List of high-speed trains

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The following is a list of high-speed trains, limited to conventional wheeled trains, that have been, are, or will be in commercial service.

A high-speed train is one intended for regular operations at speeds of over 200 km/h (124 mph), with a high level of service, and generally comprising multi-powered elements. Standard locomotive-hauled trains, often able to reach 200 km/h, such as French Corail, German IC trains or Amtrak's Northeast Regional, unconventional trains, such as maglev and transrapid, and prototypes are excluded.

In these tables, two maximum speeds are given: the column "Operated" refers to the maximum speed reached by the train in commercial operations, while the column "Design" refers to the theoretical maximum speed in commercial operations as announced by the manufacturer. In some cases, a third "Record" speed is also listed.

High-speed trains currently or soon in service[edit]

Name Operators Family Manufacturer Power supply Maximum speed (km/h) In
Service
Picture
Operated Designed Record
Acela Express United States Amtrak TGV derived Alstom
Bombardier
25kV 60Hz AC,
12kV 60Hz AC,
12kV 25Hz AC
240 266 265 2000 Acela S-B (13551598334).jpg
Avelia Liberty United States Amtrak TGV derived Alstom 25kV 60Hz AC,
12kV 60Hz AC,
12kV 25Hz AC
350[1] 2021
BrightLine United States All Aboard Florida Charger Siemens Diesel 200 200 2017
Afrosiyob Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Railways Talgo 250 Talgo 25kV AC 250 250 255 2011 Hi-speed trains Afrosiyab (Uzbekistan).JPG
Alfa Pendular Portugal CP Pendolino Fiat Ferroviaria
Siemens
Sorefame
25kV AC 220[2] 220 236.6 1999[2] Portuguese Railways Alfa Pendular train at Lisboa-Santa Apolonia Railway Station.jpg
Alvia Class 120, 121
(variable gauge)
Spain RENFE CAF
Alstom
25kV 50Hz AC
3kV DC
250 250 2004 Alvia 120-861 Madrid-Hendaya.jpg
Alvia Class 130, 730
(variable gauge)
Spain RENFE Talgo 250 Talgo
Bombardier
25kV 50Hz AC
3kV DC
Diesel [N 1]
250 250 2007 Bf Córdoba C, Talgo 250.jpg
Avant Class 104 Spain RENFE Pendolino Alstom
CAF
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2003 S1860a Bf Córdoba, 9 104 905.jpg
Avant Class 114 Spain RENFE New Pendolino Alstom
CAF
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2009 Serie 114 de Renfe en Valladolid-Campo Grande.jpg
AVE Class 100 Spain RENFE TGV Alstom
CAF
25kV 50Hz AC
3kV DC
300 300 357 1992 Renfe AVE S-100 Sevilla Santa Justa.JPG
AVE Class 102, 112 Spain RENFE Talgo 350 Talgo
Bombardier
25kV 50Hz AC 300 350 365 2005 Renfe Serie 112.jpg
AVE Class 103 Spain RENFE Velaro Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC 310 350 403.7[3] 2006 S3274 Bf Madrid Atocha, 103 xxx.jpg
AVE Class 105 Spain RENFE

Norway Flytoget

Oaris CAF 25kV 50Hz AC
15kV 16.7Hz AC
3 kV DC
1.5 kV DC
350 2018[4][5] Oaris de CAF (105.001) en proves per Vilafant (27209271713).jpg
BR Class 43
(InterCity 125)
United Kingdom CrossCountry
United Kingdom East Midlands Trains
United Kingdom Great Western Railway
United Kingdom Grand Central Railway
United Kingdom Virgin Trains East Coast
HST BREL Diesel 200 200 238 1976 Nottingham railway station MMB C2 43047.jpg
BR Class 91
(InterCity 225)
United Kingdom Virgin Trains East Coast APT BREL
Alstom
25kV 50Hz AC 200 225 262 1988 VTEC 91 at London Kings Cross.jpg
BR Class 180 United Kingdom Great Western Railway
United Kingdom Hull Trains
United Kingdom Grand Central Railway
Coradia Alstom Diesel 200 200 2002 Grand Central Class 180, Cromwell Moor.jpg
BR Class 220 United Kingdom CrossCountry Voyager Bombardier Diesel 200 200 2001 Dawlish Warren MMB 07 South Devon Main Line 220032.jpg
BR Class 221 United Kingdom CrossCountry
United Kingdom Virgin Trains
Bombardier Diesel 200 200 2002 Virgin trains 221113 glasgow.jpg
BR Class 222 United Kingdom East Midlands Trains Bombardier Diesel 200 200 2004 222015 and 222103 at St Pancras International.jpg
BR Class 390 United Kingdom Virgin Trains Pendolino Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC 200 225 248 2002 390017 Rugby station.jpg
BR Class 395 United Kingdom Southeastern A-train Hitachi 25kV 50Hz AC

750V DC (3rd rail)

225 225 252[6] 2009 Class395Javelin.JPG
BR Class 800 United Kingdom Great Western Railway
United Kingdom Virgin Trains East Coast
United Kingdom Hull Trains
A-train Hitachi 25kV 50Hz AC
Diesel
200 225 2017 Class 800 in testing 2015.jpg
BR Class 801 United Kingdom Great Western Railway
United Kingdom Virgin Trains East Coast
A-train Hitachi 25kV 50Hz AC 200 225 2017 Hitachi Class 800 unveiled in Japan (1).jpg
CRH1A & CRH1B China China Railway Regina Bombardier
Sifang
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 278 2007 China Railways CRH1 at Zhangmutou.jpg
CRH1E China China Railway Zefiro Bombardier
Sifang
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2009 CRH1E shanghai Hongqiao Railway station2.JPG
CRH2A
CRH2B
CRH2E
China China Railway Shinkansen Kawasaki
Sifang
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2007 China Railways CRH2 March 2010.jpg
CRH2C China China Railway Sifang 25kV 50Hz AC 300 350 2008 CRH2C & CRH3C 200808.jpg
CRH3C China China Railway Velaro Siemens
Tangshan
Changchun
25kV 50Hz AC 300 350 394.2 2008 CRH3 in Changsha.JPG
CRH5 China China Railway New Pendolino Alstom
Changchun
25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2007 CRH5 in Beijing Railway Station.jpg
CRH6A China China Railway Sifang 25kV 50Hz AC 200 220 2014 陈列于五邑大学的CRH6 车头.JPG
CRH380A & AL China China Railway Shinkansen derived[7] Sifang
Kawasaki (patents)
25kV 50Hz AC 300 380 486.1 2010 CRH380Afromshanghai.jpg
CRH380B, BL & CL China China Railway Velaro Siemens
Tangshan
Changchun
25kV 50Hz AC 300 380 487.3 2011 CRH380B-6410L at Hangzhou Railway Station.jpg
CRH380D & DL China China Railway Zefiro Bombardier
Sifang
25kV 50Hz AC 300 380 483 2012 CRH380D in Guangzhou North Station.jpg
ED250 Poland PKP Intercity New Pendolino Alstom 3kV DC 200 250 293[8] 2014 20150207 Pendolino ED250 PKP Intercity Krakow 5031.jpg
AGV 575 Italy NTV AGV Alstom 25kV AC
3kV DC
300 360 2012 NTV ETR575 R01.jpg
ETR 460 Italy Trenitalia Pendolino Fiat Ferroviaria 3kV DC 250 250 1994 ETR460-23-a.jpg
ETR 470 Italy Trenitalia Fiat Ferroviaria 15 kV 16⅔Hz AC

3kV DC

200 200 1997 FS ETR470004 Airolo 050214 EC12.jpg
ETR 480 Italy Trenitalia Fiat Ferroviaria 3kV DC 250 250 1997 ETR 485 Frecciargento in Bolzano (08-2013).JPG
ETR 500 Italy Trenitalia Alstom
Bombardier
AnsaldoBreda
25kV 50Hz AC

3kV DC

1.5kV DC (500F)

300 300 362[9] 2000 Etr500 frecciarossa roma tib.JPG
ETR 600 Italy Trenitalia New Pendolino Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC

3kV DC

250 250 2008 Trenitalia ETR600 Frecciargento.JPG
ETR 610 Italy Trenitalia Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
15kV 16⅔Hz AC

3kV DC

250 250 2008 FS ETR 610 008.JPG
ETR 1000 Italy Trenitalia Zefiro Bombardier
AnsaldoBreda
25kV 50Hz
3kV DC
1.5kV DC
300 360 393.8[10] 2015 Elettrotreno ETR.400.jpg
Eurostar FranceUnited KingdomBelgium Eurostar TGV Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
3kV DC
1.5kV DC
750 V DC (3rd rail)
300 300 334.7 1993 Hugh llewelyn 3231 & 3999 (6678334547).jpg
Eurostar e320 FranceUnited KingdomBelgium Eurostar Velaro Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC

15kV 16.7Hz AC
3kV DC
1.5kV DC

320 320 352 2015 Eurostar Class 374 on HS1 (cropped).jpg
Haramain High Speed Rail Saudi ArabiaSaudi Railways Organization Talgo 350 Talgo

Bombardier

25kV 50Hz AC 300 350 2018[11]
Intercity New Generation NetherlandsNS Coradia Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC

1.5 kV DC

200[12] 200[12] 2020[12]
IC4 Denmark DSB AnsaldoBreda Diesel 200 200 2007 Hugh llewelyn 5615 (5707052179).jpg
ICE 1 Germany DB ICE Siemens,
ABB, AEG,
Krauss-Maffei, Krupp,
Thyssen-Henschel
15kV 16.7Hz AC 280 280 310 1991 ICE1 Fahlenbach.jpg
ICE 2 Germany DB Siemens
Adtranz
15kV 16.7Hz AC 280 280 316 1996 ICE-2-Halbzug Radbruch.jpg
ICE 3 Class 403, 406 Germany DB
Netherlands NS
Velaro Siemens
Bombardier
15kV 16.7Hz AC
1.5kV DC [N 2]
3kV DC [N 2]
25kV 50Hz AC [N 3]
320 330 368 2000 ICE 3 Oberhaider-Wald-Tunnel.jpg
ICE 3 Class 407 Germany DB Velaro Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC

15kV 16.7Hz AC
3kV DC

320 320 2013 Baureihe 407 - Kopf.jpg
ICE T Germany DB
Austria ÖBB
Pendolino Siemens
DÜWAG
Fiat Ferroviaria
15kV  16.7Hz AC 230 230 255 2005 ICE-T Kinding.jpg
ICE TD Germany DB
Denmark DSB
Siemens Venturio Siemens
DÜWAG
Fiat Ferroviaria
Diesel 200 200 222 2001 DB 605 007 KB.jpg
ICE 4 Germany DB ICE Siemens

Bombardier

15 kV 16.7Hz AC 250 250 2016[13] ICE 4 Präsentation Berlin Hbf (039).jpg
KTX-I South Korea Korail TGV-derived Alstom
Hyundai Rotem
25kV 60Hz AC 305 330 2004 KTX (Korea Train eXpress).jpg
KTX-Sancheon South Korea Korail
South Korea SR Corporation
TGV-derived Hyundai Rotem 25kV 60Hz AC 305 330 2010 KTX-Sancheon.jpg
GMB Class 71 Norway Flytoget X 2000 Adtranz
Strømmens
15kV  16.7Hz AC 210 210 1998 GMB BFM 71104 1.jpg
NSB Class 73 Norway NSB Adtranz
Strømmens
15kV  16.7Hz AC 210 210 1999 NSB Class 73 near Dombås 2.jpg
RABDe 500 Switzerland SBB ICN Alstom
Bombardier
15kV 16.7Hz AC 200 200 2000 InterCity-Neigezug am Hauenstein.jpg
RABe 503 Switzerland SBB New Pendolino Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC

15kV 16⅔Hz AC

3kV DC

250 250 2008 FFS RABe 503 012 Geneve 200814.jpg
EC250 Switzerland SBB Stadler Rail 25kV 50Hz AC

15kV 16⅔Hz AC

3kV DC

250 2019 Stadler EC250 Innotrans 2016 09.jpg
Railjet Austria ÖBB
Czech Republic ČD
Taurus Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC

15kV 16.7Hz AC

230 230 275[14] 2008 8090 727 RJ Guntramsdorf.jpg
Regio 2N (Z 56500) France SNCF OMNEO Bombardier 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
200 200 2017 Lille - Présentation du Regio 2N de Bombardier le 22 septembre 2014 en gare de Lille-Flandres (110).JPG
Sapsan Russia RZD Velaro Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC

3kV DC

250 350 290 2009 ЭВС2-02.JPG
SAR Push-Pull Train Saudi Arabia Saudi Railway CAF Diesel 200 200 2016 SAR CAF.jpg
500 Series Shinkansen Japan JR West Shinkansen Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
25kV 60Hz AC 300 320 1997 JRW-500-nozomi.jpg
700 Series Shinkansen Japan JR Central
Japan JR West
Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
25kV 60Hz AC 285 285 1999 JRC 700 series C37.jpg
N700 Series Shinkansen Japan JR Central
Japan JR Kyushu
Japan JR West
Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
25kV 60Hz AC 300 330 332[15] 2007 JRC N700 series Z28.jpg
800 Series Shinkansen Japan JR Kyushu Hitachi 25kV 60Hz AC 260 285 2004 Kyushu Shinkansen 800 series Shin-Minamata 20041123.jpg
E2 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
Nippon Sharyo
Tokyu Car
25kV 50/60Hz AC 275 275 362 1997 E2-1000 series on Hayate service at Iwate-Numakunai Station.jpg
E3 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Kawasaki
Tokyu Car
20/25kV 50Hz AC 275[16] 275 1997 E3inShizukuishi.JPG
E4 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
25kV 50Hz AC 240 240 1997 JR East Shinkansen E4.jpg
E5 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
25kV 50Hz AC 320[16] 320 2011 JRE-TEC-E5 omiya.JPG
H5 Series Shinkansen Japan JR Hokkaido Hitachi
Kawasaki
25kV 50Hz AC 320 320 2016 H5系 H1編成 仙台駅入線.JPG
E6 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
20/25kV 50Hz AC 320[17] 320 2013 E6-E5-Coupling in omiya 20130320.jpg
E7 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
J-TREC
25kV 50/60Hz AC 260[18] 275[18] 2014 E7 F4 Asama 522 Omiya 20140419.jpg
W7 Series Shinkansen Japan JR West Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
25kV 50/60Hz AC 260[18] 275[18] 2015 W7 series set W3 20150207.jpg
Sm3 Finland VR Group Pendolino FIAT Ferroviaria
Rautaruukki
Transtech
25kV 50Hz 220 220 242 1995 Green Sm3 at Jyväskylä.jpg
Sm6 FinlandRussia Karelian Trains Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
3kV DC
220 220 2010 Sm6 Allegro 7053 Helsinki.JPG
TCDD HT65000 Turkey TCDD Alvia Class 120/121 derived CAF 25kV 50Hz AC 250 250 2009 YHT at Ankara.JPG
TCDD HT80000 Turkey TCDD Velaro Siemens 25kV 50Hz AC 250 300 2015 TCDD HT80000 Siemens Velaro.jpg
TGV Sud-Est France SNCF TGV Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
15kV 16.7Hz [N 4]
300 300 380 1981 TGV Annecy-Paris quittant Aix-les-Bains.JPG
TGV Atlantique France SNCF Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
300 300 515.3 1989 TGV Gare Montparnasse.jpg
TGV Réseau France SNCF Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
3kV DC
320 320 1993 TGV Artésia à Modane.JPG
TGV Duplex France SNCF Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
320 320 1995 LGV Interconnexion Est - Moussy-le-Neuf 04.jpg
TGV POS France SNCF Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
15kV 16.7Hz AC
320 320 574.8 2006 TGV POS Nuremberg Ingolstadt.jpg
TGV Euroduplex France SNCF
Morocco ONCF
Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
15kV  16.7Hz AC
3kV DC
1.5kV DC
320 320 2011 2012.03.24 162a.jpg
Thalys PBA FranceBelgiumGermanyNetherlands Thalys Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
1.5kV DC
3kV DC
320 320 1996 Thalys 4537 à BSM.JPG
Thalys PBKA FranceBelgiumGermanyNetherlands Thalys Alstom 25kV 50Hz AC
15kV  16.7Hz AC
3kV DC
1.5kV DC
300 320 1997 Thalys PBKA Refurbished Nederland.jpg
THSR 700T Taiwan THSR Shinkansen Hitachi
Kawasaki
Nippon Sharyo
25kV 60Hz AC 300 300 2007 THSR 700T TR17 20130907.jpg
RABe 502 Switzerland SBB TWINDEXX Bombardier 7500 kW 200[19] 200 2010 SBB RABe 502 203 Ossingen.jpg
X2 Sweden SJ X 2000 Adtranz
ABB
25kV 50Hz AC
15kV  16.7Hz AC
200 210 276 1989 SJ X2 in snow Jonsered 2007-01.jpg
X3 Sweden Arlanda Express Coradia Alstom 15kV  16.7Hz AC 205 205 1998 Arlanda Express X3.JPG
X40 Sweden SJ Alstom 15kV  16.7Hz AC 200 200 2006 SJ Double Decker 2006-03-26.JPG
X50 - 55 Sweden SJ
Sweden Tågkompaniet
Sweden Västtrafik
Sweden Veolia Transport
Sweden Upplands Lokaltrafik
Regina Bombardier 15kV  16.7Hz AC 200 200 303 2000 Regina X55 in Örnsköldsvik.jpg
Z-TER France SNCF Alstom
Bombardier
25kV 50Hz AC,
1.5kV DC
200 200 2003 SNCF Z 21561 en gare d'Orléans.jpg

High-speed trains no longer in service[edit]

Name Operators Family Manufacturer Maximum speed (km/h) In
Service
Picture
Operated Designed Record
BR Class 370 United Kingdom InterCity APT BREL 200 250 261[20] 1980–1986 APT at Crewe.jpg
CRDJJ1 "Blue Arrow" ChinaGuangshen Railway Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co 210 210 2000–2012 China Railways DJJ1.jpg
DB Class 403 Germany DB AEG, BBC, Siemens 200 220 1972–1993 DB 403 (Lufthansa Airport Express).jpg
ER200 Russia RZD RVR 200 200 220 1984–2009 ЭР200 в пути.JPG
ETR 470 Switzerland SBB Pendolino Fiat Ferroviaria 200 200 1997–2014 ETR470009 Rodi-Fiesso 140112 EC153 BS-MICL.jpg
ETR 450 Italy Trenitalia Fiat Ferroviaria 250 280 1988-2015 ETR450.06.jpg
ETR.500 (1st series) Italy Trenitalia AnsaldoBreda
Fiat Ferroviaria
Tecnomasio
Firema Trasporti
250 300 321 1992–2007 Frecciabianca FS E.414 Cattolica.JPG
Metroliner United States Penn Central

United States Amtrak

Budd Company 200 241 1969-1988 Metroliner1968.jpg

RENFE Class 490

Spain RENFE Pendolino Alstom

Fiat Ferrovaria

220 220 1998–2013 Alaris 490.002 en Tarragona.jpg
V250 Netherlands NS
Belgium NMBS/SNCB
AnsaldoBreda 250 250 2012–2013 Fyra V250 4806.jpg
0 Series Shinkansen Japan JNR
Japan JR Central
Japan JR West
Shinkansen Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
Kisha
220 220 1964–2008 Shinkansen Series0 R67 JNRcolor.jpg
100 Series Shinkansen Japan JNR
Japan JR Central
Japan JR West
Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
Tokyu Car
230 230 1985–2012 G1 Kodama 464 Nagoya 20030509.JPG
200 Series Shinkansen Japan JNR
Japan JR East
Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
Tokyu Car
240 275 1982–2013 JR East Shinkansen 200(renewal).jpg
300 Series Shinkansen Japan JR Central
Japan JR West
Hitachi
Kawasaki
Kinki Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
270 270 325.7 1992–2012 JRW Shinkansen Series 300 F6.jpg
400 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
Tokyu Car
240 240 345 1992–2010 JR East Shinkansen 400(renewal).jpg
E1 Series Shinkansen Japan JR East Hitachi
Kawasaki
240 240 1994–2012 JR East Shinkansen E1(renewal).jpg

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Class 730
  2. ^ a b ICE 3M
  3. ^ ICE 3M & ICE 3MF
  4. ^ TGV Sud-Est Tricourant

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.alstom.com/Global/Transport/Resources/Documents/brochure2014/Avelia%20Liberty%20-%20Amtrak%20-%20Case%20study%20-%20English.pdf?epslanguage=en-GB
  2. ^ a b "Automotoras Eléctricas Série: 4000 (4001-4010 e 4051-4060) :: CP :: (Versão Portuguesa)". Série 4000: CP official website (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-06-29. 
  3. ^ "Ficha de 9-103-005-5" (in Spanish). Listado del Material Ferroviario Español. Retrieved January 16, 2009. 
  4. ^ Talgo y CAF 'empatan' en el concurso de Alta Velocidad de Renfe, El Correo, 2016-11-22
  5. ^ UK, DVV Media. "Flytoget orders CAF Oaris trainsets". Railway Gazette. Retrieved 2017-02-17. 
  6. ^ "Bullet train in milestone run on HS1". Railnews. 2008-06-10. Retrieved 2012-01-04. an earlier successful 'overspeed' test to check train stability and ride on 18th April, when the train achieved a maximum speed of 252 km/h 
  7. ^ Unsafe at any speed? China has applied for patents for its high-speed trains, but the technology may have been pirated from the Japanesealjazeera.com
  8. ^ 291 km/h – Pendolino sets new record by Dyspozytor
  9. ^ "In galleria il nuovo record di velocità italiano" (in Italian). Ferrovie.it. Retrieved 2015-11-24. 
  10. ^ "Il Frecciarossa 1000 è ancora da record" (in Italian). Ferrovie.it. Retrieved 2016-02-28. 
  11. ^ http://www.railjournal.com/index.php/middle-east/revised-opening-date-agreed-for-saudi-hs-project.html?channel=523
  12. ^ a b c "Alstom to supply 79 Intercity trains to NS in the Netherlands". www.alstom.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  13. ^ Fender, Keith. "ICE 4 enters passenger service". Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  14. ^ oe24.at - ÖBB-Zug "railjet" mit Geschwindigkeitsrekord
  15. ^ 東海道新幹線、332キロで試験運転 各国関係者にPR [Test run at 332 km/h on the Tokaido Shinkansen]. Asahi.com (in Japanese). Japan: The Asahi Shimbun Company. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 19 November 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  16. ^ a b "320-kph Hayabusa matches world speed record". The Japan Times. Japan: The Japan Times Ltd. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  17. ^ 2014年3月 ダイヤ改正について [March 2014 timetable revision details] (pdf). News release (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. 20 December 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c d "E7系新幹線電車" [E7 series shinkansen EMU]. Japan Railfan Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 54 no. 634. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. February 2014. pp. 9–13. 
  19. ^ "TWINDEXX Express Double-deck Trains, Switzerland - Switzerland - Bombardier". www.bombardier.com. Retrieved 2017-03-15. 
  20. ^ "Train smashes speed record". BBC News. 2003-07-30. Retrieved 2010-06-02.