List of high-speed railway lines

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This article provides a list of operated high-speed rail networks, listed by country or region.

The International Union of Railways defines high-speed rail as public transport by rail at speeds of at least 200 km/h (124 mph) for upgraded tracks and 250 km/h (155 mph) or faster for new tracks.[1][2]

Overview[edit]

The following table is an overview of high speed rail in service or under construction by country, ranked by the amount in service. It shows all the high speed lines (speed of 200 km/h (120 mph) or over) in service. The list is based on UIC figures (International Union of Railways),[3][4] updated with other sources.[5]

Rank Country/Region Continent In
operation
(km)
Under
construction
(km)
Total
(km)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Length
per 100,000 people
(km)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1  China Asia 37,900[6] 32,100 70,000[7] 3.95 2.8 350[8][9][10][11] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Shanghai Maglev: 430 km/h max;[12] The only country in the world to provide overnight sleeping high-speed trains at 250 km/h.
2  Spain Europe 4,207.7 1,497.4 5,705.1[13] 8.32 9.3 310 3 kV DC;
25 kV 50 Hz
1435;
1668
(at least 400 km upgraded and are not listed by UIC)
3  France Europe 2,734.0 560.1 4,536.867 7.21 6.17 320[14] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 dedicated (LGV)
1,242.767 220 1.5 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz
upgraded
4  Germany Europe 1,267 3,321.83 6,225.83 8.83 4.17 300 15 kV 16.7 Hz;
Diesel (before 2017)
1435 Dedicated or partially upgraded (NBS)
1,885.4 250 Upgraded (ABS)
5  Japan Asia 2,764.6[15] 657.1 3,421.7[16] 9 2.19 320[17] 25 kV 50 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435;
1435&1067 dual
The first network ever opened; 6411.7 km including approved
6  Italy Europe 2,017.7 965.24 2,982.94 6.7 3.08 300 3 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz
1435
7  United Kingdom Europe 108 630 2,552.7 7.92 2.79 300[18] 25 kV 50 Hz AC;
Diesel (or dual);
3 kV DC Third-Rail (at junctions only)
1435 Dedicated (HS)
1,814.7 201[19] 1435 Classic upgraded lines
8  Sweden Europe 1,706[20] 718.5 2,424.5 3.79 16.7 205[21] 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Only upgraded lines
9  South Korea Asia 1,193.6 712.585 1,906.585 11.91 2.0 305[22] 25 kV 60 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines; the most dense network in the world
10  Turkey Asia 1,015 508 2,175 1.43 1.09 300 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Dedicated
102 550 200 Upgraded
11  Russia Europe 807 1,100[23] 1,907 0.05 0.53 250[24] 3 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz (after 2024)
1520 Only upgraded lines; total 4595 km to be under construction no later than 2024
12  Greece Europe 700 695 1,395 5.3 6.5 200[25] 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
13  Finland Europe 625 201 826 1.85 13.07 220 25 kV 50 Hz 1524[26] Only upgraded lines
14  Uzbekistan Asia 600 50 650 1.34 2.0 250 25 kV 50 Hz 1520 Including upgraded lines
15  Saudi Arabia Asia 453 2,354 2,807 0.21 1.37 300 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
16  Belgium Europe 354.8 147.9 502.7 8.98 3.4 300 3 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz
1435 Including upgraded lines
17  Poland Europe 352 411.457 764.657 1.13 1.21 200 3 kV DC 1435 Only upgraded lines; 484 km extra approved
18  Taiwan Asia 348 54.6[27] 402.6 9.37 1.46 300 25 kV 60 Hz 1435
19  United States North America 301 1,789.3 2,151.3 0.03 0.13 240
[28][29]
12 kV 25 Hz,
12 kV 60 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz;
Diesel (or dual)
1435 Only upgraded lines; dedicated lines under construction
20  Portugal Europe 227 626 853 2.46 1.98 220 25 kV 50 Hz 1668 Only upgraded lines
21  Austria Europe 192.764 231.37 424.134 2.3 2.25 250 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Including upgraded lines
22  Morocco Africa 186[30] 1,287 1,473 0.28 0.5 320 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Inaugurated in November 2018
23  Norway Europe 139.5 459.55 599.05 0.43 2.16 210 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435 Only upgraded lines
24  Netherlands Europe 125 166.8 291.8 2.99 0.75 300[31] 1.5 kV DC,
25 kV 50 Hz
1435 Hanzelijn is expected to start high-speed services
25   Switzerland Europe 49.97 431.4 481.37 1.21 0.64 250 15 kV 16.7 Hz 1435
26  Hong Kong Asia 26 0 0 4.53 0.35 200 25 kV 50 Hz 1,435 A second express railway has been proposed. Length to be determined.
27  Denmark Europe 5 766.8 771.8 0.12 0.24 200 25 kV 50 Hz;
Diesel (before 2017)
1435

By region[edit]

Rank Country/Region Continent In
operation
(km)
Under
construction
(km)
Total
country
(km)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1 Asia (total) Asia 44,376.5 42,467.6 86,844.1 1 350[10] 25 kV 50 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435;
1520;
1435&1067 dual
116,941 km in long-term
2 Europe (including non-EU states) Europe 20,397.7 16,947.34 37,345.04 1.99 320 Various 1435;
1520/1524 (permissible tolerance);
1668
Excluding Turkey since it is listed in the Asia section (as only a small part of it is west of the Bosphorus); 52,381.2 km including approved; 17,544.1 km in the EU
3 United States America 362 1,789.3 2,151.3 0.04 240[28][29] 12 kV 25 Hz,
12 kV 60 Hz,
25 kV 60 Hz
1435 Only upgraded lines. Planned or under construction lines do not include core city hub and are developing independently (unlike other countries); 4,873.3 km including approved
4 North Africa Africa 186 2,644 2,830 0.02 320 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Morocco and Egypt
5 Australia Oceania 0 75 75[32] 0.01 200 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Upgrading

Freight high-speed railway services[edit]

Country Name Service status Introduced Maximum speed Average speed
 Germany ICE-G; Post InterCity Withdrawn by 1997 (Post InterCity); ICE-G never built 1980 200 km/h
 France SNCF TGV La Poste; Freight Duplex Withdrawn by 2015 (TGV LaPoste); Freight Duplex never built 1984 270 km/h
 Italy Mercitalia In service 2015 300 km/h 180 km/h
 China CRH Testing in north China 2020 350 km/h 180 km/h

Non-revenue or unfinished[edit]

Country/Region Line Length
(km)
Under
construction
(km)
Total
(km)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Launch End Notes
 Czech Republic Velim railway test circuit 13.276 0 13.276 230 1963 Testing facility; different voltages possible
 Japan Yamanashi maglev test line 7 (initially)
42.8 (now)
242.8 285.6 603 (non-revenue)
505 (planned revenue)
1970s To be used in passenger services after 2027 Maglev-train
 Japan Odawara-Ayase test track 32 0 0 256 1961 1964 Later incorporated into Tokaido Shinkansen
 Singapore Integrated Test Centre 0 Unknown Unknown Unknown 2022-2024 Rapid transit and high-speed rail testing facility
 Japan Narita Shinkansen 8.7 (partially completed)
65 (originally planned)
0 0 250-260 (originally planned)
160 (in operation)
2010 (as Keisei Railway) 1991 (as Narita Shinkansen) Abandoned and sold to Keisei Railway
 Israel Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway 56 (originally planned) 0 0 200-240 (originally planned)
160 (in operation)
2001 Originally planned as high-speed railway; speed reduced at construction phase
 Germany Emsland test facility 31.5 0 0 412.6 1984 2012 Maglev track; demolished
 France Aerotrain 6.7 (initially)
18 (at peak)
0 0 400 1965 1977 Hovertrain; demolished
 Russia New Verebye Bypass 14 0 0 230 (service)
250 (allowed)
1997 (construction site as dedicated line) 2001 (opening as part of upgraded line) Originally planned for dedicated line; now is in service as shortcut of Moscow - Saint-Petersburg Main Line

High-speed networks under construction[edit]

Rank Country/Region Continent Under
construction
(km)[33]
Total
(km)
(including
approved)
Network
density
(m/km2)
Max.
speed
(km/h)
Length per 100,000 people (km) Electrification Track
gauge

(mm)
Notes
1  Kuwait;  Bahrain;  Qatar;  UAE;  Oman Asia 1,544 1,544 6.06 220 6.8 No 1435 Excludes Saudi Arabia listed at "In operation"
2  India Asia 1,268 15,894 4.84 320 1.1 25 kV 50 Hz
3 kV
1435
1676
Of which is 508 km for 320 km/h
3  Egypt[34] Africa 1,000 1,000 0.99 250 1.03 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
4  Iran Asia 926[35] 1,336 0.81 300 1.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Of which 410 km is under EIS
5  Ukraine Europe 900 2,000 3.31 250 4.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
6  Estonia Latvia Lithuania Europe 870 1,050.8 6 249 17.6 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 All sections to be under construction after 2019–2020, Latvian section faces delay
7  Thailand Asia 721 2,566 5 300+ 3.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
8  Iraq Asia 650[36] 650 1.49 250 4.7 No 1435 Existing line, to be upgraded
9  Czech Republic Europe 463.72 660 8.37 200 6.2 3 kV DC
25 kV 50 Hz
1435
10  Romania Europe 457 1,568 6.58 250 10.1 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
11  Hungary Europe 392 392 4.21 200 4 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
12  Serbia Europe 388 388 4.39 200 5.3 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Upgrades of existing rail network, with minor realignment and new sections being constructed
13  Ireland Europe 266 876 10.38 225 14.1 No (until 2030) 1600
14  Bangladesh Asia 230 230 1.56 200 0.14 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
15  Indonesia Asia 142.3 142.3 0.07 300-350 0.05 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Exclude slower 600 km of phase 2
16  Slovenia Europe 133 133 6.56 200 6.65 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Upgrading approved
17  Australia Oceania 75 1,000+ 0.01 250 0.98 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Construction to be started in 2022-2023 and to be finished by 2032
18  Slovakia Europe 57.8 57.8 1.18 200 2.7 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
19  Vietnam Asia 0 2,251 6.79 350 7.3 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
20  Canada North America 0 1,096[37] 0.11 400 2.37 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Part of 500+ km Pacific Northwest Corridor under EIS phase in 2019
21  Kazakhstan Asia 0 1,011 0.37 350 5.5 25 kV 50 Hz 1520
22  Croatia Europe 0 269 4.75 250 6.725 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Suspended
23  Israel Asia 0 244[38] 11.05 250 2.44 Unknown 1435
24  Mexico North America 0 210 0.11 300 1.2 25 kV 50 Hz 1435 Suspended
25  New Zealand Oceania 0 110[39] 0.41 250 3.6 25 kV 50 Hz 1435
26  Luxembourg Europe 0 12 4.64 250 2.1 25 kV 50 Hz 1435

Austria[edit]

All high-speed railway lines in Austria are upgraded lines.

Line Speed Length Construction began Service started
Western Railway 230 km/h 312.2 km Unknown December 9, 2012 (Vienna–St. Pölten)-2025-2032
Brenner Base Tunnel 250 km/h 56 km Summer 2006 2028 (claimed)
Koralm Railway 250 km/h 125 km 2001 2026

Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Rail Baltica TallinnRigaKaunas and Riga Airport branch diverging from main line 250 km/h (160 mph) Construction 2019–2023; test operation 2023–2026; to be in full service from 2026 870 km (540 mi)
KaunasJoniškisRiga 200 km/h 2026+ 250 km (160 mi)
HelsinkiTallinn Not decided 2024[40] 103 km (64 mi)
Moscow-Riga High-speed Railway Moscow–Riga 300 km/h Postponed due to Baltic States 2008–2010 crisis 850 km (530 mi)
Tallinn-Tartu-Riga High-speed Railway TallinnRiga (via Tartu) 200+ km/h Proposed in 2019; existing railway can be upgraded no earlier than 2023 when ETCS level 3 installation will be finished at Tallinn–Tapa railway 450 km (280 mi)

Connections to Russian, Polish and Finnish high-speed railways are under planning.

Belgium[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
HSL 1 LGV NordBruxelles-Sud 300 km/h (190 mph) December 14, 1997 88 km (55 mi)
HSL 2 Bruxelles-NordLiège-Guillemins 300 km/h (190 mph) December 15, 2002 95 km (59 mi)
HSL 3 Liège-GuilleminsCologne-Aachen 260 km/h (160 mph) June 14, 2009 56 km (35 mi)
HSL 4 Antwerpen-CentraalHSL Zuid 300 km/h (190 mph) 2009 87 km (54 mi)
Line 25N SchaerbeekMechelen 160 km/h (99 mph) (now)
220 km/h (140 mph) (soon)
20192020 20 km (12 mi)
Line 50A Brussels-South railway stationOstend 160 km/h (99 mph) (now)
200 km/h (120 mph) (soon)
2020+ (upgrading) 114.3 km (71.0 mi)
Line 36N Brussels-North railway stationLeuven 200 km/h (120 mph) (after 2012) 2003–2006 28.8 km (17.9 mi)
Line 96N Brussels-South railway stationHalle 160 km/h (99 mph) (now)
200 km/h (120 mph) (soon)
2020+ 13.6 km (8.5 mi)

China[edit]

Network name Length Maximum speed Opening Remarks
Country total 37,900 km (23,500 mi) (70,000 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2005–present
4+4 National Grid unknown 350 km/h (220 mph) 2005–2020 Original plan
8+8 National Grid unknown 350 km/h (220 mph) 2016–2025 Extended plan
2015 plan 45,000 km (28,000 mi) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2015-2020 Partially completed
2020 plan 70,000 km (43,000 mi) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2020-2035 [41]
Regional Railways 1,611 km (1,001 mi) (4130 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2008–2020
Intercity Railways 7,210 km (4,480 mi) (7846 km with under construction) 350 km/h (220 mph) 2008–2020 Built to expand almost few communter services existed before
Class 1 Railways 5,056.9 km (3,142.2 mi) 250 km/h (160 mph) 2012–2019 Slower service than intercity, but still high-speed
Shanghai Maglev 30.5 km (19.0 mi) 431 km/h (268 mph) 2004 The fastest commercial service in the world

Denmark[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Øresund Line PeberholmOresund Bridge 200 km/h (120 mph) July 1, 2000 5 km (3.1 mi)
Copenhagen–Ringsted Line CopenhagenRingsted At present 180 km/h (110 mph) due to signalling system
Built for 250 km/h (160 mph)
May 31, 2019
250 km/h in 2023
60 km (37 mi)
Ringsted-Fehmarn Line RingstedFehmarn 200 km/h (120 mph)
(prepared for 250 km/h (160 mph))
2021 115 km (71 mi)
Ringsted-Odense Line RingstedOdense 200 km/h (120 mph) 2028 (likely to be postponed) 96 km (60 mi)
Randers–Aalborg line RandersAalborg 180 km/h (110 mph)
(upgradable to 200 km/h)
2028+ 80.7 km (50.1 mi)
Aarhus–Randers line AarhusRanders 160 km/h (99 mph)
(upgradable to 200 km/h)
2028+ 59.2 km (36.8 mi)
Esbjerg-Lunderskov-Flensburg EsbjergFlensburg 180 km/h (110 mph)
(upgradable to 200 km/h)
before 2030 135.9 km (84.4 mi)
Middelfart-Odense new line AarhusOdense 250 km/h (160 mph) 2028+ 145 km (90 mi)
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link 200 km/h (120 mph) in construction 2021, opens 2028 18 km (11 mi)

Denmark has a signalling system allowing max 180 km/h. There is a plan to replace it with ETCS before 2030. On some lines, 200 km/h or more will be allowed as a direct result, without upgrading other things. Peberholm–Oresund Bridge has Swedish signalling system allowing max 200 km/h since 2000.

Finland[edit]

New main lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening or opened Length
Lahti Main Line KeravaLahti 220 km/h (140 mph) September 3, 2006 75.7 km (47.0 mi)
Espoo–Salo Railway EspooSalo 300 km/h (190 mph) 2031 (planned) 95 km (59 mi)
Helsinki-Tampere High Speed Railway (partially using Lentorata) HelsinkiTampere 300 km/h (190 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 100 km (62 mi)
Lentorata HelsinkiVantaa Airport 220 km/h (140 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 30 km (19 mi)
Helsinki–Porvoo–Kouvola (partially using Lentorata) VantaaPorvooKouvola 300 km/h (190 mph) 2027+ (approved in 2019) 126 km (78 mi)
Arctic Railway RovaniemiKirkenes 250 km/h (160 mph) 2030+ 526 km (327 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
Finnish Coastal Railway HelsinkiTurku 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1902 approximately 50 km (31 mi) (high speed section); 195.8 km (total)
Helsinki–Riihimäki Railway HelsinkiRiihimäki 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1862 71.4 km (44.4 mi)
Lahti–Kouvola Railway LahtiKouvola 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1870 61.4 km
Main line to Petersburg Kouvola–Russian border 200 km/h (120 mph) 2013 1870 55 km (upgraded section)
Karelian Railway KouvolaJoensuu 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1894 112.3 km (69.8 mi) (high-speed section); 325,8 km (total)
Savo Railway KouvolaIisalmi 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1902 42.8 km (26.6 mi) (high-speed section); 357,8 km (total)
Riihimäki–Tampere Railway RiihimäkiTampere 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1862–1876 116 km (72 mi)
Seinäjoki–Oulu Railway (Seinäjoki–Kokkola section) SeinäjokiKokkola 200 km/h (120 mph) 2010–2013 1886 134 km (83 mi)
Seinäjoki–Oulu Railway (Kokkola-Oulu section) KokkolaOulu 200 km/h (120 mph) 2010–2017 1886 200.8 km (124.8 mi)
Tampere–Seinäjoki Railway TampereSeinäjoki 200 km/h (120 mph) 1995 1880 160 km (99 mi)

France[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

French figures of LGV length count only new tracks and not total length between terminal stations (i.e.: 409 km instead of 425 km for the LGV Sud-Est)

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Sud-Est Paris Gare de LyonLyon-Perrache 270–300 km/h 1981 409 km
LGV Atlantique Paris Gare MontparnasseCourtalain 300 km/h 1990 130 km
CourtalainTours 102 km
CourtalainLe Mans 52 km
LGV Rhône-Alpes Lyon-PerracheSaint-Quentin-Fallavier 300 km/h 1992 37 km
Saint-Quentin-FallavierValence 1994 78 km
LGV Nord Gare du NordChannel Tunnel 300 km/h 1993 333 km
LGV Interconnexion Est LGV NordLGV Sud-Est 300 km/h 1994 57 km
LGV Méditerranée ValenceLes Angles 300 km/h[42] 2001-06-10 127 km
Les AnglesNîmes 25 km
Les AnglesMarseille 320 km/h[42] 91 km
LGV Est Paris Gare de l'EstBaudrecourt (Part 1) 350 km/h (revenue service)
574.8 km/h (world speed record)
2007-06-10 300 km
BaudrecourtStrasbourg (Part 2) 350 km/h 2016-07-03 107 km
LGV Perpignan–Figueres PerpignanFigueres 320 km/h 2010-12-19 44.4 km
LGV Rhin-Rhône Eastern branch CollongesPetit-Croix (Part 1) 320 km/h 2011-12-11 140 km
DijonCollonges & Petit-CroixMulhouse (Part 2) 320 km/h 2028 (50 km)
LGV Sud Europe Atlantique ToursBordeaux 350 km/h[43] 2017-07-02 279 km
LGV Bretagne-Pays de la Loire Le MansRennes 350 km/h 2017-07-02 182 km
Contournement Nîmes–Montpellier NîmesMontpellier 220 km/h 2018-07-08 80 km
LGV Bordeaux–Toulouse BordeauxToulouse 320 km/h After 2032 (planned) (235 km)
LGV Bordeaux–Espagne Bordeaux–Spanish border 320 km/h After 2034 (planned) (60 km)
LGV Montpellier–Perpignan MontpellierPerpignan 350 km/h c.a. 2027+ (150 km)
Total 2573 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
(Paris–) Étampes–Orléans–Vierzon ÉtampesVierzon 200 km/h 1967 1847 143 km[44]
LGV Lyon–Turin 2nd part LyonSaint-Jean-de-Maurienne 220 km/h 2030 1861 (with 18.8 km upgraded)
Bordeaux–Irun railway Bordeaux-Dax 200 km/h 2017 1864 37.5 km (Labouheyre section)
Ligne de Coutras à Tulle Coutras-Mussidan 200 km/h Unknown 1871 29.6 km
Paris–Lille railway Gare du NordLille 200 km/h 1993 1846 3.7 km[44] (200 km/h sections)
Mantes-la-Jolie–Cherbourg railway Cherbourg–Bernay 200 km/h 1989 1855-1858 85.267 km[44] (200 km/h sections)
(Paris–) Connerré–Brest ConnerréBrest 220 km/h 1990 1865 53.6 km
Savenay–Landerneau railway 220 km/h 1990s 1862-1867 42 km
Le Mans–Angers railway Le MansAngers 220 km/h 2010s 1863 73.8 km[44]
(Paris–) Marseille Gare de LyonMarseille-Saint-Charles station 200 km/h 1970s 1855 96.2 km[44] (200 km/h sections)
(Paris–) Clermont-Ferrand Gare de LyonClermont-Ferrand 200 km/h 2003 1853 53.5 km[44] (200 km/h sections)
Strasbourg–Basel railway StrasbourgMulhouse 220 km/h 1995 1844 141.3 km[44]
Saint-BenoîtLa Rochelle-Ville (fr) Saint-BenoîtLa Rochelle-Ville 200 km/h 2017 (claimed) 1857 106 km[44]
Dijon-Ville–Vallorbe (Swiss border) Dijon-Ville–Dole-Ville 200 km/h (planned) 1855–1915 (46.3 km)
Paris-Est–Strasbourg-Ville railway Le Chénay-Gagny to LGV Est junction 220 km/h 2015 (6.6 km)
Moret–Lyon railway Gien to Saint-Étienne-Châteaucreux station 200 km/h 2011 (62.5 km)
Ligne de Saint-Germain-des-Fossés à Nantes (Tours–Saint-Nazaire railway) 190–200 km/h 1990s 1848-1857 (37.0 km)
Clermont-Ferrand to Riom 190–200 km/h 1976-2020 (14 km)
Total 1,192 km

Germany[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Hanover–Berlin high-speed railway WolfsburgBerlin 250 km/h (300 km/h planned) September 15, 1998 258 km
Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway HanoverWürzburg 280 km/h 1991 327 km
Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway MannheimStuttgart 280 km/h May 9, 1991 99 km
Köln–Frankfurt high-speed rail line CologneFrankfurt 300 km/h August 1, 2002 180 km
Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway NurembergIngolstadt 300 km/h May 13, 2006 90 km
Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway ErfurtLeipzig 300 km/h December 9, 2015 123 km
Frankfurt–Mannheim high-speed railway FrankfurtMannheim Planned (300 km/h ready) 2028-2030 85 km
Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway NurembergErfurt 300 km/h December 10, 2017 190 km
Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway KarlsruheBasel 250 km/h 2001-2041 182 km
Stuttgart–Wendlingen high-speed railway StuttgartWendlingen 250 km/h December 2025[45] 25 km
Wendlingen–Ulm high-speed railway WendlingenUlm 250 km/h December 2022[45] 59.58 km
Hanau-Gelnhausen high-speed railway HanauGelnhausen Planned (300 km/h ready) 2030 55 km
Bielefeld–Hannover high-speed railway BielefeldHannover Planned (300 km/h ready) 2030 100 km
Ulm-Augsburg (parallel new line) UlmAugsburg Planned (250 km/h ready) 2030 70 km[46]
Fulda - Eisenach 250 km/h 2030 52 km
Fulda - Frankfurt (parallel new) 250 km/h 2035 80 km
Ostermünchen-Brannenburg-Austrian border 250 km/h 2030 35 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
Saale-Bamberg Railway SaaleBamberg 200 km/h Before 2035 1848-1885 128.2 km
Appenweier–Strasbourg railway KehlAppenweier 200 km/h 2010–2023 1861 13.5 km (high-speed); 22 (total)
Munich–Treuchtlingen railway MunichTreuchtlingen 200 km/h 2006–2013 1870 29 km (high-speed); 136.7 (total)
Halle–Bebra railway BebraErfurt 200 km/h 2014–2019 1846–1849 96.13 km (high-speed); 210 km (total); 79.63 km (planned)
Bebra–Fulda railway BebraFulda 200 km/h before 2030 1866 66 km
Berlin–Halle railway BerlinHalle 200 km/h 1992–2006 1841–1859 161.6 km (new line in parallel at Leipzig-Halle section)
Berlin–Görlitz railway BerlinCottbus 200 km/h 2023-2027 (Approved) 1866-1867 114.7 km
Berlin–Dresden railway 200 km/h 2020 1875 174.2 km
Hamm–Warburg railway HammWarburg 200 km/h 1993–1994 1850–1853 8.4 km (high-speed); 131 km (total)
Berlin–Hamburg Railway BerlinHamburg 230 km/h 1997–2004 (160 km/h operations in the 1930s) 1846 284.1 km
Wanne-Eickel–Hamburg railway Wanne-EickelHamburg 200 km/h 1978–1990 1870–1874 355 km
Cologne–Aachen high-speed railway KölnAachen 250 km/h 2002 1841 70 km
Cologne–Duisburg railway KölnDuisburg 200 km/h 1991 1845–1846 64 km
Dortmund–Hamm railway DortmundHamm 200 km/h 1986 1845–1847 31 km; of which 20 km is high-speed
Hanover–Hamburg railway HanoverHamburg 200 km/h 1984–1987 1846–1847 181.2 km
Hamm–Minden railway HammMinden 200 km/h (300 km/h planned) 1980 1847 112 km
Hanover–Minden railway HanoverMinden 200 km/h 1984–1985 1847 64.4 km
Leipzig–Dresden railway LeipzigDresden 200 km/h 1994–2014 1837–1839 117 km
Trebnitz–Leipzig railway LeipzigBitterfeld 200 km/h 2006 1859 21.5 km
Nuremberg–Würzburg Railway NurembergWürzburg 200 km/h 1992–1999 1854–1865 102.2 km
Regensburg–Passau railway Obertraubling-Platting 200 km/h 2006-2030 1859–1873 57.5 km
Rhine Railway Mannheim-Karlsruhe MannheimKarlsruhe 250 km/h 1987 1840–1855 61 km (upgraded southern section 200 km/h)
Rhine Railway Karlsruhe-Rastatt KarlsruheRastatt Süd 250 km/h 2024 1840–1855 ~30 km (under construction)
Rhine Railway Rastatt-Offenburg Rastatt Süd–Offenburg 250 km/h 2001 1840–1855 ~50 km
Rhine Railway Offenburg-Basel OffenburgBasel 250 km/h unknown 1840–1855 ~120 km[47]
Rosenheim–Salzburg railway RosenheimSalzburg 200 km/h to be upgraded before 2030 1828–1838 88.6 km
Löhne–Rheine railway Löhne stationRheine station 200 km/h (230 km/h in short period after) before 2030 1850s 124 km
Mannheim–Frankfurt railway MannheimFrankfurt 200 km/h 1985–1999 1869–1879 74.8 km
Munich–Regensburg railway MunichLandshut 230 km/h before 2030 1859–1873 76.1 km
Munich–Rosenheim railway MunichRosenheim 230 km/h before 2030 1871 21.4 km (upgrading); 65 km
Main–Spessart railway HanauWürzburg 200 km/h 2013–2017 1854 38.254 km (high-speed); 112.5 km (total)
Kinzig Valley Railway (Hesse) HanauFulda 200 km/h 2007–2021 1866–1875 16 km (high-speed); 80.6 km (total)
Munich–Augsburg railway MunichAugsburg 230 km/h 1977–2011 1839–1854 61.9 km
Ulm–Augsburg railway UlmAugsburg 200 km/h (now); 250 km/h (soon) 1988–1992 1853 85.9 km
Waghäusel Saalbach–Graben-Neudorf railway Waghäusel Saalbach–Graben-Neudorf 200 km/h 1977–1988 1980s 7.94 km
Mannheim–Saarbrücken railway Mannheim–Saarbrücken 160 km/h (some sections are 200 km/h ready) 2003-2025 (under upgrading) 1847–1904 130.5 km
Nuremberg–Augsburg railway NurembergAugsburg 200 km/h 1978–1981 1841–1869 36.5 km (high-speed section); 137.1 km (total)
Lübeck–Puttgarden railway LübeckPuttgarden 200 km/h 2028 (upgrading) 1898–1928 88.6 km
Lübeck–Hamburg railway LübeckHamburg Hauptbahnhof 200 km/h 2027 (upgrading) 1865 62.8 km
Oberhausen–Arnhem railway EmmerichOberhausen 200 km/h unknown (upgrading approved) 1854 73 km
Oberhausen–Duisburg-Ruhrort railway Duisburg-RuhrortOberhausen 200 km/h unknown (upgrading approved) 1848 8.6 km
Plauen–Cheb line PlauenCheb 200 km/h EIS phase 1865 73.9 km
Munich–Mühldorf railway MunichMühldorf 200 km/h planned 1853–1863 45.609 km (high-speed); 115.087 km (total)
Uelzen–Langwedel railway UelzenLangwedel 200 km/h Before 2030 1873 97.4 km
Wunstorf–Bremen railway WunstorfBremen 200 km/h Before 2030 1847 122.3 km
Stendal–Uelzen railway StendalUelzen 200 km/h Before 2030 1873 107.5 km
Magdeburg-Wittenberge railway StendalMagdeburg 200 km/h Before 2030 1846 58.7 km
Magdeburg–Leipzig railway MagdeburgHalle 200 km/h Before 2030 1840 86.3 km
Magdeburg-Wittenberge railway StendalMagdeburg 200 km/h Before 2030 1846 58.7 km
Leipzig–Hof railway LeipzigGößnitz 200 km/h Before 2035 1842 53.5 km
Münster–Rheine railway MünsterRheine 200 km/h Before 2030 1846 39 km
Cologne-Wuppertal Railway CologneWuppertal 200 km/h Before 2030 1868 41.3 km
Brunswick–Wolfsburg Railway BraunschweigWolfsburg 200 km/h Before 2030 1844-1904 27.2 km
Neustrelitz–Warnemünde railway RostockNeustrelitz 200 km/h Before 2035 1886 113.2 km
Main-Neckar Railway Darmstadt Hbf–Heidelberg Hbf 200 km/h Before 2030 1846 59.7 km
Berlin–Wrocław railway Berlin–Frankfurt-Am-Oder 200 km/h 2027 (planned) 1847 81.2 km

Hong Kong[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Network name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length Remarks
Hong Kong Express Rail Link West Kowloon–​Hong Kong/​China border 200 km/h (120 mph) 2018-09-23 26 km (16 mi) Temporarily shut down since January 2020

India[edit]

Routes[edit]

National Rail Plan's (NRP) proposed routes of high-speed rail corridors.

In India, trains in the future with top speeds of 300-350 km/h, are envisaged to run on elevated corridors to isolate high-speed train tracks and thereby prevent trespassing by animals or people. The current conventional lines between Amritsar-New Delhi, and Ahmedabad-Mumbai runs through suburban and rural areas, which are flat and have no tunnels. The Ahmedabad-Mumbai line runs near the coast and therefore, has more bridges, and parts of it are in backwaters or forests. The 1987 RDSO/JICA feasibility study found the Mumbai-Ahmedabad line to be the most promising.[citation needed]

  Under Construction   Proposed   Approved

Summary of proposed and under construction high-speed rail lines in India (standard gauge)
High-speed Corridor Speed Length Further extension Status Planned opening (According to NRP)[48]
km/h mph km mi
North India[49]
Delhi–Varanasi high-speed rail corridor 320 200 865 537 DPR under preparation 2031
Delhi–Amritsar high-speed rail corridor 320 200 480 300 (Via Chandigarh) Approved[50] 2041
Delhi–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor 320 200 886 551 (Via Udaipur) Land acquisition to begin 2031
Amritsar–Jammu high-speed rail corridor 320 200 190 120 (Via Pathankot) Proposed[51] 2028
East India
Varanasi–Howrah high-speed rail corridor 320 200 711 442 (Via Patna) DPR under preparation[52] 2031
Patna–Guwahati high-speed rail corridor 320 200 850 530 Proposed 2051
West India
Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor 320 200 508.18 315.77 Under Construction 2028
Mumbai–Nagpur high-speed rail corridor 320 200 736 457 ( Via Nashik, Aurangabad) DPR under preparation 2041
Mumbai–Hyderabad high-speed rail corridor[53] 350 220 711 442 ( Via Pune, Solapur) Approved 2041
Central India
Nagpur–Varanasi high-speed rail corridor 320 200 855 531 Proposed 2041
South India
Chennai–Mysuru high-speed rail corridor 320 200 435 270 (Via Bengaluru)[50] DPR under preparation 2041
Hyderabad–Bengaluru high-speed rail corridor 320 200 618 384 Proposed 2041
Total
12 320 200 7,856 4,881 0/12 30 years' time

Feasibility studies[edit]

Potential High Speed Rail lines (2011)[54][55]

Multiple pre-feasibility and feasibility studies have been done or are in progress.

The consultants for pre-feasibility study for four corridors are:[56]

In September 2013, an agreement was signed in New Delhi to complete a feasibility study of high-speed rail between Ahmedabad and Mumbai, within 18 months.[57] The study will cost ¥500 million[58] and the cost will be shared 50:50 by Japan and India.[57]

Location of the stations, its accessibility, integration with public transport, parking and railway stations design[59] will play an important role in the success of the high speed railway system. Mumbai may have an underground corridor to have high-speed rail start from the CST terminal.[60] European experiences have shown that railway stations outside the city receive less patronage and ultimately make the high-speed railway line unfeasible.[61]

The feasibility study for the Chennai-Bengaluru high-speed rail corridor was completed by Germany in November 2018. The study found that the route was feasible. The proposed corridor would be 435 km long and would have an end-to-end travel time of 2 hours and 25 minutes with trains operating at a speed of 320 km/h. The study proposed constructing 84% of the track on viaducts, 11% underground and the remaining 4% at-grade. The current fastest train on the Chennai-Bengaluru route, the Shatabdi Express, completes the journey in 7 hours.[62]

Diamond Quadrilateral project[edit]

Potential Diamond Quadrilateral route map.

The Diamond Quadrilateral high-speed rail network project is set to connect the four major metro cities of India namely: Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai.[63][64][65] Prime minister of India mentioned in his address to the joint session of Parliament on 9 June 2014 that the new Government was committing to build the dream project. Although the route is not yet planned, the alignment could follow the existing Golden Quadrilateral railway line which links other major cities.[66]

Diamond Quadrilateral project's proposed and probable lines (standard gauge)
High-speed Corridor Speed Length Via Status Planned opening (According to NRP)[48]
km/h mph km mi
Delhi–Kolkata 320 200 1,576 979 Varanasi DPR under preparation 2031
Kolkata–Chennai 320 200 1,500 930 Vishakapatnam TBD TBD [note 1]
Mumbai–Chennai 320 200 1,200 750 Hubli TBD TBD [note 2]
Delhi–Mumbai 320 200 1,394 866 Ahmedabad and Jaipur One section under construction 2031
Delhi–Bengaluru 320 200 1,900 1,200 Bhopal and Hyderabad TBD TBD [note 3]
Mumbai–Kolkata 320 200 1,800 1,100 Nagpur TBD TBD [note 4]

Classic upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Maximum speed Opening Length
Delhi–Chandigarh 200 km/h (120 mph) (initially);
220 km/h (140 mph) (proposed)
(approved) 244 km (152 mi)
Delhi–Kanpur 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 441 km (274 mi)
ThiruvananthapuramKasaragod 180 km/h (110 mph) (initially);
200 km/h (120 mph) (proposed)
(approved)[67] 529 km (329 mi)
Mumbai–Ahmedabad 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 493 km (306 mi)
Mysuru–Bengaluru–Chennai 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 495 km (308 mi)
Nagpur–Secunderabad 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 575 km (357 mi)
Delhi–Mumbai 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 1,386 km (861 mi)
Delhi–Kolkata 200 km/h (120 mph) (approved) 1,500 km (930 mi)

Indonesia[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Jakarta–Bandung high-speed railway JakartaBandung 300 km/h (190 mph) to 350 km/h (220 mph) 2023 (under construction) 142.3 km (88.4 mi)

Italy[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening or opened Length
Florence–Rome high-speed railway FlorenceRome 250 km/h (160 mph) May 26, 1992 (full length) 254 km (158 mi)
Rome–Naples high-speed railway RomeNaples 300 km/h (190 mph) December 29, 2005 (full length) 205 km (127 mi)
Naples–Salerno high-speed railway NaplesSalerno 250 km/h (160 mph) June 2008 29 km (18 mi)
Turin–Milan high-speed railway TurinMilan 300 km/h (190 mph) December 5, 2009 (full length) 125 km (78 mi)
Milan–Bologna high-speed railway MilanBologna 300 km/h (190 mph) December 13, 2008 215 km (134 mi)
Bologna–Florence high-speed railway BolognaFlorence 300 km/h (190 mph) December 5, 2009 78 km (48 mi)
Milan–Verona high-speed railway MilanVerona 300 km/h (190 mph) 2023 (under construction)[68] 77 km (48 mi) (in operation); 165 km (103 mi) (full line under construction)
Tortona–Genoa high-speed railway TortonaGenova 250 km/h (160 mph) 2022 (under construction) 53 km (33 mi)
Brenner Base Tunnel 250 km/h (160 mph) December 21, 2025 56 km (35 mi)
Verona-Brenner 250 km/h (160 mph) 2025 276 km (171 mi)
Verona-Venice 300 km/h (190 mph) unknown 28 km (17 mi) (in operation); 103 km (64 mi) (full line under construction)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Naples-Foggia NaplesFoggia 200 km/h (120 mph) 2026 (to be upgraded) 23 km (14 mi) (now); 194 km (121 mi) (full line approved)
Salerno–Reggio Calabria railway SalernoReggio Calabria 200 km/h (120 mph) 1987-2021 135.3 km (84.1 mi) (out of 333 km)
Milan–Bologna railway MilanBologna 200 km/h (120 mph) upgraded in 1930s 219 km (136 mi)
Adriatic railway LecceBariFoggia 200 km/h (120 mph) 2023 (to be upgraded) 32 km (20 mi) (upgraded or new); 160.96 km (100.02 mi) (upgrading); 594 km (369 mi) (full)
Bologna–Ancona railway BolognaAncona 200 km/h (120 mph) 2015; ? (to be upgraded) 52 km (32 mi) (upgraded or new); 204 km (127 mi) (full, to be upgraded)
Route to Swiss border MilanChiasso 200 km/h (120 mph) Unknown (to be upgraded) 51 km (32 mi)
Genoa–Ventimiglia railway GenoaVentimiglia 180 km/h (110 mph) (now; upgradable) Unknown (to be upgraded) 50.2 km (31.2 mi)
Livorno–Rome railway Cecina–Toscana/Lazio border 200 km/h (120 mph) 150.5 km (93.5 mi)
Verona–Bologna railway Verona–Bologna 200 km/h (120 mph) 113 km (70 mi)
Verona-Venice old railway Verona–Venice 200 km/h (120 mph) 50.7 km (31.5 mi)
Rome–Ancona railway FolignoFabriano 200 km/h (120 mph) (planned) 53.279 km (33.106 mi)

Japan[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Map of Shinkansen lines (excluding the Hakata-Minami Line and Gala-Yuzawa Line extension)
Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Tokaido Shinkansen TokyoShin-Osaka 285 km/h October 1, 1964 515.4 km
Sanyo Shinkansen Shin-OsakaOkayama 300 km/h March 15, 1972 553.7 km
OkayamaHakata March 10, 1975
Tohoku Shinkansen TokyoUeno 130 km/h[69] June 20, 1991 674.9 km
UenoOmiya November 15, 1985
OmiyaUtsunomiya 275 km/h June 23, 1982
UtsunomiyaMorioka 320 km/h
MoriokaHachinohe 260 km/h (320 km/h soon)[69]
(360 km/h testing[70])
December 1, 2002
HachinoheShin-Aomori December 4, 2010
Joetsu Shinkansen OmiyaNiigata 240 km/h (275 km/h after spring 2023)[71] November 15, 1982 269.5 km
Hokuriku Shinkansen TakasakiNagano 260 km/h October 1, 1997 470.6 km
NaganoKanazawa March 14, 2015
KanazawaTsuruga construction (260 km/h ready) 2022 (expected)
TsurugaOsaka planning (260 km/h ready) 2030+ (most likely 2045) in study
Kyushu Shinkansen HakataShin-Yatsushiro 260 km/h March 12, 2011 256.8 km
Shin-YatsushiroKagoshima-Chuo March 13, 2004
Takeo-OnsenNagasaki construction 2023 (expected, likely to be delayed until 2025) 66.7 km
HakataTakeo-Onsen temporarily will be launched as an upgraded line, dedicated tracks proposed 2030+ 90 km
Hokkaido Shinkansen Shin-AomoriShin-Hakodate-Hokuto 260 km/h March 26, 2016 360.2 km
Shin-Hakodate-HokutoSapporo construction 2030 (expected)

Maglev lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Chuo Shinkansen Shinagawa (Tokyo)Nagoya 505 km/h (planned revenue services)
603 km/h (achieved speed record)
2027 (Demonstrating operation since 2020) 285.6 km (42.8 km ready as test track)
NagoyaOsaka 505 km/h 2037 152.4 km

Morocco[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Tanger–Kénitra TangerKénitra 320 km/h (200 mph) 2018-11-15 200 km (120 mi)

Upgraded line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Kénitra–Casablanca KénitraCasablanca 160 km/h (320 km/h ready after upgrades) 2020 150 km

Dedicated high-speed lines planned[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
LGV Rabat–Oujda RabatOujda Before 2030 (expected) About 600 km
LGV Casablanca–Agadir CasablancaAgadir Before 2030 (expected) About 550 km
Total About 1150 km

Netherlands[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
HSL-Zuid Amsterdam CentraalHSL 4 300 km/h 2009-09-07 125 km
Hanzelijn Lelystad–Zwolle 160 km/h (200 km/h ready) December 2012; high-speed expected in 2021 50 km
Lelylijn Lelystad–Groningen 250 km/h Before 2030 (expected) 120 km (approx.)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Rhine Railway Amsterdam–German border 140/160 km/h (restricted)
200 km/h will be after further electrification upgrades
2023 116.8 km

Norway[edit]

Line Speed Length Construction began Expected start of revenue services
Gardermobanen 210 km/h 67 km 1994 1999
Vestfold Line 200–250 km/h 55.5 km (now); extra 64 km (by 2032) 1993 2012–2018-2024-2032
Dovre Line 200–300 km/h 17 km (now); 110 km (by 2030) 2012 2015-2024–2030
Oslo–Ski 250 km/h 22.5 km 2014 2021 (postponed for December 2022[72])
Østfoldbanen 250 km/h 77 km (by 2024); 112.35 km (by 2030) 2019 2024–≈2030
Østfoldbanen (dedicated part) 250 km/h 33 km unknown 2030
Ringerike Line 250 km/h 40 km 2021 2028–≈2029
Grenlandsbanen 250 km/h 59 km unknown 2035
Bergen Line 200 km/h 69.2 km (high-speed); 371 km (full) unknown 2030

Poland[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Warsaw–Gdańsk railway (PKP rail line 9) WarsawGdańsk 200 km/h (120 mph) December 2020 145 km
PKP rail line 4 WłoszczowaZawiercie 200 km/h (120 mph)

230–250 km/h (140–160 mph) scheduled in 2023

2014-12-14 58 km (36 mi)[73]
Grodzisk MazowieckiIdzikowice 2017-12-10 85 km (53 mi)[73]
other upgradable sections 230–250 km/h (140–160 mph) 2017-2023 (projected) 44 km (27 mi)[73]
Warsaw-Białystok-Ełk-Suwałki-national border (Rail Baltica, partially new line between Ełk and national border) Warsaw-Trakiszki 200 km/h (120 mph) Warszawa-Ełk; 250 km/h (160 mph) Ełk-national border 2025 (projected) 280.541 km (upgradable section)
PKP rail line 131 Bydgoszcz-Tczew 200 km/h (120 mph) After 2023 124.166 km (upgrading); 492.019 km (full line)

Dedicated lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Y-shape line Phase 1:

Warsaw-Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Lodz

Phase 2: Sieradz-Poznan/Wrocław

250 km/h (160 mph) Phase 1: 2027–2029 (with Central Transport Hub) 450 km
CMK Północ / PKP rail line 5 Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Płock-Włocławek-Grudziądz-Tczew/Gdańsk 250 km/h (160 mph) After 2030 ~295 km
Connector between Y-shape line, PKP rail line 4 and PKP rail line 5 Central Transport Hub (Solidarity Airport)-Korytów 250 km/h (160 mph) 2027–2029 (with Central Transport Hub) ~25 km
Shortcut in PKP rail line 9 Warszawa Choszczówka-Nasielsk/Kątne/Świercze 250 km/h (160 mph) ? ~33 km
V4 rail corridor (loose concept) WarsawBratislavaBudapest 250 km/h (160 mph) ? 900 km (560 mi) (total; including foreign line)

Portugal[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Linha do Norte Porto-CampanhãLisboa-Santa Apolónia 220 km/h (140 mph) 1999 116.9 km (high-speed); 336.8 km (total)
Linha do Sul Porto-CampanhãFaro 220 km/h (140 mph) 2004 approx. 110 km (high-speed); approx. 50 km (upgrading); 273.6 km (total)
South Axis (section under upgrading)[74] Faro–Évora 220 km/h (140 mph) 2014-2025 277.7 km

Dedicated lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Lisbon–Porto high-speed rail line LisbonPorto 300 km/h (186 mph) until 2030 298 km
South Axis (new section)[74] Évora–Spanish Border 250 km/h (155 mph) until 2030 97 km

Romania[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Length
Bucharest-Cluj 200 km/h 2020 (construction delayed) 497 km
Cluj-Hungarian border 200 km/h 2020–2026 (upgrading claimed) 160 km
Bucharest-Iasi 200 km/h Proposed 406 km
Ploiești-Suceava 200 km/h Proposed 505 km

Russia[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Moscow–Saint Petersburg Railway MoscowSaint Petersburg 250 km/h (160 mph) (9% of tracks), 100–200 km/h (the rest) 1997-2001 (bypass over Msta river, capable of 200+ km/h)
1990s (200 km/h weekly service)
2009-12-26 (250 km/h daily service)
Ongoing upgrading (third track at exits from cities)
650 km (400 mi)
Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg Railway RiihimäkiSaint Petersburg 220 km/h (140 mph) (Finnish section), 140–200 km/h (Russian section) 2010-12-12 195 km (121 mi)
(157 km upgraded; the rest 38 km electrified in 2006–2009)
Gorkovskaya Railway MoscowNizhniy Novgorod[23] 140–180 km/h (87–112 mph) (now), 200 km/h (soon) 2010 (higher-speed); 2024 (high-speed) 421 km (262 mi)

Dedicated lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
HSR Moscow - Saint Petersburg MoscowSaint Petersburg 250–400 km/h (160–250 mph) Planned in 1980s
Construction started in 1997 (only Msta river bridge finished by 2001)
Postponed at the most of its length in 1998 crisis
Project approved in 2000s
now is granted[clarification needed] by the government (to be completed before 2024)
679 km (422 mi)
HSR Moscow - Kazan MoscowKazan 400 km/h (250 mph) Construction was originally planned to break ground at 2018; now postponed in favour of HSR MoscowSaint Petersburg 762 km (473 mi)
HSR Ural ChelyabinskYekaterinburg 300 km/h (190 mph) Postponed due to COVID-19 pandemic 218 km (135 mi)
HSR Moscow - Rostov-on-Don - Adler MoscowAdler 400 km/h (250 mph) 2035 (claimed) 1,550 km (960 mi)

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Haramain HSR MeccaMedina 300 km/h 2018-10-11 453 km
Gulf Railway (Saudi section) 220 km/h until 2023 663 km

Classic upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
SRO Dammam–Riyadh line DammamRiyadh 180 km/h (now); 200 km/h (soon) 1981 449 km
SAR Riyadh–Qurayyat line Riyadh–Qurayyat 180 km/h (now); 200 km/h (soon) 2017 1,242 km

Serbia[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Budapest–Belgrade railway BelgradeStara Pazova 200 km/h (120 mph) 2022 34.5 km (21.4 mi)
Stara PazovaNovi Sad 200 km/h (120 mph) 2022 43 km (27 mi)
Novi Sad-Hungarian Border 200 km/h (120 mph) 2020s (upgrading from 2021) 106.5 km (66.2 mi)
part of the Budapest–Belgrade–Skopje–Athens railway Belgrade-Niš 200 km/h (120 mph) 2023 204 km (127 mi)[75]

South Korea[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Gyeongbu HSR Line SeoulDongdaegu 305 km/h (350 km/h ready) 2004-04-01 286.8 km
DongdaeguBusan 2010-11-01 130.7 km
Honam HSR Line OsongGwangju Songjeong 305 km/h (350 km/h ready) 2015-04-02 182.3 km
Suseo–Pyeongtaek HSR Line SuseoJijePyeongtaek Junction 300 km/h 2016-12-09 61.1 km

Higher-speed lines[edit]

Dedicated higher-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Gyeonggang Line(Wonju-Gangneung) SeowonjuGangneung 250 km/h 2017-12-22 120.7 km

Higher-speed line sharing Conventional Train Service[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Jungang Line(Cheongnangni-Dodam) CheongnyangniDeokso 150 km/h 2005-12-16 18.0 km
DeoksoYongmun 180 km/h 2009-12-23 41.3 km
YongmunSeowonju 200 km/h 2012-12-25 31.1 km
SeowonjuJecheon 260 km/h 2021-01-05 44.1 km[76]
Jecheon–Dodam 260 km/h 2011-03-31 17.4 km

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Jeolla Line IksanSuncheon 200 km/h (230 km/h ready) 2011-10-05 145.6 km
Suncheon–Yeosu Expo 230 km/h 34.8 km
Donghae Line Geoncheon InterconnectionPohang 200 km/h 2015-04-02 38.7 km
Geoncheon Interconnection–Taehwagang Upgrading (200 km/h) 2021 (expected) 41.6 km
Honam Line Gwangju Songjeong - Gomagwon Upgrading (230 km/h) 2019-06-01 25.9 km
Gomagwon – Imseong-ri Upgrading (230 km/h) 2023 77.6 km

Planned Higher-Speed Line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Jungang Line(Dodam-Gyeongju) Dodam–Yeongcheon Upgrading (250 km/h) 2022 (expected) 148.1 km
Yeongcheon–Singyeongju Upgrading (250 km/h) 2021 (expected) 20.4 km
Bujeon–Masan Line Bujeon–Chilsan Junction Construction (200 km/h) 2022 (expected) 50.8 km
Seohae Line Wonsi–Hongseong Construction (250 km/h) 2022 (expected) 89.2 km
Jungbu Naeryuk Line Bubal - Mungyeong Construction (250 km/h) 2021 (expected) 93.185 km
Nambunaeryuk Line Gimcheon – Geoje Planned (250 km/h) 2028 (expected) 187.3 km

Spain[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line (operational)[edit]

Line Connected cities Year of
inauguration
Operational top speed Type of trains Length
North-western corridor
HSR Madrid–Galicia Ourense · Santiago de Compostela 2011 250 km/h or 155 mph S-121, S-730 88.2 km
Madrid Chamartín · Segovia · Olmedo · Zamora 2015
HSR Atlantic Axis Santiago de Compostela · A Coruña 2011 250 km/h or 155 mph S-121, S-730
Vigo · Pontevedra · Santiago de Compostela 2015
North corridor
HSR Madrid–León Madrid Chamartín · Segovia · Valladolid 2007 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-114 178.1 km
Valladolid · Venta de Baños · Palencia · León 2015 166.1 km
North-eastern corridor
HSR Madrid–Barcelona Madrid Atocha · Guadalajara–Yebes · Calatayud · Zaragoza · Lleida 2003 310 km/h or 193 mph S-100, S-103, S-112, S-120, S-121 442.1 km
Lleida · Camp de Tarragona 2006 78.8 km
Camp de Tarragona · Barcelona-Sants 2008 100 km
HSR Barcelona–Perpignan Figueres · Perpignan (France) 2009 300 km/h or 186 mph S-100, SNCF TGV Duplex
Barcelona-Sants · Barcelona-Sagrera · Girona · Figueres 2013 128 km
HSR Madrid–Huesca Madrid Atocha · Guadalajara–Yebes · Calatayud · Zaragoza · Tardienta · Huesca 2005 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102
Eastern corridor
HSR Madrid–Castellón Madrid Atocha · Cuenca · Requena-Utiel · Valencia 2010 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-112, S-130 390.3 km
Valencia · Castellón 2018 S-112, S-130
HSR Madrid–Alicante Madrid Atocha · Cuenca · Albacete 2010 300 km/h or 186 mph S-112, S-130
Albacete · Villena · Alicante 2013
Southern corridor
HSR Madrid–Seville Madrid Atocha · Ciudad Real · Puertollano · Córdoba · Sevilla 1992 300 km/h or 186 mph S-100, S-102, S-103, S-112, S-104
Sevilla · Jerez de la Frontera · Cádiz 2015 200 km/h or 124 mph S-130
HSR Córdoba–Málaga Córdoba · Puente Genil-Herrera · Antequera-Santa Ana · Málaga 2007 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-103, S-112, S-104 512 km
HSR Madrid–Toledo Madrid Atocha · Toledo 2005 250 km/h or 155 mph S-104
HSR Antequera–Granada Antequera-Santa Ana · Granada 2019 300 km/h or 186 mph S-102, S-112

North-western corridor[edit]

Map of the high-speed rail network (newly built and upgraded lines). Also shows under construction, planned or in study lines.

Madrid–Zamora[edit]

The Madrid–Zamora line is the open section of the under construction Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line connecting Madrid to Zamora via Segovia. The line shares a common section with the Madrid–Leon line for the part between Madrid and Olmedo. The Madrid–Zamora line entered revenue service on December 17, 2015, by Alvia S-730 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) trains that cover the distance in 1 hour and 33 minutes.[77] Part of the line up to Medina del Campo is also used for the Alvia Madrid–Salamanca service.

The Atlantic Axis[edit]

The Atlantic Axis high-speed railway line is connecting the two main cities of Vigo and A Coruña (Corunna) via Santiago de Compostela in the northwestern Spanish region of Galicia. The railway, 155.6 km in length, is an upgrade of the former non-electrified single railway line between the town of Ferrol and the Portuguese border for the part between A Coruña and Vigo, into a double electrified high-speed line. The new rebuilt railway permits mixed use traffic with a maximum design speed of 250 km/h for passenger trains.[78] The new railway was inaugurated in April 2015 and shortened the distance between the two cities by 22 km, from 178 km to 156 km, and cut the travel time from around 3 hours on the old railway down to 1 hour and 20 minutes on the new one. 37 tunnels totalling 59 km and 34 bridges totalling 15 km form part of the rebuilt railway.[79] The line is served by Alvia S-121 or S-730 (max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) train-sets for the routes between A Coruña and Vigo[80] and between A Coruña and Ourense and by Alvia S-730 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) train-sets connecting Galicia with other Spanish regions. The line will be connected at Santiago de Compostela with the Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line, which as of 2015 is under construction.

North corridor[edit]

Madrid–León[edit]

The Madrid–Leon high-speed rail line connects Madrid with León passing the cities of Segovia, Valladolid and Palencia. The line supports the longest railway tunnel in Spain at 28 km in length and is served by up to two S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains per day with the fastest schedule lasting 2 hours and 6 minutes. Other trainsets used on the Madrid–Leon line include S-120 (max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) and S-130 (Patito, max speed 250 km/h (155 mph)) for the Alvia services.

North-eastern corridor[edit]

Madrid–Barcelona[edit]

Madrid–Barcelona high-speed railway line connects Madrid with Barcelona in the north east of Spain passing through the cities of Guadalajara, Calatayud, Zaragoza (Saragossa), Lleida (Lérida) and Tarragona where the future Tarragona–Valencia high-speed railway line will connect. The line has a length of 621 km and a travel time of two and a half hours for the direct trains using the route avoiding entering Zaragoza (Saragossa) and Lleida (Lérida). The line is served by S-103 (max speed 350 km/h or 217 mph) trains. Seventeen trains run now every day between 6:00 and 21:00 hrs. Direct trains Barcelona–Seville and Barcelona–Malaga that do not make a stop in Madrid are also scheduled combining the Madrid–Barcelona line with one of the southern corridor's existing lines. S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains are used for these services and cover these distances in less than 6 hours.

Barcelona–Perpignan (France)[edit]

The international high-speed section across the border, PerpignanFigueres (44.4 km), of the Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed rail line opened in December 2010. Since then, French TGV trains operate from Paris. The Spanish high-speed section Barcelona–Figueres opened on January 7, 2013.[81][82] Nine Spanish services initially serviced the line, with 8 being a through service to Madrid, which also connected with two French TGV services from Paris. Previously French TGV services connected Paris and Barcelona by means of a shuttle train on the standard Barcelona–Figueres line.[83][84][85] Direct Barcelona-Paris, Madrid-Marseille, Barcelona-Lyon and Barcelona-Toulouse high-speed trains between France and Spain started on December 15, 2013.[86]

Madrid–Huesca[edit]

The Zaragoza–Huesca section branches off from the Madrid–Barcelona line at Zaragoza and connects with the city of Huesca and serves the connection train station for regional trains in the town of Tardienta. The line first put in operation in 2005 and is served by up to two S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains per day with the fastest train journey between the two cities lasting 2 hours and 5 minutes.

Eastern corridor[edit]

Madrid–Castellón[edit]

The Madrid–Castellón line connects the city of Castellón with the city of Madrid passing through the cities of Cuenca, Requena-Utiel and Valencia. The section It is serviced by S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains, assembled by the Talgo-Bombardier consortium. Direct trains to Valencia cover the 391 km in 98 minutes while thirty trains run every day between 05:00 and 21:00, fifteen in each direction. For the service Madrid–Castellón AVE trains cover the distance in 2 hours and 25 minutes and 4 trains per day are scheduled, two in each direction.[citation needed] The line is part of the Madrid–Levante network (see below). Direct trains Valencia–Seville that do not make a stop in Madrid are also scheduled combining the existing lines of Madrid–Castellón and Madrid-Seville. S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains are used for this service and cover the whole distance in 3 hours and 50 minutes.

Madrid–Alicante[edit]

A 350 km/h line branches off from the Madrid–Castellón Line and connects the city of Alicante with the city of Madrid passing through the cities of Cuenca, Albacete and Villena.[87] It is part of the Madrid–Levante HSR network and is serviced by S-112 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) trains that cover the distance in up to 2 hours and 12 minutes. Direct trains Toledo–Albacete were also scheduled in the past, combining four of the existing lines, but this service was eventually terminated due to low demand.

South corridor[edit]

Madrid–Seville[edit]

The Madrid–Seville high-speed railway line connects Madrid with Seville in the south of Spain, passing through the cities of Ciudad Real, Puertollano and Córdoba, where the Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line branches off towards Málaga just outside Los Mochos near Almodóvar del Río. The route travels across the plains of Castile, travelling through the Sierra Morena mountains just before reaching Córdoba, before going onward towards Seville through the largely flat land surrounding the Guadalquivir river. The Madrid–Seville line was the first dedicated passenger high-speed rail line to be built in Spain and was completed in time for Seville's Expo 92. With a length of 472 km, the fastest train journey between the two cities takes 2 hours and 20 minutes. The line is served by S-100 (max speed 300 km/h or 186 mph) trains. The extension section of the Madrid-Seville high-speed rail line to Cádiz is served by Alvia trains that connect the city of Cádiz to Madrid and reach speeds up to 200 km/h in this section.[88]

Madrid–Málaga[edit]

The Córdoba–Málaga high-speed rail line connects the city of Málaga with the city of Madrid as a branch from the Madrid–Seville line. The line shares a common section with the Madrid–Seville high-speed rail line up to the city of Córdoba and then includes a 155 km long spur line up to the city of Málaga. It is served by S-102 (Pato, max speed 330 km/h or 205 mph) and S-103 (max speed 350 km/h or 217 mph) trains and the fastest train journey between the two cities takes 2 hours and 20 minutes. Apart from the traffic to and from the city of Málaga, the line also handles the traffic to the cities of Granada and Algeciras. In the future, the line will also support the traffic between Madrid and the Costa del Sol high-speed rail line.

Madrid–Toledo[edit]

The Madrid–Toledo high-speed rail line branches off from the Seville and Málaga routes around the depot at La Sagra. The Avant service between the two cities offers journey times of half an hour on trains with a maximum speed of 250 km/h.

Dedicated high-speed line (under construction)[edit]

Line Connected cities Expected
completion
North-western corridor
HSR Madrid–Galicia Zamora · Ourense 2019
North corridor
HSR Madrid–Asturias León · La Robla
La Robla · Pola de Lena After 2020
Pola de Lena · Oviedo · Gijón
HSR Madrid–Basque Country Venta de Baños · Burgos 2019
Burgos · Miranda de Ebro · Vitoria 2023[89]
Basque Y Vitoria · Bilbao · San Sebastián · Irún · French border 2023
Eastern corridor
HSR Madrid–Levante Alicante · Murcia · Cartagena 2020
Southern corridor
HSR Andalusian Transverse Axis Antequera · Granada 2019
Antequera · Sevilla 2020
HSR Madrid–Jaén Mora · Alcázar de San Juan
Alcázar de San Juan · Manzanares
Linares · Casas de Torrubia
Grañena · Jaén 2018[90]
Mediterranean corridor
HSR Catalonia–Andalusia Tarragona · Vandellós 2019
Valencia · Murcia 2019
Murcia · Almería 2023
South-western corridor
HSR Madrid–Extremadura Plasencia · Badajoz 2020
Madrid · Plasencia 2023[91]

Madrid interconnector[edit]

Map of the planned high-speed rail network (newly built and upgraded lines).

A new interconnecting tunnel is planned between Madrid Atocha and Madrid Chamartín stations. Currently, trains going to Valladolid leave from Chamartín and trains going to Seville, Málaga and Barcelona leave from Atocha station. Also, there is a single daily service in each direction running along the Barcelona–Seville and Barcelona–Málaga routes, which uses the high-speed bypass around Madrid to avoid reversing the direction of train in Atocha station. The tunnel will allow services serving northern cities to travel non-stop or with a stop through Madrid and onward to southern cities (or vice versa), without the driver having to change ends or bypass Madrid, a valuable source of passengers: currently, someone wanting to travel from Valladolid to Málaga, for instance, must travel from Valladolid Campo Grande station to Madrid Chamartín station before taking a Cercanías service to Atocha; then finally taking an onward train to Málaga.

On April 24, 2010, tunnelling started on the 7.3 km route connecting Atocha and Chamartin.[92] The tunnel itself is now complete, and the tracks are in place. The electric line is currently being installed, with these works expected to be completed in early 2018, and service started within the same year.[93]

North-western corridor[edit]

Zamora–Ourense[edit]

The Madrid–Galicia high-speed rail line will connect the city of Madrid with the region of Galicia and the Atlantic Axis high-speed rail line in the North West of Spain via Santiago de Compostela. The line will include a new 424 km long high-speed railway section that starts at Olmedo 130 km to the north of Madrid on the Madrid–Leon high-speed rail line and ends at Santiago de Compostela. Construction on the northernmost part of this section between the cities of Ourense and Santiago de Compostela began late 2004 and this part was inaugurated in December 2011. The southern part between Olmedo and Zamora entered revenue service on December 17, 2015.[77] Constructions on the central part, which crosses some of Spain's most remote and fragile nature areas, are expected be completed in 2019. The line is currently served by Alvia trains.[94]

North corridor[edit]

León–Gijón[edit]

Madrid–Asturias high-speed railway is the line connecting Madrid to the region of Asturias in the north of Spain. The new under construction section branches off the Valladolid–Vitoria high-speed section at Venta de Baños: 205 km north of Madrid and then reaches the cities of Oviedo and Gijón via Palencia and León.[95] This section includes the 24,7 km long Pajares Base Tunnel (Variante de Pajares) which runs under a very mountainous area between the Province of León and the Principality of Asturias.[96] Construction started in 2009 (except variante de pajares which started 2003) and reached León in September 2015 and expected to reach Oviedo and Gijón after 2020.[97]

Valladolid–Vitoria[edit]

The extension of the Madrid–Valladolid section towards the Basque Country began construction in 2009. This 223.4 kilometres (138.8 mi) railway line will run parallel to the 244.8 kilometres (152.1 mi) long existing railway line. Originally it was to be used as a mixed-use high-speed railway line, but it has since been changed to a passenger-dedicated railway line, leaving the existing railway line for freight trains. The line was forecast to open the ValladolidBurgos part around 2013 and the Burgos–Vitoria-Gasteiz part in 2014 or 2015. However, due to delays the line is not expected to open before 2023, although the Valladolid–Burgos section is expected to enter full revenue service in 2019. At Vitoria it will be connected to the Basque high-speed railway line (Basque Y), thus reaching the French border. Once opened, the travel time between Valladolid and Vitoria will be around an hour.

Basque Y[edit]

The Basque high-speed railway line (Basque Y) will connect the three Basque capitals, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Bilbao and San Sebastián. Construction began in October 2006 and the line was forecast to open in 2016. However, due to delays in construction, the line is expected to put in service in 2023 according to the new estimations. The three Basque capitals will be further connected with Madrid via Valladolid, and with the French border via Irun and Bayonne.

North-eastern corridor[edit]

Tunnel Sants–La Sagrera[edit]

The Sants–La Sagrera tunnel links the Sants station in Barcelona through the Eixample with the future La Sagrera station. The tunnel passes under the streets of Provença and Mallorca, using a short part of the Diagonal to link between these streets. In the Carrer de Mallorca, the tunnel passes directly in front of Gaudí's masterpiece, the basilica of the Sagrada Família, and in the Carrer de Provença, another Gaudí work, the Casa Milà. In a long campaign against this route, the Board of the Sagrada Família and other parties argued that the tunnel would damage the church, whose construction is still in progress. In this discussion about different routes, the one now built is also called the Provença tunnel because part of its route passes under this street.

The tunnel boring machine Barcino passed the Sagrada Família in October 2010, and reached its final destination a few months later. Rail traffic is planned to start in 2012, initially without stops at the La Sagrera station, which is expected to be completed in 2016.

In March 2012, railway equipment was installed, with a special elastic isolation of the rails to dampen vibrations at the sections passing close to Gaudí's architectural works, using the Edilon system.[100][101]

Eastern corridor[edit]

Alicante–Cartagena[edit]

This is an under construction section, part of the Madrid–Levante network of high-speed railways connecting the capital with the Mediterranean coast. Consisting of 955 kilometres (593 mi) of railways with an estimated cost of 12.5 billion euros, it is the most expensive high-speed railway project in Spain. The network will consist of both dedicated passenger high-speed railways designed for trains running above 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) and high-speed railways shared with freight trains.[102] The network is to be opened in stages, starting with the MadridValencia/Albacete section, which was opened in December 2010,[103][104] followed by Albacete–Alicante in June 2013,[105] Valencia–Castellón in January 2018,[106] while Valencia–Alicante is expected to follow in 2019 and finally reaching the city of Murcia by 2020 with a branch line to Cartagena.

South corridor[edit]

Seville–Granada[edit]

The southern Andalusian transverse high-speed railway line is a 503.7-kilometre railway running between the cities of Huelva and Almería, passing the cities of Seville and Granada. The line is designed for speeds up to 250 kilometres per hour, except for the 130-kilometre Antequera–Granada and the 103-kilometre Seville–Huelva parts of the line, which are designed for speeds in excess of 300 kilometres per hour. A connection between Huelva and the Portuguese border is being studied.[citation needed] When finished the journey between Huelva and Almería in the new line is estimated to last 3 hours and 35 minutes.[108] The first section of the line between Antequera and Granada is expected to put in service by summer 2019 connecting the city of Granada to the rest of the high speed network via the Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line. The section between Seville and Antequera is expected to be completed in 2020.

Madrid–Jaén[edit]

This high-speed railway line will be part passenger-dedicated high-speed railway (Madrid–Alcázar de San Juan) and part shared with freight trains (Alcázar de San Juan–Jaén). The first 99 km of the line will use the already existing Madrid-Seville high-speed railway line. From there, a 67.5 km branch line will be constructed towards Alcázar de San Juan.

From Alcázar de San Juan the existing railway line will be upgraded to allow passenger trains to run up to 250 km/h; a new double-tracked route through the Despeñaperros mountain range will be built to replace the existing single-tracked route. This part of the high-speed railway also forms part of the Madrid–Algeciras freight corridor. An extension of the line to Granada is being investigated; however, the complicated terrain between Jaén and Granada might make it uneconomical.

Mediterranean corridor[edit]

Tarragona–Almería[edit]

The high-speed Barcelona-Figueres section (from Barcelona to the French border) was inaugurated in January 2013.[109] The journey from the centre of Barcelona to the centre of Girona takes now 37 minutes (compared to the hour and a half it took), and to Figueres in 53 minutes (instead of two hours). Girona and Figueres will be 14 minutes from each other. The Perpignan (France)–Figueres section opened in 2010. One lacking high-speed section on the French side, between Montpellier and Nîmes, is scheduled to open in July 2018, allowing almost continuous high-speed travel from the French high-speed network to the Spanish one.[110] The French government, on the other hand, recently announced indefinite delays to the Montpellier–Perpignan high-speed section that was originally planned for 2020. The section linking Tarragona to Almería via Valencia and Murcia is expected to be completed by 2023. The final section between Almería and Algeciras, passing through Málaga, will be built at a later point of time; an alternative and longer route looks likely.[111]

South-western corridor[edit]

Madrid–Extremadura[edit]

This line was initially planned as Lisbon–Madrid high-speed rail line to connect the two peninsular capitals, Madrid and Lisbon in 2 hours and 45 minutes.[112][113] This line had been a key issue in bilateral summits in recent years and was about to link Spain's high-speed rail network with the planned High-speed rail in Portugal, a project announced by the Portuguese government in February 2009. Construction on the Spanish side began in late 2008 on a segment between the cities of Badajoz and Mérida. Both Spanish and Portuguese track were to be completed around 2013, later the Portuguese government brought forward its plans from 2015 but the Portuguese froze works in June 2011 and eventually cancelled the project in March 2012.[114][115][116] In 2016 the European Union's European Regional Development Fund, gave Spain €205.1m towards the €312.1m needed for the track between Navalmoral de la Mata and Mérida, Spain.[117] The section on the Spanish side between Madrid and Badajoz is expected to be completed in 2023.

With a length of 439 km on the Spanish side, of which 48 km are part of the already built Madrid–Seville high-speed rail line, it will connect cities like Talavera de la Reina, Navalmoral de la Mata, Plasencia, Cáceres, Mérida and Badajoz.[112] The Almonte River Viaduct was completed in May 2016 to carry this line. It is a concrete arch bridge with a span of 384 meters (1,260 feet), ranking among the longest in the world of this type of bridge.[118][119]

With a length of 200 km on the Portuguese side, of which 100 km are in service (Intercity trains run at 200 km/h in the upgraded single track), work is underway to close the missing gap between Evora-Badajoz.

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgraded Length Notes
Barcelona-Alicante rail line Barcelona-Sants–Alicante 220 km/h (140 mph) 1997 523 km (325 mi) Only some sections are for high-speed trains. Some of them converted in 1997, additional dedicated in parallel is partially opened in 2018
Madrid-Valencia rail line Madrid-AtochaValencia-Nord 220 km/h (140 mph) 1999 301 km (187 mi) Since 2010 not in use for high-speed trains
La Coruña-Santiago de Compostela 250 km/h (160 mph) 2011 74.5 km (46.3 mi)
Alcázar de San Juan–Cádiz railway 200 km/h (120 mph) 2015 153 km (95 mi)
Albacete–La Encina 300 km/h (190 mph) 2011-2013 90 km (56 mi) Converted to standard gauge, then upgraded from 200 km/h to 300 km/h
Valencia–Calafat 220 km/h (140 mph) 2004 219 km (136 mi)
Mérida-Badajos (Portuguese border) 200 km/h (120 mph) 2004 60 km (37 mi)

Sweden[edit]

Dedicated[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Bothnia Line NylandUmeå 250 km/h (160 mph)[120] (no trains are designed and permitted to operate above 200 km/h) 2010 185 km (115 mi)
North Bothnia Line UmeåLuleå 250 km/h (160 mph) 2028 270 km (170 mi)
Götalandsbanan Linköping CGöteborg C 320 km/h (200 mph) 2024–2030 (construction of the first section to be started in spring, 2018 as claimed in 2016; likely to be postponed) 440 km (270 mi)
East Link Project LinköpingSödertälje 250 km/h (160 mph)(cut from 320 to 250) 2033–2036 (construction of the first section to be started in 2017 as claimed; likely to be postponed) 160 km (99 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgrade Opening Length
Ådalen Line Sundsvall Central–Västeraspby 140–200 km/h 1990-2029 30 km (high-speed part of Bothnia Line); 184 (total)
Southern Main Line Katrineholm–Malmö 200 km/h 1995-2024 336 km (high-speed); 16.4 km (under upgrading); 480 (total)
Western Main Line Stockholm–Göteborg 200 km/h 1989-1995 312 km (high-speed); 455 km (total)
Göteborg–Malmö 200 km/h 1985-2024 172 km (high-speed); 230 km (total)
Eskilstuna–Södertälje 200 km/h 1997 * 80 km
Jakobsberg–Västerås (Mälaren Line) 200 km/h (now); 250 km/h (soon) 2001 * 90 km
Örebro–Kolbäck (Mälaren Line) 200 km/h before 2036 45 km (upgraded now); 35 km (to be upgraded before 2036)
East Coast Line (Stockholm-Arlanda-Uppsala) 200 km/h 1999 1903 56 km (of which 19 km is new airport branch)
East Coast Line (Gävle–Enånger) 200 km/h 1999 * 40 km (high-speed); 105 km (full)
East Coast Line (Uppsala–Gävle) 200 km/h 2017 82.5 km; (high-speed) 110 km; (full)
East Coast Line (Hudiksvall–Sundsvall ) 200 km/h 2030-2040 50 km
Norway/Vänern Line Göteborg CÖxnered 200 km/h 2012 * 1879 82 km (high-speed); 79.1;km (to be upgraded); 300 km (total)
Northern Main Line GävleÅnge 200 km/h 1879 22 km (high-speed); 268 km (total)
Värmland Line LaxåKarlstad 200 km/h 1871 46 km (high-speed); 208 km (total)
Coast-to-Coast Line EmmabodaKalmar; EmmabodaKarlskrona 200 km/h 1994 1874-1902 24.5 km (high-speed); 410 km (total)
  • The lines marked with * were to a large part given a new alignment when upgrading from single track, essentially making them new lines. The other ones were straight enough for 200 km/h already.

There are plans to upgrade some lines to 250 km/h when the ERTMS signalling system is introduced in 2025–2030.

Switzerland[edit]

Rail 2000 high-speed lines[edit]

Line Speed Length Opening
Lötschberg Base Tunnel 250 km/h 34.57 km June 14, 2007
Ceneri Base Tunnel 250 km/h 15.4 km September 2020
Jura Foot Railway 200 km/h 104.5 km 2025–2030
Simplon Railway 200 km/h 191.41 km 2025–2030
Solothurn–Wanzwil railway 200 km/h 6.3 km (high-speed); 10.9 km (full) 2004

Other projects[edit]

Line Speed Length Opening Date
Lausanne–Geneva railway 200 km/h 66.18 km 2025–2030

Taiwan[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Taiwan HSR BanqiaoZuoying 300 km/h (190 mph) 2007-01-05 332.1 km (206.4 mi)
TaipeiBanqiao ~130 km/h (81 mph) 2007-03-01 7.2 km (4.5 mi)
NangangTaipei ~130 km/h (81 mph) 2016-07-01 9.2 km (5.7 mi)
Nangang-Yilan 300 km/h (190 mph) 2030 54.6 km (33.9 mi)
Zuoying-Pingtung 300 km/h (190 mph) before 2029 18 km (11 mi)

Thailand[edit]

Dedicated high-speed line[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Northern HSR Bangkok–Phitsanulok 300 km/h (190 mph) or more 2024 (EIS) 384 km
Phitsanulok–Chiang Mai 300 km/h (190 mph) 2030 (under planning) 285 km
Northeastern HSR Bangkok–Nakhon Ratchasima 250 km/h (160 mph) 2023 (under construction) 250 km
Nakhon Ratchasima–Nong Khai 250 km/h (160 mph) 2025 (planned) 380 km
Southern HSR Bangkok–Hua Hin 300 km/h (190 mph) 2023+ (likely to be postponed) 211 km
Hua Hin–Surat Thani 300 km/h (190 mph) 2029 771 km
Surat Thani-Padang Besar 300 km/h (190 mph) 2029 771 km
Eastern HSR Bangkok–U-Tapao 250 km/h (160 mph) 2024 (under construction) 260 km
U-Tapao–Trat 250 km/h (160 mph) 2028 (planned) 190 km

Turkey[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway Ankara CentralSincan 140 km/h (87 mph) 2018-04-12 24 km (15 mi)
SincanPolatlı 250 km/h (160 mph) 2009-03-13 69 km (43 mi)
PolatlıEskisehir Central 2009-03-13 152 km (94 mi)
Eskisehir CentralKöseköy 2014-07-25 188 km (117 mi)
KöseköyGebze 160 km/h (99 mph) 2014-07-25 56 km (35 mi)
GebzePendik 100 km/h (62 mph) 2014-07-25 20 km (12 mi)
PendikHaydarpaşa Terminal 100 km/h (62 mph) Connection to Haydarpaşa under reconstruction 2019 24 km (15 mi)
PendikHalkalı 100 km/h (62 mph) 2019 60 km (37 mi)
Ankara–Konya high-speed railway PolatlıKonya 300 km/h (190 mph) 2011-08-23 212 km (132 mi)
Ankara–Sivas high-speed railway Ankara CentralKayaş 140 km/h (87 mph) 2018-04-12 12 km (7.5 mi)
KayaşKırıkkale 250 km/h (160 mph) 2021 (projected) 62 km (39 mi)
KırıkkaleYerköy 2020 (projected) 79 km (49 mi)
YerköySivas 2021 (projected) 253 km (157 mi)
Ankara-İzmir high-speed railway PolatlıAfyon 250 km/h (160 mph) 2023 (projected) 152 km (94 mi)
AfyonBanaz 80 km (50 mi)
BanazEşme 97 km (60 mi)
EşmeSalihli 74 km (46 mi)
SalihliManisa 62 km (39 mi)
ManisaMenemen 43 km (27 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Konya–Mersin/Adana railway KonyaKaraman 200 km/h (120 mph) 2020 (projected) 102 km (63 mi)
KaramanUlukışla 200 km/h (120 mph) 2022 (projected) 135 km (84 mi)
UlukışlaYenice 200 km/h (120 mph) Tender phase, 2025 (projected) 110 km (68 mi)
MersinYeniceAdana 200 km/h (120 mph) 2022 (projected) 76 km (47 mi)
Istanbul–Kapıkule railway HalkalıÇerkezköy 200 km/h (120 mph) Tender phase 76 km (47 mi)
ÇerkezköyKapıkule 200 km/h (120 mph) Under construction 153 km (95 mi)

United Kingdom[edit]

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
High Speed 1 Channel TunnelFawkham Junction via Ashford International (Section 1) 300 km/h
(186 mph)
2003-09-28 74 km (46 mi)
Fawkham JunctionLondon St Pancras International via Ebbsfleet International and Stratford International (Section 2) 300 km/h
(186 mph)
2007-11-14 39 km (24 mi)
High Speed 2 London Euston-Birmingham Curzon Street/Rugeley Trent Valley (Handsacre Junction)/Crewe via Birmingham Interchange (Phase 1) 360 km/h
(225 mph)[121]
2031 (Under construction[122]) 230 km
Birmingham Interchange-Crewe (Phase 2a)

Note: Now merged with Phase 1

360 km/h
(225 mph)
2033 (Under construction[122]) 90 km (56 mi)
CreweManchester Piccadilly and Birmingham InterchangeLeeds City/York (Ulleskelf Junction) (Phase 2b) 360 km/h
(225 mph)
2040 (Planned[122]) 300 km (190 mi)
High Speed 3/Northern Powerhouse Rail/Crossrail for the North Liverpool Lime Street-Manchester Interchange via Warrington Bank Quay and via the High Speed 2 section between Manchester Interchange and Manchester Piccadilly 225/360 km/h
(140 mph)/(225 mph)
2040+ (Planned) ~50 km (31 mi)
Manchester Piccadilly-Leeds via Bradford Interchange. 225 km/h
(140 mph)
Planned ~60 km (37 mi)

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Electrification Length Notes
East Coast Main Line King's CrossEdinburgh Waverley 201 km/h (125 mph)
225 km/h (140 mph) (in cases of delay; to be applied after ERTMS re-signalling)
1850 1980s 632 km (393 mi); 608.4 km (378.0 mi)[123] The fastest non-dedicated line in the UK. During electrification in the 1980s was claimed as the longest construction site in the world. Speeds up to 125 mph were achieved in the 1930s.
Great Western Main Line London PaddingtonBristol Temple Meads 201 km/h (125 mph) (now)
225 km/h (140 mph) (soon)
1840 incomplete, still ongoing 190.2 km (118.2 mi)
Reading–Taunton line ReadingTaunton 180 km/h (110 mph) (now)
201 km/h (125 mph) (proposed)
1840 Proposed 173.21 km (107.63 mi) Proposed by period 2023-2043
Bristol–Exeter line Bristol Temple MeadsExeter St Davids 180 km/h (110 mph) (now)
201 km/h (125 mph) (proposed)
1841-1842 Proposed 121.36 km (75.41 mi) Proposed by period 2023-2043
South Wales Main Line SwindonSevern Tunnel-Swansea 201 km/h (125 mph) (Swindon-Coalpit Heath)
160 km/h (99 mph) (the rest)
1850 2012-2019 ~41.6 km (25.8 mi) (upgraded); 133 km (83 mi) (full)
Midland Main Line St PancrasSheffield 201 km/h (125 mph) 1870 ongoing; high-speed trains are with diesel 265 km (165 mi)
179 km (111 mi) (high-speed section)
110 mph; 125 mph ready
West Coast Main Line London EustonGlasgow Central (mainline itself) 201 km/h (125 mph)[124] 1869 1960s–1970s 645 km (401 mi); 590.5 km (366.9 mi)[125] failed to be upgraded to 225 km/h (140 mph)
Rugby–Coventry 1852 1960s–1970s ~16 km (9.9 mi)
Wolverhampton-Stafford 1852 1960s–1970s ~22 km (14 mi)
Cross Country Route YorkBristol Temple Meads 201 km/h (125 mph) 1879 incomplete >170 km (110 mi)(high-speed) Leeds-York and Birmingham-Weakfield (partially using Midland Main Line) sections are high-speed
South West Main Line London WaterlooSouthampton 160 km/h (99 mph) (now)
200 km/h (120 mph) (after upgrades)
1839-1840 1930s 239.8 km (149.0 mi) Proposed by period 2023-2043[126]
Midlands engine rail NottinghamLeicester 201 km/h (125 mph) 1870 2013 (Is already completed, see Midland Main Line) (See Midland Main Line above)
Coventry–Nuneaton-Leicester lines 160 km/h (99 mph) (now); upgradable 1869 (proposed) 40 km (25 mi) Proposed to upgrades
Crewe–Derby line 110 km/h (68 mph) (now); upgradable 1848 (proposed) 83 km (52 mi) Proposed to upgrades
Welsh Marches line 140 km/h (87 mph) (now); upgradable 1849 (proposed) 225 km (140 mi) Proposed to upgrades
Worcester to Bristol 160 km/h (99 mph) 1879 No (see Cross Country Rail above)

United States[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Upgraded Length
Northeast Corridor ProvidenceBoston South 150 mph (240 km/h) 2000 54.6 km (33.9 mi)
TrentonNew Brunswick 120 mph (190 km/h); 160 mph (260 km/h) (2021+); 186 mph (299 km/h) (planned) 2020 39 km (24 mi)
New Jersey and Philadelphia 120 mph (190 km/h); 160 mph (260 km/h) (2021+)[127] 1999 86 km (53 mi)
High-speed Northeast Corridor 125 mph (201 km/h) 1960 221.4 km (137.6 mi)
Northeast Corridor Line 110 mph (180 km/h) 2000 373 km (232 mi)
Keystone Corridor PhiladelphiaHarrisburg 110 mph (180 km/h);125 mph (201 km/h) (soon) 2006 168.3 km (104.6 mi)

Dedicated high-speed lines[edit]

The United States has no dedicated high speed rail lines–the following are either under construction or planned.

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Planned opening Length Status
California High-Speed Rail
(Phase 1)
San FranciscoLos Angeles 220 mph (350 km/h) 2029 (central valley, under construction)
2033 (total)[128]
275 km (171 mi) (central leg)
840 km (520 mi) (total)
Under Construction
California High-Speed Rail
(Phase 2)
MercedSacramento 2030+ 180 km (110 mi) Planned
Los AngelesSan Diego 2030+ 280 km (170 mi)
New Northeast Corridor New YorkWashington, D.C. 225 mph (362 km/h) 2030 (estimate)[citation needed] 385 km (239 mi) Planned
New YorkBoston 2040 (2010 forecast, does not figure 2017-2021 proposals) 320 km (200 mi) Proposed and insisted, being later included in North Atlantic Rail initiative
Several cities on a New-York - Boston axis yet unknown no earlier than New YorkBoston dedicated line 630 km (390 mi) (approx)
Texas Central Railway DallasHouston 205 mph (330 km/h) 2026 (building contracts signed) 390 km (240 mi) Under Construction
Brightline West VictorvilleLas Vegas 200 mph (320 km/h) 2024 (building contracts signed) 270 km (170 mi) Under Construction
Cascadia High-Speed Rail Eugene-Vancouver 250 mph (400 km/h) 2035 (to be granted)[129] 720 km (450 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 1 Chicago-Milwaukee 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 150 km (93 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 2 Atlanta-Charlotte 150 mph (240 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 430 km (270 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 3 Louisville-Nashville 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 260 km (160 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 4 Denver-Albuquerque 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 450 km (280 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 5 Chicago-St. Louis 186 mph (299 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 434 km (270 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 6 Tulsa-Oklahoma City 160 mph (260 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 160 km (99 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 7 Chicago-Detroit 200 mph (320 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 460 km (290 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 8 Nashville-Memphis 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 329 km (204 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 9 Kansas City-St. Louis 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 390 km (240 mi) Proposed
second-tier corridor 9 Chicago-Indianapolis 220 mph (350 km/h) unknown (to be granted)[129] 263 km (163 mi) Proposed

Maglev Lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Planned opening Length Status
Northeast Maglev BaltimoreWashington, D.C. 314 mph (505 km/h) 2028 (estimated) 64 km (40 mi) Planned

Uzbekistan[edit]

Upgraded lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Tashkent–Samarkand high-speed rail line TashkentSamarkand 160–250 km/h (99–155 mph) Brand launch 2011-10-08 as higher speed rail;
full HSR operated since February 10, 2013
344 km (214 mi)
Samarkand–Bukhara high-speed rail line SamarkandBukhara 160–250 km/h (99–155 mph) August 25, 2016 256 km (159 mi)

New Lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Namangan-Pap high-speed rail line NamanganPap 250 km/h (160 mph) 2022+ 50 km (31 mi)

Planned Lines[edit]

Line name Start and end points Maximum speed Opening Length
Qarshi-Kitab high-speed rail line Qarshi-Kitab 160–250 km/h 2025+ 124 kilometres (77 mi)
Bukhara-Urgench high-speed rail line Bukhara-Urgench 160–250 km/h 2025+ 405 km
Urgench-Khiva high-speed rail line Urgench-Khiva 160–250 km/h 2025+ 34 km

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "This route is not yet planned and it represents the most feasible route for Diamond Quadrilateral high-speed rail line between these two metro cities.
  2. ^ "The Mumbai–Chennai route is not planned yet. This route represents the most feasible route for Mumbai-Chennai section of Diamond Quadrilateral high-speed rail line. Although a section of this potential route between Chennai and Bengaluru has been planned to be operational by 2051.
  3. ^ "This route is not planned yet and it represents the most feasible route for Delhi-Bengaluru section of Diamond Quadrilateral high-speed rail line. However, one section of this potential route between Hyderabad and Bengaluru is planned to be operational by 2041.
  4. ^ "This route beyond Nagpur is not planned yet and it represents the most feasible route for Mumbai–Kolkata section of Diamond Quadrilateral high-speed rail line. However, the Mumbai–Nagpur section of this line is planned to be operational by 2051.
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  14. ^ 574.8 km/h record
  15. ^ Excludes 42.8 km of Yamanashi test track to start demonstrating operation for tourists in 2020
  16. ^ including Maglev under construction
  17. ^ To be increased to 360 km/h in next few years; unconventional lines under construction will be even faster.
  18. ^ international trains only
  19. ^ 400 km/h under construction. Some lines will be increased from 205 to 225 km/h after re-signaling; East Coast Mainline trains are permitted to go at 225 km/h instead of 200 km/h in case of delay.
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  24. ^ 400 km/h under planning; 250 km/h at short part of route; most of tracks are 140–200 km/h
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  123. ^ (if King's Cross-Knebworth excluded)
  124. ^ tilting trains only
  125. ^ (if Carstairs-Glasgow and Euston-Willesden sections excluded)
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