List of high-speed railway lines in China

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Railway network map with conventional lines upgraded or built to accommodate CRH shown in orange, 160–250 km/h (99–155 mph), secondary high-speed lines in green, 200–299 km/h (124–186 mph), and blue, above 300 km/h (190 mph).
Projected HSR network in China by 2020 and travel time by rail from Beijing to provincial capitals.

China's high-speed railway network is by far the longest in the world. As of Dec 2018, it extends to 29 of the country's 33 provincial-level administrative divisions and exceeds 29,000 km (18,000 mi) in total length, accounting for about two-thirds of the world's high-speed rail tracks in commercial service.[1][2][3][4] Over the past decade, China’s high-speed rail network grew rapidly according to ambitious railway plans issued by the State. The "Mid- to Long-Term Railway Network Plan" ("Railway Network Plan") approved by the State Council in 2004 called for 12,000 km (7,456 mi) of passenger-dedicated HSR lines running train at speeds of at least 200 km/h (124 mph) by 2020.[4] The 2008 Revisions to the Railway Network Plan increased the year 2020 passenger-dedicated HSR network target length to 16,000 km (9,942 mi) and removed the 200 km/h speed standard to allow new lines to be built to standards that can accommodate faster trains.[5]

Overview[edit]

In 2008, the Ministry of Railways announced plans to build 25,000 km (16,000 mi) of high-speed railways with trains reaching normal speeds of 350 km/h.[6][7] China invested $50 billion on its high-speed rail system in 2009 and the total construction cost of the high-speed rail system is $300 billion.[6] The main operator of regular high-speed train services is China Railway High-Speed (CRH).

China's conventional high-speed railway network is made up of four components:

  1. a national grid of mostly passenger dedicated HSR lines (PDLs),
  2. other regional HSRs connecting major cities,
  3. certain regional "intercity" HSR lines, and
  4. other newly built or upgraded conventional rail lines, mostly in western China, that can carry high-speed passenger and freight trains.

National High Speed Rail Grid[edit]

"Four Vertical and Four Horizontal" network[edit]

Map showing the 4+4 national HSR grid

The centerpiece of the MOR's expansion into high-speed rail is a national high-speed rail grid that is overlaid onto the existing railway network. The 2004 Railway Network Plan called for four lines running north-south (verticals) and four lines running east-west (horizontals) by the year 2020 that would connect population centers in economically developed regions of the country.[8] The 2008 Revisions to the Railway Network Plan extended the length of the Beijing-Shenzhen HSR to Hong Kong and the Shanghai-Changsha HSR to Kunming.[5] Each line in the 4+4 national HSR grid is over 1,400 km in length, except the Qingdao-Taiyuan Line which is 873 km in length. Apart from the Hangzhou–Shenzhen HSR (Ningbo-Shenzhen section) and Shanghai–Chengdu HSR (Nanjing-Chengdu section), which were the first railways to connect those cities and carry both passenger and freight, the other six lines are all passenger-dedicated lines. With the exception of the Yichang-Chengdu section of the Shanghai-Chengdu HSR with speed limits of 200 km/h (120 mph), all other lines in the 4+4 national grid were built to accommodate trains at speeds of 250–350 km/h (160–220 mph).

     Completed lines      Partially completed lines.

Four North-South HSR corridors and constituent lines

Four East-West HSR corridors and constituent lines

"Eight Vertical and Eight Horizontal" network[edit]

Map of "Eight Vertical and Eight Horizontal" high-speed railway network (in Chinese)

In 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced the plans to extend the almost completed "Four Vertical and Four Horizontal" network to a new "Eight Vertical and Eight Horizontal" network.[37] The new network comprises eight north-south ("vertical") corridors and eight east-west ("horizontal") ones, almost doubling the route length.[37]

A passageway may consist of two or more parallel lines that take different routes between the same cities, branch and connector lines, and in some cases, connecting lines and lower-speed lines.[38] The Beijing-Shanghai HSR Passageway, one of the verticals, comprises the preexisting Beijing-Shanghai HSR, which runs through Tianjin, Jinan, Bengbu, Nanjing, Wuxi and Suzhou, as well as a new high-speed passenger dedicated line from Beijing to Shanghai via Tianjin, Dongying, Weifang, Linyi, Huaian, Yangzhou, and Nantong, as well as HSRs connecting Nanjing, Hefei and Shanghai with Hangzhou.[39] Some passageways consist of a single HSR line; the Shanghai-Kunming HSR Passageway, one of the horizontals, is essentially the Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway by another name.[40]

The national HSR mainlines in the 8+8 passageway grid are generally electrified, double-tracked, passenger-dedicated HSR lines built to accommodate train speeds of 250–350 km/h, but passageways also make use of intercity and regional HSR lines with speeds of 200 km/h as well as certain regular speed railways. The Qingdao-Yinchuan Passageway includes the Taiyuan–Zhongwei–Yinchuan Railway, which is partially single-track with speeds of only 160 km/h.[41]

Eight vertical lines
No. Line Passing Cities Changes from 4+4 Network
1 Coastal passageway
(沿海通道)
Dalian (Dandong)-Qinhuangdao-Tianjin-Dongying-Weifang-Qingdao (Yantai)-Lianyungang-Yancheng-Nantong-Shanghai-Ningbo-Fuzhou-Xiamen-Shenzhen-Zhanjiang-Beihai (Fangchenggang) Extensions of Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway; north from Hangzhou to Dalian/Dandong, and south from Shenzhen to Fangchenggang.
2 Beijing–Shanghai passageway
(京沪通道)
Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan, Nanjing, Shanghai (Hangzhou) Incorporates all of Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and other parallel line sections connecting Beijing and Shanghai.
3 Beijing–Hong Kong (Taipei) passageway
(京港(台)通道)
Beijing-Hengshui-Heze-Shangqiu-Fuyang-Hefei (Huanggang)-Jiujiang-Nanchang-Ganzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong (Kowloon) New line.
4 Beijing–Harbin, Beijing–Hong Kong (Macau) passageway
(京哈~京港澳通道)
Harbin-Changchun-Shenyang-Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Zhengzhou-Wuhan-Changsha-Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong, and Guangzhou-Zhuhai-Macau. Merger of Beijing–Harbin High-Speed Railway and Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, with a branch line to Macau.
5 Hohhot–Nanning passageway
(呼南通道)
Hohhot-Taiyuan- Zhengzhou-Xiangyang-Changde-Yiyang-Shaoyang-Yongzhou-Guilin-Nanning. New line
6 Beijing–Kunming passageway
(京昆通道)
Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan-Xi'an-Chengdu (Chongqing)-Kunming, including Beijing-Taiyuan-Zhangjiakou-Datong. New line
7 Baotou (Yinchuan)–Hainan passageway
(包(银)海通道)
Baotou-Yan'an-Xi'an-Chongqing-Guiyang-Nanning-Zhanjiang-Haikou (Sanya). New line
8 Lanzhou (Xining)–Guangzhou passageway
(兰(西)广通道)
Lanzhou (Xining), Chengdu (Chongqing), Guiyang, Guangzhou. New line
Eight horizontal lines
No. Line Passing Cities Changes from 4+4 Network
9 Suifenhe–Manzhouli passageway
(绥满通道)
Suifenhe, Mudanjiang, Harbin, Qiqihar, Hailar, Manzhouli. New line
10 Beijing–Lanzhou passageway
(京兰通道)
Beijing, Hohhot, Yinchuan, Lanzhou. New line
11 Qingdao–Yinchuan passageway
(青银通道)
Qingdao, Jinan, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Yinchuan. West extension of Qingdao–Taiyuan high-speed railway from Taiyuan to Yinchuan.
12 Eurasia Continental Bridge passageway
(陆桥通道)
Lianyungang, Xuzhou, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Xining, Urumqi. Extensions of Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railway; east from Xuzhou to Lianyungang, and west from Lanzhou to Urumqi.
13 Yangtze River passageway
(沿江通道)
Shanghai-Nanjing-Hefei-Wuhan-Chongqing-Chengdu, including Nanjing-Anqing-Jiujiang-Wuhan-Yichang-Chongqing, and Wanzhou-Dazhou-Suining-Chengdu. Incorporates all of Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu high-speed railway and other parallel line sections connecting Shanghai and Chengdu.
14 Shanghai–Kunming passageway
(沪昆通道)
Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanchang, Changsha, Guiyang, Kunming. Route is identical to the Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway.
15 Xiamen–Chongqing passageway
(厦渝通道)
Xiamen, Longyan, Ganzhou, Changsha, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Qianjiang, Chongqing. New line
16 Guangzhou–Kunming passageway
(广昆通道)
Guangzhou, Nanning, Kunming. New line

Other Regional high-speed rail lines[edit]

Regional high-speed rail lines connect major cities and national HSR lines and are built to accommodate train speeds of up to 200–350 km/h (120–220 mph). According to the "Mid-to-Long Term Railway Network Plan" (revised in 2008), the MOR plans to build over 40,000 km (25,000 mi) of railway in order to expand the railway network in western China and to fill gaps in the networks of eastern and central China. The 2008 Revisions to Railway Network Plan listed regional railways in Jiangxi, Sichuan and the Northeast.[42] The 2016 Revision lays out 10 new regional railways in eastern China, four in the Northeast, seven in central China, and five in western China.[40] These are also considered high-speed rail though they are not part of the national HSR grid or Intercity High Speed Rail. However several HSR lines planned and built as a regional high-speed railway under the 2008 Revisions have since been incorporated into the 8+8 national grid.

     Completed lines      Partially completed lines. Click [show] for details.

Map showing some of China's intercity railways, including lines already operational (red) and lines under construction.[unbalanced opinion?]

High-speed intercity railways[edit]

Intercity lines with speeds ranging from 200–350 km/h (120–220 mph) are designed to provide regional high-speed rail service between large cities and metropolitan areas that are generally within the same province. They are built with the approval of the central government but are financed and operated largely by local governments with limited investment and oversight from the China Rail Corporation. Some intercity lines run parallel to national grid high-speed rail lines but serve more stations along the route.

The 2004 Railway Network Plan arranged for intercity lines around the Bohai Rim, Yangtze and Pearl River Deltas.[55] The 2008 Revision to the Railway Network Plan designated Changsha, Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xian and coastal Fujian metropolitan areas for intercity rail development.[42] The 2016 Revision to the Railway Network Plan identifies the Shandong Peninsula, coastal Guangxi, Harbin-Changchun, southern Liaoning, central Yunnan, central Guizhou, the northern slopes of Tian Shan, Yinchuan, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin as additional metro regions for intercity rail.[56]

Operational lines are marked with green background.

Line Design Speed
(km/h)
Length
(km)
Construction Start Date Open Date
Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway 350 115 2005-04-07 2008-08-01
Chengdu–Dujiangyan Intercity Railway 220 65
(mainline)
2008-11-04 2010-05-12
200 21
(Pengzhou branch)
2009-09-27[57] 2014-04-30[58]
Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity Railway 350 301 2008-07-01 2010-07-01
Nanchang–Jiujiang Intercity Railway 250 131 2007-06-28 2010-09-20
Hainan eastern ring high-speed railway 250 308 2007-09-29 2010-12-30
Changchun–Jilin Intercity Railway 250 111 2007-05-13 2010-12-30[59]
Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region intercity railway 200 117
Guangzhou–Zhuhai
2005-12-18 2011-01-07[60]
2012-12-31[61]
27
Xinhui branch
2011-01-07[60]
85
Guangzhou–Zhaoqing
2009-09-29[62] 2016-03-30[63]
97
Dongguan–Huizhou
2009-05-08[64] 2016-03-30[65]
200 38
Guangzhou–Qingyuan
2012-11-22[66] 2019[67]
Nanjing–Hangzhou Intercity Railway 350 251 2008-12-28 2013-07-01[22]
Hengyang–Liuzhou Intercity Railway 250 497 2009 2013-12-28
Liuzhou–Nanning Intercity Railway 250 223 2008-12-27 2013-12-28[45]
Wuhan Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway 250 90
Wuchang–Xianning[68]
2009-03-22 2013-12-28[69]
97
Wuhan–Huangshi
2014-06-18[70]
66
Wuhan–Huanggang
2014-06-18[70]
198

Wuhan–Jiujiang

2016 2017-09-21[71]
200 61
Hankou–Xiaogan
2009-03-22 2016-12-01[72]
200 438
Wuhan-Shiyan
2015 2020[73]
Jiangyou–Mianyang–Chengdu–Leshan Intercity Railway 200 314 2008-12-30 2014-12-20[74][75]
Chengdu–Pujiang Intercity Railway 200 99 2010-10-16[76] 2018-12-28[77]
Central Plain Metropolitan Intercity Rail 200 50
Zhengzhou–Kaifeng
2009-12-29[78] 2014-12-28[79]
69
Zhengzhou–Jiaozuo
2015-06-26[80]
101
Zhengzhou–Xuchang
2009-12-29[78] 2015-12-31[81]
Changsha–Zhuzhou–Xiangtan Intercity Railway 200 96 2010-07-02 2016-12-26[82]
Nanjing–Anqing Intercity Railway 250 257 2008-12-28 2015-07[83][84]
Harbin–Qiqihar Intercity Railway 250 286 2008-11-25 2015[85]
Qingdao–Rongcheng Intercity Railway 250 299 2010-10-10[86] 2014-12-28[86]
Guiyang–Kaiyang Intercity Railway 200 62 2010-09-20[87] 2015-05-01[88]
Jinhua-Wenzhou High Speed Railway 250 188 2011 2015-12-26[89]
Chengdu–Chongqing Intercity Railway 300 305 2009 2015[90][91]
Shenyang–Dandong Intercity Railway 350 208 2010-03-17[92] 2015[93]
Dandong–Dalian Intercity Railway 200 296 2010-03-17[92] 2015[94][95]
Chongqing–Wanzhou Intercity Railway 350 250 2009 2016-11-28[96][97][98]
Hainan western ring high-speed railway 250 342 2012-10 2015[99]
Wuhan–Jiujiang Passenger Railway 250 101 2013-12-29[100] 2017-09-21[101]
Tianjin–Baoding Intercity Railway 250 158 2011-03-18 2015-12-28[102]
Beijing–Tangshan Intercity Railway 350 160 2009 2020[103]
Hangzhou–Huangshan Intercity Railway 250 265 2014-06-30[104] 2018-12-25
Harbin–Jiamusi Intercity Railway 200 343 2014-06-30[105] 2018-09-30[106]
Harbin–Mudanjiang Intercity Railway 250 293 2014-12-15[107] 2018-12-25[108]

Class I high-speed railways[edit]

Line Design
Speed
(km/h)
Length
(km)
Construction
Start Date
Open Date Ref
Longyan–Xiamen Railway 200 171 2006-12-25 2012-06-29 [109]
Xiangtang–Putian Railway 200 635 2007-11-23 2013-09-26 [110]
Hengyang–Liuzhou Intercity Railway 200 498 2008-12-11 2013-12-28 [111]
Nanning-Guangzhou High-speed Railway 250 577 2008-09-11 2014-04-18
2014-12-26
[112]
[113]
Ganzhou–Longyan Railway 200 274 2009-12-29 2015-12-25 [114]
Chongqing–Lanzhou Railway 200 832 2008-09-26 2017-09-29 [115]
Nanping-Sanming-Longyan Railway 250 247 2010-12-25 2018-12-29 [116]
Chengdu–Lanzhou Railway 200 730 2011-02-26 2019 [117]
Jiujiang–Quzhou Railway 200 333 2013-12-29 2017-12-28 [118][100]
Shanghai–Nantong Railway 200 137 2014-03-01 2018 [119]
Fuzhou–Pingtan Railway 200 88.4 2013-10-31 2019 [120]
Qianjiang–Zhangjiajie–Changde Railway 200 340 2014-12-29 2019 [121]
Qingdao-Lianyungang Railway 200 194.5 2014-12-29 2018-12-26 [122]

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