List of hill passes of the Lake District

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Hill passes of the Lake District were originally used by people in one valley travelling to another nearby without having to go many miles around a steep ridge of intervening hills. Historically, in the Lake District of northwest England, travel on foot or by pony was difficult because of the region's steep-sided valleys so tracks across the ridges were created taking the easiest route over passes – often, but not always, via a col. Since Roman times long-distance travel had tended to be along ridges. From the 19th century these passes and ridge routes were brought back into use when recreational hill walking become popular. Forty hill passes within the Lake District National Park are listed here, using criteria for selecting the major routes.

Background[edit]

The Lake District National Park was created in 1951 covering an area of over 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi) and, although its population is only 42,000, over 10 million visitors arrive each year, mostly attracted by the lakes and fells.[1]

Geology[edit]

About 500 million years ago[1] in the late Cambrian and early Ordivician periods,[2] the region was situated where the Iapetus ocean floor was being subducted under the Avalonia plate.[3] Sedimentary material became metamorphosed to the Skiddaw slates found in the north and west.[4] For a relatively short time of 5 million years Ordovician[5] volcanoes ejected the Borrowdale volcanic rocks – firstly lavas (mostly andesite}[6] and later pyroclastic rocks[7] found in the more central part of the region. The ejection of rock was extreme by world standards and it produced deposits at least 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) deep.[8] When the Baltica-Avalonia and Laurentia continents collided some 420 million years ago in the Caledonian orogeny there was folding of the slate and fracturing (faulting) of the more brittle volcanic rock.[3][9] The whole region was then uplifted again by a batholith of granite mainly in the Carboniferous period although the granite remains largely below the surface.[10][11] The high ground became gradually eroded and to the south the land subsided.[1][12] In the south 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) of Windermere Supergroup sediment formed in the Silurian period with Coniston Limestone towards its base.[13] Overall cover of limestone eroded away.

In the north, slaty rocks now form a smooth topography with sharp ridges although the hills can still be quite high – 931 metres (3,054 ft) in the case of Skiddaw. Centrally the pyroclastic tuff rocks [1] give a knobbly terrain such as that around Scafell Pike, 978 metres (3,209 ft), England's highest mountain.[14][15] To the south is a mostly less hilly area.[1]

Glaciation[edit]

Ribbon lake formed by glacial erosion – Wast Water in Wasdale

From about 2 million years ago glacial erosion then greatly modified the landscape.[1][16] Glaciers formed preferentially at existing streams which had developed at the many rock faults produced by crushing during the continental collision. The terrain was ground away leaving characteristically steep-sided glacial valleys which became ribbon lakes.[1] On the Rossett Pass (see below) Rossett Gill is an example of a geological fault and the glacier that descended from it created the Mickleden and Great Langdale valleys below.[17] Taken as a whole the region is characterised by mountain ridges splaying out from a central core. The intervening valleys have been made by glaciers flowing outward along the lines of the previous streams draining the dome of the Lake District.[1]

Human history[edit]

Historically the region was suitable for sheep hill farming and from medieval (or possibly Roman) times there was a substantial mining industry for rocks and minerals.[1] The Romans had built a high-level military road north–south right through the region on its eastern edge at High Street and another road through the Hardknott and Wrynose passes for travel between forts at Ravenglass and Ambleside.[18] Travelling between valleys was difficult on foot or by pony because of the steep passes across the mountainous ridges. With no roads suitable for wheeled traffic until the late 18th century, for long-distance transport of goods long trains of horses were used with ridge routes being preferred although Esk Hause and Stake Pass (see below) are thought to have been used in this way. However, for travel within the region, routes were best kept as low as possible consistent with avoiding excessive detours so summits and ridges were to be avoided as far as possible.[19]

In the late 18th century the region started to become popular with travellers and the "Lake Poets" began seeing the lakes and mountains as beautiful rather than horrifying.[20] In Victorian times, encouraged by the arrival of the Kendal and Windermere Railway,[1] a tourist trade developed. In the mid twentieth century Alfred Wainwright inadvertently encouraged further recreational use with his series of books A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells which described detailed routes to the major summits. His considerable knowledge of the district allowed him to make use of the ancient tracks although his focus was not on the ridge passes themselves.[21]

Hill passes[edit]

The passes are indicated in the following maps that are identical except for the annotation included. Both show the regions defined by Wainwright for his books. The first map shows the passes with their sequential numbers in the table. It also marks major lakes, valleys (dales) and a few important mountains. The second map shows the passes with their names (or a col on the route) and a few major towns. The colouring of the routes is merely to separate different adjacent ones.

Table of Lake District hill passes, alphabetically within region
Reference[see 1]

Name[see 2]
(path type)[see 3]
Height/[see 4]
OS grid
Start:[see 5]
Valley/
place/
OS grid
End:[see 5]
Valley/
place/
OS grid
Notes Image
1/01/blue

Deepdale Hause

(footpath/path)[22]
655 m
(2,149 ft)
/
NY360125
Patterdale/
Bridgend/
NY398143
Thirlmere/
Dunmail Raise/
NY327117
Part way the footpath becomes an undefined type of path. Deepdale Hause - geograph.org.uk - 858853.jpg
1/02/green

Grisedale Hause

(bridleway)[23]
590 m
(1,940 ft)
/
NY350117
Patterdale/
Grisedale Bridge/
NY382156
Grasmere/
Mill Bridge/
NY336091
Grisedale Hause - geograph.org.uk - 858867.jpg
1/03/red

Kirkstone Pass

(road)[24]
454 m
(1,489 ft)
/
NY401082
Patterdale/
Bridge End/
NY399143
Rothay /
Ambleside/
NY376047
North: A592 (continuing to the town of Windermere). South: unclassified road. The Struggle Road Sign Bottom.jpg
1/04/green

Scandale Pass

(footpath)[25]
516 m
(1,693 ft)
/
NY387095
Patterdale/
Caudale Bridge/
NY401110
Rothay
Ambleside/
NY384082
Scandale Pass - geograph.org.uk - 741108.jpg
1/05/black

Sticks Pass

(bridleway)[26]
738 m
(2,421 ft)
/
NY341182
Patterdale/
Glencoyne/
NY387186
Thirlmere/
Legburthwaite/
NY318189
Cyclist at Sticks Pass (geograph 4333997).jpg
2/06/magenta

Boredale Hause

(bridleway)[27]
399 m
(1,309 ft)
/
NY408157
Patterdale/
Hartsop/
NY405132
Boredale/
Boredale Head/
NY418169
Or Boardale Hause Path from Boredale Hause - geograph.org.uk - 1716431.jpg
2/07/blue

Boredale Hause

(bridleway)[27]
500 m
(1,600 ft)
/
NY417157
Patterdale/
Patterdale/
NY400161
Martindale/
Dale Head/
NY433164
Boredale Hause is not the high point of this route. Footpath through Patterdale Common to Boredale Hause - geograph.org.uk - 995220.jpg
2/08/green

Garburn Pass

(bridleway)[28]
447 m
(1,467 ft)
/
NY433043
Kentmere/
Kentmere/
NY455044
Troutbeck/
(village)/
NY423006
The southern part is a restricted byway that is now closed to vehicles.[29] The Garburn Pass track (geograph 1983854).jpg
2/09/blue

Gatesgarth Pass

(restricted byway)[30]
572 m
(1,877 ft)
/
NY473092
Mardale/
Mardale Head/
NY469107
Longsleddale/
Sadgill/
NY483056
Restricted byway – open to all except motor vehicles (but permits are available}.[31] Ascending Gatesgarth Pass - geograph.org.uk - 677407.jpg
2/10/red

Pass over Ketley Gate

(bridleway)[32]
323 m
(1,060 ft)
/
NY489223
Eamont/
Pooley Bridge/
NY479235
Lowther/
Helton/
NY506210
Wainwright does not mention a name. On Askham Fell (geograph 3003544).jpg
2/11/red

Nan Bield Pass

(bridleway)[33]
640 m
(2,100 ft)
/
NY452095
Mardale/
Mardale Head/
NY468107
Kentmere/
Hallow Bank/
NY464053
Shelter at the top of Nan Bield Pass (geograph 4296076).jpg
2/12/black

Old Corpse Road, Mardale

(bridleway)[34]
512 m
(1,680 ft)
/
NY493122
Mardale/
(Mardale Green)
NY479118
Swindale/
Swindale Head/
NY504125
Old Corpse Road - geograph.org.uk - 72907.jpg
3/13/green

Pass over Greenup Edge

(bridleway)[35]
608 m
(1,995 ft)
/
NY285105
Rothay/
Easedale/
NY327084
Stonethwaite/
Stonethwaite/
NY263138
Moor Moss - geograph.org.uk - 725244.jpg
3/14/green

Pass over High Tove

(footpath)[36]
508 m
(1,667 ft)
/
NY288165
Watendlath Valley/
Watendlath/
NY275163
Thirlmere/
Armboth/
NY304171
The traditional footpath crosses the summit of High Tove.[36][note 1] Cairn, High Tove (geograph 2238902).jpg
3/15/blue

Pass over Long Moss

(bridleway)[37]
525 m
(1,722 ft)
/
NY296139
Watendlath Valley/
Watendlath/
NY275163
Thirlmere/
Wythburn/
NY319131
Bridleway gate. - geograph.org.uk - 5893.jpg
3/16/blue

Pass near Megs Gill

(footpath)[38]
230 m
(750 ft)
/
NY328063
Rothay/
Grasmere/
NY333071
Great Langdale/
Chapel Stile/
NY322055
Highest of three passes.[38] [note 2] Above Megs Gill (geograph 2417483).jpg
4/17/green

Esk Hause

(footpath)[39]
759 m
(2,490 ft)
/
NY233081
Borrowdale/
Seathwaite/
NY235121
Eskdale/
Jubilee Bridge/
NY211011
Just north there is col by a shelter that is often wrongly called "Esk Hause".[note 3][39] Esk Hause seen from Esk Pike (geograph 3870715).jpg
4/18/red

Hardknott Pass

(road)[40]
393 m
(1,289 ft)
/
NY231014
Duddon/
Cockley Beck/
NY246016
Eskdale/
Dalegarth station/
NY174007
Unclassified public road, the gradient reaches 1 in 3 33%.[41] Hardknott climb (enhanced).jpg
4/19/blue

Pass near Harter Fell

(bridleway)[42]
355 m
(1,165 ft)
/
SD210993
Duddon/
Seathwaite/
SD230974
Eskdale/
Hardknott Castle/
NY213011
The track up Harter Fell (geograph 3194325).jpg
4/20/black

Old Corpse Road, Wasdale

(bridleway)[43]
298 m
(978 ft)
/
NY184055
Eskdale/
Boot/
NY176012
Wasdale/
Wasdale Head/
NY186083
Old drovers way above Fence Wood (2) - geograph.org.uk - 1341047.jpg
4/21/red

Red Tarn Pass

(footpath)[44]
530 m
(1,740 ft)
/
NY267039
Great Langdale/
Oxendale/
NY276056
Little Langdale/
Three Shire Stone/
NY275026
See Pike of Blisco and Cold Pike. Path up to Browney Gill from Oxendale - geograph.org.uk - 1256492.jpg
4/22/blue

Rossett Pass

(bridleway)[45]
610 m
(2,000 ft)
/
NY246075
Great Langdale/
Mickleden/
NY284061
Wasdale/
Wasdale Head
NY187086
There is a higher col on this pass at 722 metres (2,369 ft) near Esk Hause.[note 3] Towards Mickleden (geograph 4533995).jpg
4/23/green

Side Gates road

(road)[47]
224 m
(735 ft)
/
NY289051
Great Langdale/
Rossett/
NY285059
Little Langdale/
Ting Mound/
NY302033
Also called Blea Tarn road.[note 4] Start of the Steep Descent into Great Langdale (geograph 1790478).jpg
4/24/magenta

Stake Pass
[48]
(bridleway)[49]
480 m
(1,570 ft)
/
NY265087
Borrowdale/
Rosthwaite/
NY259147
Great Langdale/
Mickleden/
NY284061
On the Cumbria Way. Path Junction in Mickleden (geograph 3231421).jpg
4/25/green

Sty Head Pass

(bridleway)[50]
488 m
(1,601 ft)
/
NY218094
Borrowdale/
Seathwaite/
NY234120
Wasdale/
Wasdale Head/
NY187086
Between Borrowdale and Wasdale (but also Langdale and Eskdale).[note 5] Sty Head Pass (geograph 1854491).jpg
4/26/red

Walna Scar Road

(restricted byway)[51][52]
608 m
(1,995 ft)
/
SD258964
Coniston Water/
Coniston/
SD301975
Duddon/
Seathwaite/
SD232967
Restricted byway – open to all except motor vehicles.[53] Walna Scar Road (geograph 4436949).jpg
4/27/blue

Wrynose Pass

(road)[54]
393 m
(1,289 ft)
/
NY277027
Duddon/
Cockley Beck/
NY246016
Little Langdale/
Fell Foot/
NY300031
Unclassified public road. Wrynose Pass, Three Shires Stone - geograph.org.uk - 919622.jpg
5/28/green

Cumbria Way, Skiddaw Forest

(bridleway)[55]
488 m
(1,601 ft)
/
NY279305
Bassenthwaite/
Peter House Farm/
NY249323
Greta/
Gale Road/
NY280253
Cumbria Way via Skiddaw House.[note 6][57] The Cumbria Way near Skiddaw House (geograph 2699379).jpg
6/29/magenta

Coledale Hause

(footpath)[58]
603 m
(1,978 ft)
/
NY189211
Newlands/
Braithwaite/
NY227238
Crummock/
Lanthwaite/
NY159208
See Coledale (Cumbria). Coledale Hause from Sand Hill - geograph.org.uk - 1722782.jpg
6/30/red

Hause Gate

(bridleway)[59]
360 m
(1,180 ft)
/
NY244191
Borrowdale/
Manesty/
NY250185
Newlands/
Little Town/
NY234195
Lucie's path to Catbells in The Tale of Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle. Lucie on path to Catbells.jpg
6/31/magenta

Newlands Hause

(road)[60]
333 m
(1,093 ft)
/
NY193176
Newlands/
Little Town/
NY230201
Buttermere/
(village)/
NY176170
Unclassified road. Often called Buttermere Hause.[60] Newlands Hause.jpg
6/32/blue

Sail Pass

(footpath)[61]
625 m
(2,051 ft)
/
NY204204
Derwent/
Braithwaite/
NY229231
Buttermere/
(village)/
NY173171
This pass is far higher and not much shorter than Newlands Hause.[note 7] Looking down to Sail Pass (geograph 3800915).jpg
6/33/red

Whinlatter Pass

(road)[64]
318 m
(1,043 ft)
/
NY205245
Newlands/
Braithwaite/
NY230236
Cocker/
High Lorton/
NY162258
B5292, B road. Whinlatter Forest Park Sign.jpg
7/34/magenta

Aaron Slack

(footpath)[65]
750 m
(2,460 ft)
/
NY214105
Ennerdale/
Black Sail Hut/
NY194123
Borrowdale/[note 5]
Styhead Tarn/[note 8]
NY3222100
High point at Windy Gap.[note 9] Nearby is Sty Head with four onward routes.[note 5] Aaron Slack (geograph 2944586).jpg
7/35/black

Black Sail Pass

(bridleway)[66]
545 m
(1,788 ft)
/
NY191114
Wasdale/
Wasdale Head/
NY186087
Ennerdale/
Black Sail Hut/
NY194123
Black Sail Hut is a Youth Hostel.[67] Black Sail Pass (geograph 2834704).jpg
7/36/green

Floutern Tarn Pass

(bridleway)[68]
416 m
(1,365 ft)
/
NY121172
Buttermere/
(village)/
NY175169
Ennerdale/
Whins/
NY098167
Goes near Scale Force. Above Mosedale (geograph 3304054).jpg
7/37/green

Floutern Tarn Pass

(bridleway)[69]
416 m
(1,365 ft)
/
NY121172
Loweswater/
(village)/
NY141209
Ennerdale/
Whins/
NY098167
A branch off the pass going to Buttermere. Footpath into Mosedale - geograph.org.uk - 1732279.jpg
7/38/red
Honister Pass

(road)[70]
356 m
(1,168 ft)
/
NY224136
Borrowdale/
Seatoller/
NY245136
Buttermere/
Gatesgarth/
NY195149
B5289, B road.[note 10] Honister Pass, Lake District, Cumbria, UK - Diliff.jpg
7/39/magenta

Moses Trod

(footpath)[71]
660 m
(2,170 ft)
/
NY209119
Borrowdale/
Honister Hause/
NY225135
Wasdale/
Wasdale Head/
NY31092
An abandoned track for transporting slate.[72][note 11] Rocky path up Great Gable - geograph.org.uk - 1051928.jpg
7/40/blue

Scarth Gap Pass

(bridleway)[73]
445 m
(1,460 ft)
/
NY189133
Buttermere/
Gatesgarth/
NY194150
Ennerdale/
Black Sail Hut/
NY194123
Scarth Gap - geograph.org.uk - 1027982.jpg

Notes for table header[edit]

  1. ^ The reference provides first the number of the region – the table is initially in order of the region for which the pass is most relevant – "region" being the volume number of the book in Wainwright's series Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells.[vol 1][vol 2][vol 3][vol 4][vol 5][vol 6][vol 7] Secondly the "route" – to help locate the routes on the maps in this article they have been given a sequence number. Finally the route's colour on the maps has been noted.
  2. ^ Following the reference is the name of the pass or of some named point on the route – sorting the table places it in alphabetical order of name.
  3. ^ The type of path is in brackets. The terminology is as described in Rights of way in England and Wales.
  4. ^ Elevation (metres and feet) and OS grid reference of top of pass. – in a few instances the point named is some other waypoint (not the top) of the pass.
  5. ^ a b The "start and "end" locations of a pass are in arbitrary order and the valleys are those between which the pass travels. The actual places named are merely some identifiable low level locations on either side of the high point. No attempt is made to imply any length for the pass – the col of the pass may be much shorter. The elevations of the end places are of little relevance and no information is given about the elevation gained in crossing a pass.
360° panorama from Striding Edge, leading up to Helvellyn

Selection criteria[edit]

The hill passes listed are routes within the Lake District National Park between two different valleys where a pathway is marked on the Ordnance Survey 1:50000 or 1:25000 map. Passes to be considered may be listed as "pass" or "hause" in the Ordnance Survey 1:50000 gazetteer provided also that a route crossing the ridge is marked on the map.[74] Also included are routes described as passes in Wainwright's Guides and in other authoritative sources provided still that they go between different valleys. To be listed a pass does not necessarily have a name (though most do have names) nor does it need to cross a col (but nearly all do traverse cols). A few have been excluded when the gain in elevation seems rather small (less than about 100 metres (330 ft) – this particularly applies with paved roads.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The summit of High Tove is scarcely higher than the ridge it is on and the route is the driest way over the ridge.[36]
  2. ^ Wainwright discusses three passes running roughly parallel – via Megs Gill, Hunting Style and Red Bank.[38]
  3. ^ a b The Wasdale to Langdale route reaches the Sty Head Pass but does not descend north to Borrowdale but rather continues southeast to a high point at a col often wrongly called "Esk Hause" at NY234083 with an elevation 722 metres (2,369 ft) (near a stone shelter). Rossett Pass is then crossed. The route was used as a route taking smuggled goods from Ravenglass.[46]
  4. ^ A bridleway takes a similar route following the road for a short distance.
  5. ^ a b c From Sty Head, four valleys may be reached: (1) descent west via Styhead Pass to Wasdale, (2) descent northeast via Styhead Pass to Borrowdale, (3&4) ascent southeast to the col north of Esk Hause thence (3) up southwest over Esk Hause to Eskdale or (4) down southeast via Rossett Pass to Great Langdale.
  6. ^ This section of the Cumbria Way passes Skiddaw House (YHA) at NY287291 470 metres (1,550 ft) passing from the Derwent Valley to the Eden Valley and back again.[56]
  7. ^ Wainwright frequently mentions this pass (he himself gave it the name).[62] Just below the pass there used to be a cobalt mine and the mine road came from Braithwaite.[63]
  8. ^ Styhead Tarn is at 440 metres (1,440 ft) and a short ascent reaches Sty Head
  9. ^ Only the Windy Gap to Styhead Tarn section is called Aaron Slack (slack means scree.[65]
  10. ^ A toll road ran from Grange to near Honister Hause but it is now a bridleway.
  11. ^ Until about 1850 Moses Trod was used to transport slate from high-level quarries at Honister over to Wasdale. Although the route is also called the "Moses Sledgate" (gate is a path), it seems packhorses were used rather than sledges.[72]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Lake District". www.rgs.org. Royal Geographical Society. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. 
  2. ^ Smith (2010), p. 6.
  3. ^ a b Smith (2010), p. 10.
  4. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 5–9.
  5. ^ Smith (2010), p. 111.
  6. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 11–13.
  7. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 19–22.
  8. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 11,24.
  9. ^ Turnbull (2011), p. 106.
  10. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 45,91.
  11. ^ "Education Service Geology Factsheet" (PDF). Lake District National Park. Lake District National Park Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2016. 
  12. ^ Smith (2010), p. 45.
  13. ^ Smith (2010), pp. 33–36.
  14. ^ Turnbull (2011), p. 88.
  15. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Scafell Pike, pp. 1–30.
  16. ^ "Landscape and geology". Lake District National Park. Lake District National Park. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. 
  17. ^ Turnbull (2011), pp. 106–112.
  18. ^ McCloy, Andrew; Midgley, Andrew. "Hardknott Fort". Discovering Roman Britain. New Holland Publishers. pp. 132–139. ISBN 9781847731289. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. 
  19. ^ "Roads". Industrial History of Cumbria. Cumbria Industrial History Society. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. 
  20. ^ "Mapping 'Wordsworthshire'". www.lancaster.ac.uk. Spatial Humanities. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. 
  21. ^ Myers, Ben (17 February 2009). "Why private genius Alfred Wainwright deserves a public monument". Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. 
  22. ^ Wainwright Vol 1, St Sunday Crag, p. 4; Hart Crag, p. 6.
  23. ^ Wainwright Vol 1, Seat Sandal, p. 4.
  24. ^ Wainwright Vol 1, Middle Dodd, p. 1.
  25. ^ Wainwright Vol 1, Dove Crag, p. 3.
  26. ^ Wainwright Vol 1, Stybarrow Dodd, p. 4.
  27. ^ a b Wainwright Vol 2, Place Fell, p. 3.
  28. ^ Wainwright Vol 2, Ill Bell, p. 4.
  29. ^ "Lake District's Garburn Pass made a 'restricted byway'". BBC News. 3 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  30. ^ Wainwright Vol 2, Branstree, p. 3.
  31. ^ "Gatescarth Pass". Lake District National Park. Lake District National Park. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. 
  32. ^ Wainwright Vol 2, Loadpot Hill, p. 7.
  33. ^ Wainwright Vol 2, Harter Fell, p. 2.
  34. ^ Wainwright Vol 2, Selside Pike, p. 3.
  35. ^ Wainwright Vol 3, High Raise, pp. 5,6.
  36. ^ a b c Wainwright Vol 3, High Tove, p. 1,2.
  37. ^ Wainwright Vol 3, Armboth Fell, p. 3.
  38. ^ a b c Wainwright Vol 3, Silver Howe, p. 2–6.
  39. ^ a b Wainwright Vol 4, Esk Pike, pp. 3–4.
  40. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Hard Knott, p. 3.
  41. ^ Dale, Sharon (5 December 2015). "Lake District: Rustic charmer". Yorkshire Post. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. 
  42. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Harter Fell, p. 3–6.
  43. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Illgill Head, pp. 4,5; Scafell, pp. 5,7.
  44. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Pike o' Blisco, pp. 3,6,8.
  45. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Rossett Pike, pp. 3,4.
  46. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Rossett Pike, 3–4, Esk Pike, pp. 3–4.
  47. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Lingmoor Fell, pp. 5–7.
  48. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Rossett Pike, p. 2.
  49. ^ Wainwright Vol 3, Sergeant's Crag, p. 3.
  50. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Great End, pp. 4–5,7.
  51. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Dow Crag, pp. 2,7,8.
  52. ^ Wainwright Outlying Fells, p. 114.
  53. ^ "Motorised vehicle ban for Lake District's Walna Scar". BBC News. 6 February 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2016. 
  54. ^ Wainwright Vol 4, Crinkle Crags, p. 10.
  55. ^ Wainwright Vol 5, Skiddaw, pp. 7–10.
  56. ^ Wainwright Vol 5, Skiddaw Little Man, p. 3.
  57. ^ "Skiddaw House Bunkhouse". Caledew Community websites. caldew.org.uk. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. 
  58. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Grasmoor, pp. 3,4.
  59. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Catbells, p. 6.
  60. ^ a b Wainwright Vol 6, Robinson, p. 6.
  61. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Causey Pike, p. 3; Eel Crag, p.6.
  62. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Sail, pp. 2,3; Eel Crag, p.6.
  63. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Scar Crags, p. 2.
  64. ^ Wainwright Vol 6, Whinlatter, p. 6.
  65. ^ a b Wainwright Vol 7, Green Gable, pp. 3,6.
  66. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Pillar, p. 8.
  67. ^ Brett, Suzanna (21 November 2012). "Two years at Black Sail - England's loneliest youth hostel". Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. 
  68. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Gavel Fell, p. 3; Hen Comb, p. 2; Starling Dodd, p. 3; Red Pike (Buttermere) p. 3.
  69. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Gavel Fell, p. 3; Hen Comb, p. 2.
  70. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Fleetwith Pike, p. 4.
  71. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Great Gable, pp. 7,8,17,18; Fleetwith Pike, p. 4.
  72. ^ a b Wainwright Vol 7, Great Gable, pp. 7,8.
  73. ^ Wainwright Vol 7, Haystacks, p. 4,5,8.
  74. ^ "1:50 000 Scale Gazetteer". www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk. Ordnance Survey. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.  This product is still available to download although it has been officially "withdrawn".

Volumes in Wainwright's Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells[edit]

The following individual volumes are part of a boxed set:

  • Wainwright, Alfred (2008). The Complete Pictorial Guides: A Reader's Edition (Pictorial Guide Lakeland Fells). Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-07112-2953-2. 
  1. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book One, The Eastern Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2943-3. (same content as first 1955 edition)
  2. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Two, The Far Eastern Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2944-0. (same content as first 1957 edition)
  3. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Three, The Central Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2945-7. (same content as first 1958 edition)
  4. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Four, The Southern Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2946-4. (same content as first 1960 edition)
  5. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Five, The Northern Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2947-1. (same content as first 1962 edition)
  6. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Six, The North Western. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2948-8. (same content as first 1964 edition)
  7. ^ Wainwright, Alfred (2009). Book Seven, The Western Fells. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2949-5. (same content as first 1966 edition)
  • Wainwright, Alfred (2009). The Outlying Fells of Lakeland. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2952-5. (same content as first 1968 edition)

Other works cited[edit]

  • Smith, Alan (2010). Landscapes of Cumbria, No. 4: Lakeland rocks : an introductory guide. Rigg Side Publications. ISBN 978-0-9544679-3-7. 
  • Turnbull, Ronald (2011). Granite and grit : a walker's guide to the geology of British mountains. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-3180-1.