca[edit]

The Zaragoza–Huesca section branches off from the Madrid–Barcelona line at Zaragoza and connects with the city of Huesca and serves the connection train station for regional trains in the town of Tardienta. The line first put in operation in 2005 and is served by up to two S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains per day with the fastest train journey between the two cities lasting 2 hours and 5 minutes.

Eastern corridor[edit]

Madrid–Castellón[edit]

The Madrid–Castellón line connects the city of Castellón with the city of Madrid passing through the cities of Cuenca, Requena-Utiel and Valencia. The section It is serviced by S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains, assembled by the Talgo-Bombardier consortium. Direct trains to Valencia cover the 391 km in 98 minutes while thirty trains run every day between 05:00 and 21:00, fifteen in each direction. For the service Madrid–Castellón AVE trains cover the distance in 2 hours and 25 minutes and 4 trains per day are scheduled, two in each direction.[citation needed] The line is part of the Madrid–Levante network (see below). Direct trains Valencia–Seville that do not make a stop in Madrid are also scheduled combining the existing lines of Madrid–Castellón and Madrid-Seville. S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains are used for this service and cover the whole distance in 3 hours and 50 minutes.

Madrid–Alicante[edit]

A 350 km/h line branches off from the Madrid–Castellón Line and connects the city of Alicante with the city of Madrid passing through the cities of Cuenca, Albacete and Villena.[84] It is part of the Madrid–Levante HSR network and is serviced by S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains that cover the distance in up to 2 hours and 12 minutes. Direct trains Toledo–Albacete were also scheduled in the past, combining four of the existing lines, but this service was eventually terminated due to low demand.

South corridor[edit]

Madrid–Seville[edit]

The Madrid–Seville high-speed railway line connects Madrid with Seville in the south of Spain, passing through the cities of Ciudad Real, Puertollano and Córdoba, where the Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line branches off towards Málaga just outside Los Mochos near Almodóvar del Río. The route travels across the plains of Castile, travelling through the Sierra Morena mountains just before reaching Córdoba, before going onward towards Seville through the largely flat land surrounding the Guadalquivir river. The Madrid–Seville line was the first dedicated passenger high-speed rail line to be built in Spain and was completed in time for Seville's Expo 92. With a length of 472 km, the fastest train journey between the two cities takes 2 hours and 20 minutes. The line is served by S-100 (max speed 300 km/h or 186 mph) trains. The extension section of the Madrid-Seville high-speed rail line to Cádiz is served by Alvia trains that connect the city of Cádiz to Madrid and reach speeds up to 200 km/h in this section.[85]

Madrid–Málaga[edit]

The Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line connects the city of Málaga with the city of Madrid. The line shares a common section with the Madrid–Seville high-speed rail line up to the city of Córdoba and then includes a 155 km long spur line up to the city of Málaga. It is served by S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) and S-103 (max speed 350 km/h or 217 mph) trains and the fastest train journey between the two cities takes 2 hours and 20 minutes. Apart from the traffic to and from the city of Málaga, the line also handles the traffic to the cities of Granada and Algeciras. In the future, the line will also support the traffic between Madrid and the Costa del Sol high-speed rail line.

Madrid–Toledo[edit]

The Madrid–Toledo high-speed rail line branches off from the Seville and Málaga routes around the depot at La Sagra. The Avant service between the two cities offers journey times of half an hour on trains with a maximum speed of 250 km/h.

Dedicated high-speed line (under construction)[edit]

Line Connected Cities Year expected to be completed
North-western corridor
HSR Madrid – Galicia Zamora · Ourense 2019
North corridor
HSR Madrid – Asturias León · La Robla -
La Robla · Pola de Lena after 2020
Pola de Lena · Oviedo · Gijón
HSR Madrid – Basque Country Venta de Baños · Burgos 2019
Burgos · Miranda de Ebro · Vitoria 2023[86]
Basque Y Vitoria · Bilbao · San Sebastián · Irún · French border 2023
Eastern corridor
HSR Madrid – Levante Alicante · Murcia · Cartagena 2020
Southern corridor
HSR Andalusian Transverse Axis Antequera · Granada 2019
Antequera · Sevilla 2020
HSR Madrid – Jaén Mora · Alcázar de San Juan -
Alcázar de San Juan · Manzanares -
Linares · Casas de Torrubia -
Grañena · Jaén 2018[87]
Mediterranean corridor
HSR Catalonia–Andalusia Tarragona · Vandellós 2019
Valencia · Murcia 2019
Murcia · Almería 2023
South-western corridor
HSR Madrid – Extremadura Plasencia · Badajoz 2020
Madrid · Plasencia 2023[88]

Madrid interconnector[edit]

Map of the planned high-speed rail network (newly built and upgraded lines).

A new interconnecting tunnel is planned between Madrid Atocha and Madrid Chamartín stations. Currently, trains going to Valladolid leave from Chamartín and trains going to Seville, Málaga and Barcelona leave from Atocha station. Also, there is a single daily service in each direction running along the Barcelona–Seville and Barcelona–Málaga routes, which uses the high-speed bypass around Madrid to avoid reversing the direction of train in Atocha station. The tunnel will allow services serving northern cities to travel non-stop or with a stop through Madrid and onward to southern cities (or vice versa), without the driver having to change ends or bypass Madrid, a valuable source of passengers: currently, someone wanting to travel from Valladolid to Málaga, for instance, must travel from Valladolid Campo Grande station to Madrid Chamartín station before taking a Cercanías service to Atocha; then finally taking an onward train to Málaga.

On April 24, 2010, tunnelling started on the 7.3 km route connecting Atocha and Chamartin.[89] The tunnel itself is now complete, and the tracks are in place. The electric line is currently being installed, with these works expected to be completed in early 2018, and service started within the same year.[90]

North-western corridor[edit]

Zamora–Ourense[edit]

The Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line will connect the city of Madrid with the region of Galicia and the Atlantic Axis high-speed rail line in the North West of Spain via Santiago de Compostela. The line will include a new 424 km long high-speed railway section that starts at Olmedo 130 km to the north of Madrid on the Madrid–Leon high-speed rail line and ends at Santiago de Compostela. Construction on the northernmost part of this section between the cities of Ourense and Santiago de Compostela began late 2004 and this part was inaugurated in December 2011. The southern part between Olmedo and Zamora entered revenue service on 17 December 2015.[74] Constructions on the central part, which crosses some of Spain's most remote and fragile nature areas, are expected be completed in 2019. The line is currently served by Alvia trains.[91]

North corridor[edit]

León–Gijón[edit]

Madrid–Asturias high-speed railway is the line connecting Madrid to the region of Asturias in the north of Spain. The new under construction section branches off the Valladolid–Vitoria high-speed section at Venta de Baños: 205 km north of Madrid and then reaches the cities of Oviedo and Gijón via Palencia and León.[92] This section includes the 24,7 km long Pajares Base Tunnel (Variante de Pajares) which runs under a very mountainous area between the Province of León and the Principality of Asturias.[93] Construction started in 2009 (except variante de pajares which started 2003) and reached León in September 2015 and expected to reach Oviedo and Gijón after 2020.[94]

Valladolid–Vitoria[edit]

The extension of the Madrid–Valladolid section towards the Basque Country began construction in 2009. This 223.4 kilometres (138.8 mi) railway line will run parallel to the 244.8 kilometres (152.1 mi) long existing railway line. Originally it was to be used as a mixed-use high-speed railway line, but it has since been changed to a passenger-dedicated railway line, leaving the existing railway line for freight trains. The line was forecast to open the ValladolidBurgos part around 2013 and the Burgos–Vitoria-Gasteiz part in 2014 or 2015. However, due to delays the line is not expected to open before 2023, although the Valladolid–Burgos section is expected to enter full revenue service in 2019. At Vitoria it will be connected to the Basque high-speed railway line (Basque Y), thus reaching the French border. Once opened, the travel time between Valladolid and Vitoria will be around an hour.

Basque Y[edit]

The Basque high-speed railway line (Basque Y) will connect the three Basque capitals, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Bilbao and San Sebastián. Construction began in October 2006 and the line was forecast to open in 2016. However, due to delays in construction, the line is expected to put in service in 2023 according to the new estimations. The three Basque capitals will be further connected with Madrid via Valladolid, and with the French border via Irun and Bayonne.

North-eastern corridor[edit]

Tunnel Sants–La Sagrera[edit]

The Sants–La Sagrera tunnel links the Sants station in Barcelona through the Eixample with the future La Sagrera station. The tunnel passes under the streets of Provença and Mallorca, using a short part of the Diagonal to link between these streets. In the Carrer de Mallorca, the tunnel passes directly in front of Gaudí's masterpiece, the basilica of the Sagrada Família, and in the Carrer de Provença, another Gaudí work, the Casa Milà. In a long campaign against this route, the Board of the Sagrada Família and other parties argued that the tunnel would damage the church, whose construction is still in progress. In this discussion about different routes, the one now built is also called the Provença tunnel because part of its route passes under this street.

The tunnel boring machine Barcino passed the Sagrada Família in October 2010, and reached its final destination a few months later. Rail traffic is planned to start in 2012, initially without stops at the La Sagrera station, which is expected to be completed in 2016.

In March 2012, railway equipment was installed, with a special elastic isolation of the rails in order to dampen vibrations at the sections passing close to Gaudí's architectural works, using the Edilon system.[97][98]

Eastern corridor[edit]

Alicante–Cartagena[edit]

This is an under construction section, part of the Madrid–Levante network of high-speed railways connecting the capital with the Mediterranean coast. Consisting of 955 kilometres (593 mi) of railways with an estimated cost of 12.5 billion euros, it is the most expensive high-speed railway project in Spain. The network will consist of both dedicated passenger high-speed railways designed for trains running above 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) and high-speed railways shared with freight trains.[99] The network is to be opened in stages, starting with the MadridValencia/Albacete section, which was opened in December 2010,[100][101] followed by Albacete–Alicante in June 2013,[102] Valencia–Castellón in January 2018,[103] while Valencia–Alicante is expected to follow in 2019 and finally reaching the city of Murcia by 2020 with a branch line to Cartagena.

South corridor[edit]

Seville–Granada[edit]

The southern Andalusian transverse high-speed railway line is a 503.7-kilometre railway running between the cities of Huelva and Almería, passing the cities of Seville and Granada. The line is designed for speeds up to 250 kilometres per hour, except for the 130-kilometre Antequerra–Granada and the 103-kilometre Seville–Huelva parts of the line, which are designed for speeds in excess of 300 kilometres per hour. A connection between Huelva and the Portuguese border is being studied.[citation needed] When finished the journey between Huelva and Almería in the new line is estimated to last 3 hours and 35 minutes.[105] The first section of the line between Antequera and Granada is expected to put in service by summer 2019 connecting the city of Granada to the rest of the high speed network via the Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line. The section between Seville and Antequera is expected to be completed in 2020.

Madrid–Jaén[edit]

This high-speed railway line will be part passenger-dedicated high-speed railway (Madrid–Alcázar de San Juan) and part shared with freight trains (Alcázar de San Juan–Jaén). The first 99 km of the line will use the already existing Madrid-Seville high-speed railway line. From there, a 67.5 km branch line will be constructed towards Alcázar de San Juan.

From Alcázar de San Juan the existing railway line will be upgraded to allow passenger trains to run up to 250 km/h; a new double-tracked route through the Despeñaperros mountain range will be built to replace the existing single-tracked route. This part of the high-speed railway also forms part of the Madrid–Algeciras freight corridor. An extension of the line to Granada is being investigated; however, the complicated terrain between Jaén and Granada might make it uneconomical.

Mediterranean corridor[edit]

Tarragona–Almería[edit]

The high-speed Barcelona-Figueres section (from Barcelona to the French border) was inaugurated in January 2013.[106] The journey from the centre of Barcelona to the centre of Girona takes now 37 minutes (compared to the hour and a half it took), and to Figueres in 53 minutes (instead of two hours). Girona and Figueres will be 14 minutes from each other. The Perpignan (France)-Figueres section opened in 2010. One lacking high-speed section on the French side, between Montpellier and Nîmes, is scheduled to open in July 2018, allowing almost continuous high-speed travel from the French high-speed network to the Spanish one.[107] The French government, on the other hand, recently announced indefinite delays to the Montpellier-Perpignan high speed section that was originally planned for 2020. The section linking Tarragona to Almería via Valencia and Murcia is expected to be completed by 2023. The final section between Almería and Algeciras, passing through Málaga, will be built at a later point of time and an alternative and longer route looks likely.[108]

South-western corridor[edit]

Madrid–Extremadura[edit]

This line was initially planned as Lisbon–Madrid high-speed rail line in order to connect the two peninsular capitals, Madrid and Lisbon in 2 hours and 45 minutes.[109][110] This line had been a key issue in bilateral summits in recent years and was about to link Spain's high-speed rail network with the planned High-speed rail in Portugal, a project announced by the Portuguese government in February 2009. Construction on the Spanish side began in late 2008 on a segment between the cities of Badajoz and Mérida. Both Spanish and Portuguese track were to be completed around 2013, later the Portuguese government brought forward its plans from 2015 but the Portuguese froze works in June 2011 and eventually cancelled the project in March 2012.[111][112][113] In 2016 the European Union's European Regional Development Fund, gave Spain €205.1m towards the €312.1m needed for the track between Navalmoral de la Mata and Mérida, Spain. [114] The section on the Spanish side between Madrid and Badajoz is expected to be completed in 2023.

With a length of 439 km on the Spanish side, of which 48 km are part of the already built Madrid–Seville high-speed rail line, it will connect cities like Talavera de la Reina, Navalmoral de la Mata, Plasencia, Cáceres, Mérida and Badajoz.[109] The Almonte River Viaduct was completed in May 2016 to carry this line. It is a concrete arch bridge with a span of 384 meters (1,260 feet), ranking among the longest in the world of this type of bridge.[115][116]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgraded Length Notes
Barcelona-Alicante rail line Barcelona-Sants–Alicante 220 km/h (140 mph) 1997 523 km (325 mi) Only some sections are for high-speed trains. Some of them converted in 1997, additional dedicated in parallel is partially opened in 2018
Madrid-Valencia rail line Madrid-AtochaValencia-Nord 220 km/h (140 mph) 1999 301 km (187 mi) Since 2010 not in use for high-speed trains

Sweden[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Bothnia Line NylandUmeå 200 km/h (120 mph) (250 km/h ready) 2010 190 km (120 mi)
North Bothnia Line UmeåLuleå 250 km/h (160 mph) 2028 270 km (170 mi)
Götalandsbanan Linköping CGöteborg C 320 km/h (200 mph) 2024-2030 (construction of the first section to be started in spring, 2018 as claimed in 2016; likely to be postponed) 440 km (270 mi)
East Link Project LinköpingSödertälje 250 km/h (160 mph)(cut from 320 to 250) 2033-2036 (construction of the first section to be started in 2017 as claimed; likely to be postponed) 160 km (99 mi)

There are several upgraded lines still not listed here with speeds up to 200 km/h.

Switzerland[edit]

Rail 2000 High Speed Lines
Line Speed Length Opening Date
NBS Mattstetten–Rothrist 200 km/h 45.079 km 12 December 2007
Lötschberg Base Tunnel 250 km/h 34.57 km 14 June 2007
Gotthard Base Tunnel 250 km/h 57.09 km 1 June 2016
Ceneri Base Tunnel 250 km/h 15.4 km September 2020
Jura Foot Railway 200 km/h 104.5 km 2025-2030
Simplon Railway 200 km/h 191.41 km 2025-2030

Taiwan[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Taiwan HSR BanqiaoZuoying 300 km/h (190 mph) 2007-01-05 332.1 km (206.4 mi)
TaipeiBanqiao ~130 km/h (81 mph) 2007-03-01 7.2 km (4.5 mi)
NangangTaipei ~130 km/h (81 mph) 2016-07-01 9.2 km (5.7 mi)

Thailand[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Nortern HSR Bangkok–Phitsanulok 300 km/h (190 mph) or more 2024 (under construction) 384 km
Phitsanuloka–Chiang Mai 300 km/h (190 mph) or more 2027 or 2030 (under planning) 285 km
Northeastern HSR Bangkok–Nakhon Ratchasima 250 km/h (160 mph) 2022 (under construction) 250 km
Nakhon Ratchasima–Vientiane 250 km/h (160 mph) 2025 (planned) 380 km
Southern HSR Bangkok–Hua Hin 250 km/h (160 mph) 2022 (building contrcts signed) 211 km
Hua Hin–Padang Besar 250 km/h (160 mph) 2029 771 km
Eastern HSR Bangkok–U-Tapao 250 km/h (160 mph) 2024 (under construction) 260 km

Turkey[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway Ankara CentralSincan 140 km/h (87 mph) To be rebuilt 24 km
SincanPolatlı 250 km/h (160 mph) 2009-03-13 69 km
PolatlıEskisehir Central 2009-03-13 152 km (94 mi)
Eskisehir CentralKöseköy 2014-07-25 188 km (117 mi)
KöseköyGebze 160 km/h (99 mph) 2014-07-25 56 km (35 mi)
GebzePendik 100 km/h (62 mph) 2014-07-25 20 km (12 mi)
PendikHaydarpasa Under reconstruction 100 km/h (62 mph) 2019 24 km (15 mi)
PendikHalkalı Under reconstruction 250 km/h (160 mph) 2019 60 km (37 mi)
Border high-speed railway Halkalı–Bulgarian border Under reconstruction 250 km/h (160 mph) 2020+ (under construction) 230 km (140 mi)
Ankara-Konya high-speed railway PolatlıKonya 250 km/h (160 mph) 2011-08-23 212 km (132 mi)
Ankara-Sivas high-speed railway AnkaraSivas 300 km/h (190 mph) 2019 (projected) 406 km (252 mi)[54]

United Kingdom[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
High Speed 1 Channel TunnelFawkham Junction (Section 1) 300 km/h (190 mph) 2003-09-28 74 km (46 mi)
Fawkham JunctionSt. Pancras (Section 2) 225 km/h (140 mph) 2007-11-14 39 km (24 mi)
High Speed 2 London Euston-Birmingham Curzon Street (Phase 1) 362 km/h (225 mph) 2026 (Under construction[117]) 230 km
Birmingham Curzon Street-Crewe (Phase 2a) 362 km/h (225 mph) 2027 (Planned) 90 km (56 mi)
CreweManchester Piccadilly and Birmingham Curzon StreetLeeds City (Phase 2b) 362 km/h (225 mph) 2033 (Planned) 300 km (190 mi)
Northern Powerhouse Rail Liverpool Lime StreetHull Paragon, Newcastle and Sheffield Midland 230 km/h (140 mph) 2034 (Approved) 65 km (40 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Electrification Length Notes
East Coast Main Line King's CrossEdinburgh Waverley 201 km/h (125 mph) 1850 1980s 632 km (393 mi) The fastest non-dedicated line in the UK.
Great Western Main Line London PaddingtonBristol Temple Meads 201 km/h (125 mph) 1840 incomplete 192 km (119 mi)
Midland Main Line St Pancras InternationalSheffield 201 km/h (125 mph) 1870 to Bedford only; high-speed trains are with diesel 265 km (165 mi) 110 mph; 125 mph ready
West Coast Main Line London EustonGlasgow Central 201 km/h (125 mph)[118] 1869 1960s–1970s 642 km (399 mi)
Cross Country Route YorkBristol Temple Meads 201 km/h (125 mph) 1879 incomplete >50 km (31 mi)(high-speed) Leeds-York section is high-speed

United States[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgraded Length
Northeast Corridor Washington UnionBoston South 150 mph (240 km/h) 2000-12-11 54.6 km (33.9 mi)
TrentonNew Brunswick 186 mph (299 km/h) 2020 39 km (24 mi)
the rest of the line; not high-speed 125 mph (201 km/h) Until 2000[119] 641.4 km (398.5 mi)
Keystone Corridor PhiladelphiaHarrisburg 125 mph (201 km/h) Upgrading (crossings improvements) 168.3 km (104.6 mi)
Empire Corridor New YorkNiagara Falls 125 mph (201 km/h) Upgrading, EIS Tier 1 740 km (460 mi)

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Virgin Trains USA MiamiOrlando 125 mph (201 km/h) (high-speed railway by European/Asian classification; higher-speed railway by American classification) 2021 (construction started in 2018) 390 km (240 mi) (high-speed section under construction; other slower sections are Higher-speed rail)
California High-Speed Rail (Phase 1) San FranciscoLos Angeles/Anaheim 220 mph (350 km/h) 2029 (central leg) 2033 (total) 192 km (119 mi) (central leg) 840 km (520 mi) (total)
California High-Speed Rail (Phase 2) MercedSacramento 220 mph (350 km/h) 2030+ 180 km (110 mi)
Los AngelesSan Diego 220 mph (350 km/h) 2030+ 269 km (167 mi)
New Northeast Corridor BostonWashington, D.C. 220 mph (350 km/h) 2030-2040 (maybe planned) 705 km (438 mi)

Uzbekistan[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Tashkent–Samarkand high-speed rail line TashkentSamarkand 250 km/h (160 mph) Brand launch 2011-10-08 as higher speed rail;
full HSR operated since February 10, 2013
344 km (214 mi)
Samarkand-Qarshi high-speed rail line SamarkandQarshi 250 km/h (160 mph) August 22, 2015 141 km (88 mi)
Samarkand-Bukhara high-speed rail line SamarkandBukhara 250 km/h (160 mph) August 25, 2016 256 km (159 mi)

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "General definitions of highspeed". Paris, France: International Union of Railways (UIC). July 28, 2014. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  2. ^ C. S. Papacostas; Panos D. Prevedouros (2001). Transportation engineering and planning. Pearson College Division. ISBN 978-0-13-081419-7.
  3. ^ "High Speed lines in the world". Paris, France: International Union of Railways, UIC. July 23, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  4. ^ "High speed lines in the World" (PDF). Paris, France: International Union of Railways, UIC. April 20, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  5. ^ "Le réseau des lignes de chemin de fer à grande vitesse en Europe" (PDF) (in French). Communauté d'intérêts pour les transports publics, section Vaud. May 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via citrap-vaud.ch.
  6. ^ a b https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2019/07/03/china-first-in-the-world-for-high-speed-trains.html
  7. ^ a b "China Just Relaunched the World's Fastest Train". Fortune.com/. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  8. ^ in 2011–2017 period the limit have been decreased from 350 to 300 and from 250 to at all tracks after train crash
  9. ^ a b Include 3,000+ kilometers of mixed passenger & freight line, exclude 30 km of Shanghai Maglev
  10. ^ "Adif - Líneas de alta velocidad". www.adifaltavelocidad.es. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  11. ^ "High-speed rail in Europe". March 9, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019 – via Wikipedia.
  12. ^ connected with classic wide-gauge mainlines by gauge-change technology
  13. ^ Including line to Touluse
  14. ^ first European dedicated line
  15. ^ 574.8 km/h record
  16. ^ "Long-term TGV plans". www.railwaygazette.com. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  17. ^ of which 2,000+ km is for 230+km/h speed
  18. ^ exclude 42.8 km of Yamanashi test track to start demonstrating operation for tourists in 2020
  19. ^ including Maglev under construction
  20. ^ to be sped-up to 360 km/h in next few years, unconventional lines under construction will be even faster
  21. ^ a b different from classic narrower lines
  22. ^ "High-Speed Rail Passenger Traffic Density Statistics" (PDF). Publicpolicy-yhs.wikispaces.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  23. ^ 250 km/h ready; 205 km/h are permitted when 200 km/h trains are in delay
  24. ^ diesel power is widely used
  25. ^ 400 km/h under construction. Some lines will be sped-up from 200 to 225 km/h after re-signaling; East Coast Mainline trains are permitted to go at 225 km/h instead of 200 km/h in case of delay
  26. ^ "2023 deadline spurs Turkish high-speed expansion". railjournal.com. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  27. ^ "By 2023, Turkey will invest over USD 46 billion in the railway network". Railwaypro.com. May 10, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  28. ^ 250 for tracks; 300 for rolling stock
  29. ^ to be sped-up to 360 km/h in next few years
  30. ^ 300 km/h under construction
  31. ^ rolling stock is ready to be used at 1520 mm-network abroad
  32. ^ possible extension to China via Kazakhstan would add 2000 km
  33. ^ 400 km/h under planning; 250 km/h at short part of route; most of tracks are 140-200 km/h
  34. ^ at some stretches, upgrading of others is still going on
  35. ^ GCT (January 30, 2019). "Athens to Thessaloniki high-speed train line is now open". Greek City Times. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  36. ^ Ltd, DVV Media International. "Africa's first high speed line inaugurated". Railway Gazette. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  37. ^ 1,500 km total under planning
  38. ^ international services only, local high-speed trains were failed to launch
  39. ^ a b "Northeast Corridor Employee Timetable No. 5" (PDF). National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak). October 6, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2017 – via National Transportation Safety Board.
  40. ^ a b "California's bullet train is pumping billions into the Valley economy. So why is it so unpopular?". Retrieved March 13, 2019 – via Sacramento Bee.
  41. ^ a b "160 mph trains will speed from Trenton to New Brunswick by 2020". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  42. ^ a b 500+ km under planning
  43. ^ a b 200–239 km/h is not high-speed by American classification
  44. ^ a b 260 km/h since 2019
  45. ^ As January 2018
  46. ^ Taiwan High Speed Rail
  47. ^ Shinkansen
  48. ^ Korea Train Express
  49. ^ Haramain high-speed rail project
  50. ^ High-speed rail in Turkey
  51. ^ High-speed rail in Uzbekistan
  52. ^ a b https://www.nfra.gov.au/projects
  53. ^ Including ones to be under construction next 1 year
  54. ^ a b "19 rail projects to watch in 2019".
  55. ^ (10,000 EIS)
  56. ^ "China gives Panama its plan for a $4bn high-speed rail line to Costa Rica - News - GCR". www.globalconstructionreview.com.
  57. ^ "Ж/д тоннель Таллин — Хельсинки под Балтикой могут построить в 2024-м". rus.lsm.lv. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  58. ^ several 270 km/h sections
  59. ^ a b "Ligne a Grande Vitesse Mediterranee (LN5)" (PDF). Florent.brisou.pagesperso-orange.fr. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  60. ^ limited by rolling stock maximum operating speed
  61. ^ (fr) Daily count of the Franco-Italian tunnel's length dug from French side, on telt-sas.com.
  62. ^ (fr) Decree of 23 August 2013 déclarant d'utilité publique et urgents les travaux nécessaires à la réalisation de l'itinéraire d'accès au tunnel Franco-italien de la liaison ferroviaire Lyon-Turin, on legifrance.gouv.fr.
  63. ^ "Paris: High-speed rail link to CDG airport WILL be built, government insists". www.thelocal.fr. February 6, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  64. ^ a b c d e "RAIL21–Le réseau SNCF". Florent.brisou.pagesperso-orange.fr. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  65. ^ "Neubaustrecke Karlsruhe–Basel (aktueller Stand)–Karl Brodowskys Blog". karl.brodowsky.com. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  66. ^ "RFI awards EUR 1.6 billion contract under Brescia-Verona HSR project". Railwaypro.com. June 12, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  67. ^ a b Eiraku, Maiko. "New bullet train shooting for slice of air travel market - NHK NEWSLINE - News - NHK WORLD" – via www3.nhk.or.jp.
  68. ^ https://www.railjournal.com/passenger/high-speed/jr-east-275km-h-joetsu-shinkansen/
  69. ^ "Follo Line faces delay and cost escalation after contract cancellation". railjournal.com. January 28, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  70. ^ a b c "Wykaz maksymalnych prędkości–składy wagonowe" (PDF). Plk-sa.pl. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  71. ^ "RDIF, Siemens sign deal for $4.5bn Ural High-Speed Rail in Russia". railway-technology.com. February 18, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  72. ^ https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2019/04/16/putin-chooses-high-speed-railway-line-to-st-petersburg-over-nizhny-novgorod-a65262
  73. ^ "중앙선 원주~제천 복선전철 착공…시속 110㎞→250㎞". News.naver.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  74. ^ a b Fran Hurtado (December 15, 2015). "El AVE Madrid-Zamora se estrena este jueves sin actos inaugurales". noticias.lainformacion.com. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  75. ^ "Infraestructuras y Estaciones. Líneas de Alta Velocidad". Adif.
  76. ^ "Fase final de las obras del Eje Atlántico y de la nueva estación de Vigo-Urzáiz". fomento.gob.es. March 30, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  77. ^ C. Prego (April 15, 2015). "Renfe estrena el Eje Atlántico el sábado con una rebaja del 50% en las tarifas". La Opinion A Coruña. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  78. ^ DVV Media UK. "High speed line opens between Barcelona and Figueres". Railway Gazette.
  79. ^ Fernando Puente. "Barcelona - Figueres HS line to open January 7". railjournal.com.
  80. ^ Today's railways Europe, issue 202, page 41, timetable news
  81. ^ shuttle + TGV Spanish railways website
  82. ^ Joan Miró Trenhotel Spanish railways website
  83. ^ "AVE rail connection between Barcelona and Paris to open in December". thinkspain.com.
  84. ^ "Los Reyes inaugurarán el AVE a Valencia, y los Príncipes la conexión a Albacete". Europa Press (in Spanish). December 10, 2010. Archived from the original on April 10, 2014.
  85. ^ "Fomento culmina la obra de alta velocidad entre Sevilla y Cádiz". lavozdigital.es (in Spanish).
  86. ^ "Rajoy destaca que el AVE llegará a Burgos este año y el tramo a Vitoria estará en 2019". diariodeburgos.es (in Spanish). May 17, 2015.
  87. ^ "Las obras del tramo Grañena-Jaén de la Línea de Alta Velocidad se reanudan y se espera que acaben a final de 2018".
  88. ^ Pozo, Raúl (August 23, 2017). "Infraestructuras - El AVE a Extremadura se eterniza: Fomento encarga ahora el estudio para el tramo Madrid-Cáceres". Vozpópuli.
  89. ^ DVV Media UK. "Boring begins beneath Madrid". Railway Gazette.
  90. ^ "Fomento presenta obras para agilizar en Madrid tráfico de AVE a la Comunitat". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  91. ^ "High speed lines Madrid-Galicia line Zamora-Lubián–Ourense and Ourense-Santiago". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  92. ^ "High-Speed Lines León — Palencia Line". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  93. ^ "High Speed Lines Leon — Asturias high speed line". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  94. ^ "New AVE high speed train service to Palencia and Leon opens". ADIF. September 29, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  95. ^ "High-Speed Lines Valladolid — Burgos — Vitoria Line". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  96. ^ "High Speed Lines Vitoria — Bilbao — San Sebastián Line". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  97. ^ Comorera, Ramon (March 12, 2012). "Doble aislante de vibraciones en las obras de Gaudí" [Double Isolation of Vibrations at the Gaudí constructions]. El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  98. ^ Map of the tunnel route and details if the railway equipment in the tunnel in a PDF in El Periodico
  99. ^ "Líneas de alta velocidad, Línea Madrid - Castilla La Mancha - Comunidad Valenciana - Región de Murcia". ADIF. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  100. ^ Europa Press (December 10, 2010). "Diplomáticos y periodistas extranjeros conocen el AVE a Valencia en un viaje de simulación". europapress.es.
  101. ^ "Railway Gazette: Madrid — Valencia high speed line opening dates confirmed". Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  102. ^ "The new HSL between Albacete and Alicante opened on June the 18th (translation)" (PDF). formento.es (in Spanish).
  103. ^ Pablo García (January 22, 2018). "Una avería para en Sagunto el AVE Madrid-Castellón en su estreno con Rajoy a bordo". El Independiente.
  104. ^ "High-speed Lines Antequera — Granada". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  105. ^ "3 horas y 35 minutos de Huelva a Almería". juntadeandalucia.es. January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  106. ^ high-speed Barcelona-Figueres section
  107. ^ "Nîmes – Montpellier bypass carries first freight". Railway Gazette International. December 13, 2017.
  108. ^ "The Mediterranean Rail Corridor will be a reality in 2020". Catalan news agency. March 17, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  109. ^ a b "High Speed Lines Madrid — Extremadura — Portuguese Border line". ADIF. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  110. ^ "Alta Velocidade em Síntese" (in Portuguese). Rave.pt. Archived from the original on October 4, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  111. ^ "Pointers December 2009". Railway Gazette International. London. December 6, 2009. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  112. ^ "Portugal's cutbacks halt high-speed train to Spain". The Guardian. London. July 5, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  113. ^ "High speed programme axed". Railwaygazette.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  114. ^ "ESI funds to improve Madrid – Lisboa connection". Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  115. ^ "Almonte River Viaduct".. Structurae.
  116. ^ Arribas, David. Closing the Mouth. Roads & Bridges, Arlington Heights, Illinois. September 6, 2016.
  117. ^ "Constructing the HS2 railway". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  118. ^ tilting trains only
  119. ^ 160 km/h operation since 1930s