List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies

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These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition. The entries listed here had de facto control over their claimed territory and were self-governing with a desire for full independence; or if they lacked such control over their territory, they were recognized by at least one other recognized nation.

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

The criteria for inclusion in this list are similar to those of the list of states with limited recognition. To be included here, a polity must have claimed statehood, lacked recognition from at least one state, and either:

  • had a population and an organized government with a capacity to enter into relations with other states; or
  • had de facto control over a territory or a significant portion of the territory of an otherwise-recognized sovereign state

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory[edit]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.gif icon.


The total number of countries in the African continent is unknown due to the instability throughout the region. At present there are 54 sovereign countries and around 90 countries, territories and regions not recognized by the UN. One needs to take into account the fact that some countries are independent nations, and while they have geopolitical borders they are protectorates or territories (for example the Islands of St. Helena, the Canary Islands etc.). Also, certain parts of Africa have a tendency towards political instability (more so than other continents); this means that from time to time countries split, merge and are renamed. Some examples include: The Republic of South Sudan, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana and Burkina Faso. Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships.

Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.

Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund,[citation needed] also played a role in instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. The 1970s saw an escalation, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by funding insurgency movements. There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist/Soviet policies made the situation worse. The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath have killed an estimated 5.5 million people.[66] Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur which has become a humanitarian disaster. Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa has also been a prevalent issue.

In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. This has coincided with many countries abandoning communist style command economies and opening up for market reforms. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China, which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Several African economies are among the world's fastest growing as of 2011. A significant part of this growth can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile telephone.

Name Period Today Notes
Andries Ohringstad Andries-Ohringstad Republic 1845 Now part of South Africa A fort was established by a group of Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Hendrik Potgieter with the help of a Dutch merchant Gregorius Ohrig. The settlers arrived in 1845 and were decimated by malaria. Forced to abandon the area, the republic was officially abandoned in 1849.
Anjouan  Anjouan 1997
Now part of Comoros Joined with the Comoros then seceded twice to gain independence. Anjouan rejoined the Comoros after talks during the first secession. After the second event, the secessionist government was forcefully removed.
Azawad  Azawad 2012 Now part of Mali Controlled territory in Northern Mali, it wasn't recognized by any state
Biafra  Biafra 1967 Part of Nigeria Controlled territory in eastern Nigeria, recognized by five states (Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Zambia)
Bophuthatswana  Bophuthatswana,
Now all part of South Africa Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa. Israel extended marginal recognition to Bophuthatswana and Ciskei by allowing both polities to build trade missions in Tel Aviv. In 1993 Bophuthatswana opened an information center in Latvia, so that the Latvian song festival was also attended by a chorus of this country (Bop Arts Council Chorus).[citation needed]
Cabinda Republic of Cabinda 1975 Now part of Angola Cabinda was a Portuguese protectorate known as the Portuguese Congo. During the Portuguese Colonial War period, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought for the independence of Cabinda from the Portuguese. The independence was proclaimed on 1 August 1975. After the Angolan independence came in effect in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) with support of troops from Cuba.
Goshen Flag of the Republic of Goshen.svg State of Goshen 1882 Now part of South Africa A Boer Republic which merged with the Republic of Stellaland to form the United States of Stellaland in 1883.
Griqualand East Griqualand West (New Griqualand) 1861 Now part of South Africa Founded by Adam Kok III as a final resting place for Griqua people. The State suffered from a secret deal signed between the British Empire and Orange Free State causing unceasing instability. Although the reasons for its annexation are still debated, it was eventually integrated with the Cape Colony in 1880
Griqualand West Griqualand West 1813 Now part of South Africa Enjoying de facto independence since the founding of Griquatown

in 1813, Griqualand West eventually proclaimed itself a British colony in 1873. It did not gain recognition by Britain nor the neighboring Cape Colony and was annexed in 1880.

Graaff-Reinet Republic of Graaff-Reinet 1795 Now part of South Africa Formed in rebellion to Dutch East India Company, it took 2 years to be incorporated into the Cape Colony although this time under British rule.
Jubaland Flag of Jubaland.svg Jubaland 1998 Now part of Southwestern Somalia Briefly declared independence in 1998; it rejoined the Transitional Federal Government in 2001.
Katanga State of Katanga Katanga 1960 Part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation
Klein Vrystaat Republic of Klein Vrystaat (Little Republic) 1886 Now part of South Africa A Boer republic which declared its independence from lands formerly controlled by the Swazi king Mswati II. It was eventually incorporated into the South African Republic in 1891 on its own request.
Klipdrift Republic Klipdrift Republic 1870 Now part of South Africa A Republic proclaimed during a dispute over diamond mines near what would become Griqualand West
Lydenburg Lydenburg Republic 1856 Now part of South Africa A Boer republic which was created following the dissolution of the Andries-Ohringstad Republic. Eventually this nation expanded with the inclusion of the Utrecht Republic in 1858. The republic lasted until 1860 when it was incorporated into the South African Republic
Mahdist State Mahdist State 1885–1889 Now part of Sudan Islamic state established during the Mahdist War by rebels. The rebellion failed the state was dissolved.
Martyazo Republic of Martyazo 1972 Now part of Burundi A state declared by Hutu separatists inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba and Lake Nyanza which lasted for little over a week.
Moheli Mohéli 1997 Now part of the Comoros Seceded in 1997 but quietly rejoined the next year.
M'Simbati Sultanate of M'Simbati 1959 Now part of Tanzania Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. The "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.
Natalia Natalia Republic 1839 Now part of South Africa Established in 1839 by local Afrikaans-speaking Voortrekkers after the Battle of Blood River. This Boer Republic lasted for four years before being annexed by British troops under George Napier.
Nieuwe Republiek Nieuwe Republiek (New Republic) 1884 Now part of South Africa Created on August 16 of 1884 with land donated by the Zulus through a treaty. The territory was part the old Boer Republic of Natalia. The republic enjoyed independence until it was annexed by the South African Republic by its own request.
Potchefstroom Potchefstroom Republic 1830 Now part of South Africa A republic that existed only for a couple months before joining with Winburg Republic. It was effectively a city-state.
Rhodesia  Rhodesia 1965 Now Zimbabwe British colony, self-governing since 1923, that unilaterally declared independence. Became Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979.
Rif  Republic of the Rif 1921 Part of Morocco Founded in September 1921, when the people of the Rif (the Riffians) revolted and declared their independence from Spanish Morocco. It was dissolved by Spanish and French forces on 27 May 1926.
Rwenzururu Kingdom of Rwenzururu 1963 Now part of Uganda Was based in the Rwenzori Mountains between Uganda and Congo.
Somaliland  State of Somaliland 1960 Now part of Somalia A state declared after the end of British rule came to an end. It only lasted five days before joining Somalia.[1]
South Kasai South Kasai 1960 Now part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo South Kasai seceded from the newly independent Republic of the Congo after decolonization in similar circumstances to the State of Katanga during the Congo Crisis. Kasai, however, did not declare full independence but autonomous self-government, despite producing its own constitution, still claimed to be part of a hypothetical "Federal Republic of the Congo". It was re-integrated into the Congo by force in 1962.
Stellaland Republic of Stellaland 1882 Now part of South Africa A Boer republic which existed briefly before its union with its neighboring Boer republic the State of Goshen
Stellaland State United States of Stellaland 1883 Now part of South Africa A Boer republic which created from the union of neighboring Republic of Stellaland and State of Goshen. The republic lasted until it became a protectorate of the South African Republic on 10 September 1884 only to be annexed 6 days later.
Swellendam Republic of Swellendam 1795 Now part of South Africa A republic declared in revolt against the Dutch East India Company. It lasted 3 months before being re-incorporated into the Cape Colony.
Tripolitanian Republic Tripolitanian Republic 1918 Now part of Libya A republic proclaimed following the Paris Peace Conference it disintegrated sometime in 1923.
Utrect Utrecht Republic 1854 Now part of South Africa A republic proclaimed by Andreas Theodorus Spies following a land purchase from the King of the Zulu, Mpande. It joined with the Lydenburg Republic in 1858.
Winburg Winburg Republic 1836 Now part of South Africa Established on land the Vet and Vaal Rivers donated to the Voortrekkers by Bataung Chief Makwana in 1836 in exchange for protection from neighboring Basotho tribes. Joined in union with the newly established Potchefstroom Republic in 1838 to form the Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom.
Winburg-Potchefstroom Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom 1838 Now part of South Africa Formed from the union of the Potchefstroom Republic and the Winburg Republic in 1938 the nation lasted until Potchefstroom left the union to join with Pietermaritzburg.
Zanzibar and Pemba People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba 1964 Now part of Tanzania Following the 17 January 1964 coup which deposed the Sultan of Zanzibar, the revolutionary group purporting to represent the island's Negro majority proclaimed a Peoples' Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. It immediately made an offer of union with the government of Tanganyika.
Zimbabwe Rhodesia  Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 Now Zimbabwe A version of Rhodesia (see above) that ended the white minority government and introduced a biracial government.
Zoutpansberg Zoutpansberg Republic 1857 Now part of South Africa A small Boer Republic that joined with the South African Republic in 1864. The white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, and were later regarded as typical "back velt Boers". Zoutpansberg contained a larger native population than any other region of the Transvaal


Name Period Today Notes
Acre Republic of Acre 1899–1903 Now part of Brazil A trio of attempts to free Acre from Bolivia. Each attempt was defeated, but part of Acre was turned over to Brazilian control after the final attempt.
Airrecú  Republic of Airrecú 1993 Now part of Nicaragua Relations between Costa Rica and Nicaragua have traditionally been strained. This situation was not improved when the Costa Rican government granted land rights to settlers along the San Juan River, which forms part of the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A dispute ended with Costa Rica acknowledging that the territory in fact belonged to Nicaragua, and promising to remove the settlers. The settlers, however, refused to leave. In June 1993, they declared their independence as the Republic of Airrecú, which means "friendship" in a local Indian language. The Nicaraguan Army immediately descended upon the area and escorted the Republic into Costa Rica.
Anguilla Republic of Anguilla 1967–1969 Now a British overseas territory Created due to opposition to a union with modern St. Kitts and Nevis. It ceased to exist after being occupied by the British Army.
Alabama Alabama Republic 1861 Now Part of the United States Secessionist republic declared January 11, 1861 when Alabama seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.
Anguilla Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia 1860–1862 Now part of Argentina and Chile Set up by a French adventurer who tried to gain legitimacy for his state only to be denied. The self-proclaimed kingdom was mostly a legal fiction and did only loosely controlled a small portion of the territory of it claimed. In fact the Mapuche warlords that submitted to it were totally autonomous, and used the kingdom only as pretext to obtain foreign support. It was conquered and partitioned by Chile and Argentina.
Baja California, Sonora Republic of Baja California 1853–1854 Now part of Mexico The filibuster William Walker took control of La Paz, the capital of the sparsely populated Baja California, and 200 more men joined him. Walker declared La Paz the capital of a new Republic of Baja California, with himself as president and a constitution copied from that of Louisiana. Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months later, he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora.
Sonora Republic of Sonora 1854 Now part of Mexico A lesser to William Walker's Republic of Baja California, it was a merger between that and Sonora.
California California Republic 1846 Now part of the United States Formed during an Anglo-American revolt in Mexican California during the Mexican-American War. This "state" never actually possessed a high level of organization, and was only in existence for a matter of weeks before the rebels deferred to the US government and American troops.
Deseret State of Deseret 1846 Now part of the United States The State of Deseret was formed by Mormons(Latter-Day Saints) in 1849 before becoming Utah Territory in 1850. Advance Parties of Mormon Pioneers entered the Great Basin Area in 1846, and Vanguard Companys arrived in 1847. Believing they were leaving the borders of the United States. After the establishment of the Utah Territory in 1850, the Latter-day Saints did not relinquish the idea of a "State of Deseret". From 1862 to 1870, a group of Mormon elders under Young's leadership met as a shadow government after each session of the territorial legislature to ratify the new laws under the name of the "state of Deseret". Attempts were made in 1856, 1862, and 1872 to write a new state constitution under that name based on the new boundaries of the Utah Territory.
Confederate States of America Confederate States of America 1861–1865 Now part of the United States Originally formed by seven states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana). After the American Civil War began, the states of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina joined. Though not recognized as a sovereign nation, the Confederacy was recognized by some nations as a "belligerent power". Reintegrated into the United States.
Entre Ríos ProvinceRepublic of Entre Ríos 1820-1821 Part of Argentina Today the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes
Florida Republic of Florida 1861 Now part of the United States Secessionist state established January 10, 1861, when Florida seceded from the United States. Only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.
Independent Guyana Republic of Independent Guyana 1886–1891 Part of Amapa, Brazil Established by French settlers in defiance of both France and Brazil
Indian Stream  Republic of Indian Stream 1832–1835 Now part of the United States Annexed by the United States. Within the state of New Hampshire.
Juliana Juliana Republic 1839 Part of Brazil Today's Santa Catarina
Los Altos Republic of Los Altos 1837–1840, 1847 Now part of Guatemala The United Provinces of Central America were riven by strife for much of their existence. Guatemala’s ruling class was appalled by the thought of an illiterate and brutish peasant Governor Rafael Carrera, and led the six western provinces into secession. The new state of Los Altos, under Liberal leadership, appealed for recognition to the UPCA. In January of 1840, Carrera reconquered Los Altos, and then defeated the UPCA’s army in March, sounding the death knell for the United Provinces. Los Altos rebelled again when Carrera declared Guatemala an independent republic in 1847, but was again rapidly crushed.
Louisiana Republic of Louisiana 1861 Now part of the United States Secessionist state formed on January 11, 1861 when Louisiana seceded from the United States. It only lasted two and a half weeks before joining the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861.
Madawaska Republic of Madawaska 1827–1842 Now divided between Canada and the United States Within the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec and the state of Maine
Manitobah  Republic of Manitobah 1867–1869 Now part of Canada Within the province of Manitoba
Mississippi Republic of Mississippi 1861 Now part of the United States Secessionist state established January 9, 1861 when Mississippi seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before joining the Confederate States of America
Muskogee State of Muskogee 1799–1802 Part of the United States A Native American state in Florida; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. Annexed by the United States.
Piratini Piratini Republic 1836–1845 Part of Brazil Today's Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande Republic of the Río Grande 1840 Now part of the United States and Mexico Consisted part of southern Texas and the 3 Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas
South Carolina Republic of South Carolina 1860-61 Now part of the United States Secessionist state established on December 20, 1860 when South Carolina became the first state to secede from the United States. It lasted a month and a half before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America
South Haiti  Republic of South Haiti 1810 Now part of Haiti Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the Kingdom of Haiti, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande'Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. Haiti was reunited soon afterwards.
South Peru, North Peru and Confederacy

Republic of South Peru, Republic of North Peru and Peru–Bolivian Confederation

1836–1839 Now part of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled "Supreme Protector", was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz. The confederation was a loose union between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru, which included the capital Tacna) and Bolivia.
Texas Republic of Texas 1861 Now part of the United States Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861 and lasted as an independent state for a month before joining the Confederate States of America.

Not to be confused with the earlier (1836–1845), partially recognized Republic of Texas.

Trinidad Principality of Trinidad 1893–1895 Part of Brazil American James Harden-Hickey divorced his wife in 1893 (1894?) and announced his intention to move to India and take up a life of Hindu asceticism. On the trip there, a storm forced his ship aground on the island of Trinidad (no relation to the Caribbean Trinidad) in the South Atlantic. Seeing that the island was uninhabited, Harden-Hickey declared himself Prince James I of Trinidad and advertised for settlers in the London Times. The following year, the United Kingdom annexed the island in order to anchor a transatlantic telegraph cable. Prince James was encouraged, hoping that the cable would bring the attention he needed to start his reign. However, the plan was scrapped and Brazil annexed the island again in 1897.
Republic of Tucumán 1820 Part of Argentina Now part of Argentine provinces of Catamarca, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.
Vermont Vermont Republic 1777–1791 Now part of the United States Became the State of Vermont
Watauga  Watauga Association 1772–1778 Now part of the United States Annexed into the State of North Carolina
West Florida Free and Independent Republic of West Florida 1810 Now part of the United States Republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama. Annexed during the presidency of James Madison.
Yucatán  Republic of Yucatán 1841–1843 & 1846–1848 Part of Mexico A state from 1841 to 1848, it was proclaimed after the Mexican government tried to centralize and tried to join the US during the Mexican-American War it was rejected and joined a federal Mexico after the war ended. A revolt in Yucatán in 1916, led by Felipe Cerillo but with active Mayan involvement, effectively separated the region from the weak Mexican state. On 3 April 1916 Carillo declared the independence of the Socialist Republic of Yucatan, but the Republic failed to garner much support, and was quickly overrun by Mexican forces.[2][3]


Name Period Today Notes
Aceh Sultanate of Aceh 1874–1904 Now part of Indonesia A sultanate in modern Indonesia it was later conquered by the Danish after four hundred years.
Alash Alash Autonomy 1917–1920 Now part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan De facto self-governingdictatorship.
Ararat Republic of north turkey 1927–1930 Now part of Turkey One of the first Kurdish republics in history, founded in Ağrı Province, Turkey.
Republic of Aras Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Now part of Azerbaijan Established during the Russian Civil War, this state only lasted several months.[4]
Azerbaijan People's Government Azerbaijan People's Government 1945–1946 Now part of Iran Soviet puppet state set up in Iranian Azerbaijan but later reclaimed by Iran.
Bangsamoro Republik Bangsamoro Republik Bangsamoro Republik 2013 Now part of the Philippines Following the defeat in Zamboanga City by the Philippines on September 28, 2013, the Moro National Liberation Front no longer controls any territory openly anywhere and the Bangsamoro Republic has ceased to exist.
Republic of Biak-na-Bato Republic of Biak-na-Bato 1897 Now part of the Philippines Secessionist state that later joined the First Philippine Republic.
Chinese Soviet Republic Chinese Soviet Republic 1931–1937 Now part of China Recognised by the People's Republic of China (1949 - ) as a "rehearsal" of the PRC and a "cradle" in which the Communist Party seized power.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1954–1961 Now part of India Territory made up of two former exclaves of the Portuguese district of Daman (Portuguese India). In 1954, it was invaded and occupied by supporters of their integration in the Indian Union. Thereafter and until formal annexation by India in 1961, it enjoyed a de facto independence. Portugal continued to consider Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Portuguese territory until 1974. The native citizens of the territory continued to be entitled to the grant of Portuguese citizenship until 2006.
Democratic Republic of Yemen Democratic Republic of Yemen 1994 Now part of Yemen Breakaway state formed during the 1994 civil war in Yemen. It only lasted six weeks before being reconquered.
East Timor East Timor Democratic Republic of East Timor 1975 Now independent Former overseas province of Portugal. Declaration of independence in November 28, 1975, recognized by six states (Albania, Cape Verde, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe). Invaded and annexed by Indonesia in December, 1975. United Nations, Portugal and most of the states didn't recognized Indonesian annexation and continued to consider East Timor as Portuguese territory until its definitive independence in 2002.
East Turkestan 1 First East Turkestan Republic 1933–1934 Now part of China Set up as part of the movement for an independent East Turkestan it was defeated by the Nationalists.
East Turkestan 2 Second East Turkestan Republic 1944–1949 Now part of China Soviet satellite state set up in East Turkestan; the Soviets later turned against it and approved its annexation by China.
Ezo Republic of Ezo 1869 Now part of Japan Set up in Hokkaido by supporters of the Tokugawa clan following the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate after the Boshin War and Meiji Restoration; they received support from France but only lasted five months.
Formosa Republic of Formosa 1895 Now base of the Taiwan, Republic of China Declared independence upon cession of Taiwan to Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War.
Free Lebanon State 1979–1984 Now part of Lebanon In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. The 1978 Israeli invasion allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979 Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent State of Free Lebanon" (Dawlet Lebnaan El Horr El Mest’ell) with the capital Beirut, though his actual headquarters were in Marjayoun. In May 1980, " Free Lebanon Army" was renamed "South Lebanon Army". The statehood claim was downplayed following the death of Haddad in 1984, though his successor Antouan Lahed continued to exercise some authority in Southern Lebanon until the year 2000. On 24 May 2000, following Israeli withdrawal and final collapse of the SLA, Lebanese forces occupied the small town Marjayoun, which was the "capital" of southern Lebanon.
People's Republic of Inner Mongolia Innermongolpeoplerep1945.gif Inner Mongolian People's Republic 1945 Now part of China During the Second World War when the Japanese support in Inner Mongolia was established puppet state Mengjiang. Once in August 1945 it was destroyed by Soviet and Mongolian troops, September 9, 1945 in Sunid Yutsi - held Congress of People's Representatives and aimags khoshuns Inner Mongolia. Held three days of the Congress proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia and elected interim government. In November the Chinese Communist Party managed to bring the situation under control, and reorganized the Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia in Mongolian Autonomous Government.
Fuijian People's Government Fujian People's Government 1933–1934 Now part of China Formed following the Fuijian Incident, when the formerly 19th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army broke with commander Chiang Kai-shek and declared a new government. Although originally enjoying popular support the government lost favour and was crushed by Kuomintang forces in 1934.
Hyderabad Hyderabad State 1947–1948 Now is split up among Telangana, Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India One of Britain's numerous client rulers in central India, the Prince of Hyderabad, being Muslim, refused to acknowledge the new Indian government following independence in 1947. Indian troops invaded Hyderabad and rapidly forced its capitulation in 1948.
Kalat Khanate of Kalat 1947–1948 Now part of Balochistan province in Pakistan Kalat was a princely state in Baluchistan Agency, the one of the agencies of British India. The Khan of Baluchistan declared his nation's independence on August 15, 1947, one day after India and Pakistan declared independence. From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Khan relented and acceeded Baluchistan to Pakistan in 1948.
Kurdistan Kingdom of Kurdistan 1921–1924 Now part of Iraq Establishment by Kurdish nationalists following the collapse of Ottoman Turkey but were defeated by Britain and incorporated into the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
Lanfang  Lanfang Republic 1777–1884 Now part of Indonesia Established by Chinese in Indonesia as the Dutch began to conquer Indonesia to protect the ethnic Chinese it was a tributary state of the Qing Dynasty in Imperial China; but the Qing Dynasty weakened and it was conquered by the Dutch who added it to colonies.
Mahabad Iraqi Kurdistan Republic of Mahabad 1946–1947 Now part of Iran Declared independence from Iran, but then occupied by Iran after the withdraw of the Soviet Red Army from northern Iran and Demolishing of Azerbaijan People's Government.
Manchukuo  Manchukuo 1932–1945 Part of China Puppet state under Japanese control.
Mongolian People's Republic  Mongolia 1932–1945 Now independent Was not recognized by several countries from 1940 to 1960 due to being claimed as an integral part of the Republic of China.[5]
Ararat Republic of Mountainous Armenia 1921 Now part of Armenia and the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Was an anti-Soviet Armenian state existed from 26 April until 13 July 1921, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day Armenian provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.[6]
Negros Cantonal Republic of Negros 1898–1901 Now part of the Philippines. Declared independence and aligned itself with the First Philippine Republic. Later, it was recognized by the United States, however the government was dissolved by the Americans in 1901.
Persian SSR Persian Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1921 Now Gilan province in Iran Created by local guerilleros (Jangali) when Red Army troops entered Iran, but failed to spread the revolutionary movement over the whole Iran
Philippines First Philippine Republic 1899–1901 Now part of the Philippines Existed as an unrecognized independent state from its declaration on June 12, 1898, up to the Treaty of Paris on December 10, by which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and pursued an unsuccessful war of independence against the United States in the Philippine-American War
Philippines Second Philippine Republic 1943–1945 Now the Philippines The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
Sedang Kingdom of Sedang 1888–1889 Now part of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Charles David Mayréna was born in France in 1842, he stopped in Vietnam 1884 and started a plantation. In 1888, the King of Siam began claiming territory west of French territory. Anxious, the Governor of the Indochinese Union agreed to Mayréna's proposed expedition to the interior. When Mayréna reached the central highlands, he organized the local tribes into the Kingdom of Sedang, and declared himself King Marie I. He offered to cede his kingdom to France in exchange for monopoly rights. When the French government became understandably chilly, Mayréna approached the English at Hong Kong. When he was rebuffed there, Mayréna went to Belgium. In 1889, a Belgian financier named Somsy offered arms and money to Mayréna in exchange for mineral rights. Unfortunately, the French Navy blockaded Vietnamese ports to prevent his return, and his arms were seized as contraband at Singapore.
South Moluccas Republic of South Maluku

Republic of South Moluccas

1950 Now part of Indonesia the Moluccas formed part of the United States of Indonesia (27 December 1949- 17 August 1950), but declared independence in April 1950 in reaction of centralizing tendencies from Jakarta. It was quickly conquered by Indonesian troops, but maintains a government in exile in the Netherlands.
Suvadive Islands United Suvadive Republic Suvadive Islands 1959–1963 Now part of the Maldives Attempted break-away state it was supported by Britain briefly before being abandoned.
Syria Kingdom of Syria 1920 Now independent Lasted 4 months at the end of World War I until dissolved by the French who took control.
Tagalog Republic (Bonifacio) Sovereign Tagalog Nation 1896–1897 Now part of the Philippines. Succeeded by the First Philippine Republic.
Tagalog Republic (Sacay) Tagalog Republic 1902–1906 Now part of the Philippines. Revolutionary body set up during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War.
Tannu Tuva  Tannu Tuva 1921–1944 Now part of Russia Attempt by Tuvans to gain independence following years of domination by China and Imperial Russia it was put under Soviet control and later formally annexed.
Tibet Tibet 1912–1951 Now part of People's Republic of China, Invasion of Tibet In 1913, Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet proclaimed independence from Qing Dynasty,[7] which was only recognized by Mongolia[8][9] (however, there have been doubts over the authority of the Tibetan representative to sign the treaty, and thus its validity).[10] One year later the Dalai Lama signed a UK-drafted treaty accepting Chinese suzerainty and adjusting the border in favor of British India.[11] The 14th Dalai Lama acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in the Seventeen Point Agreement of 1951,[12] but China continues to reject the 1914 UK-drafted treaty and claims South Tibet (now part of India's Arunachal Pradesh).
Wang Jingwei Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg Wang Jingwei Government 1940–1945 Part of China Puppet government dissolved at the end of World War II. Recognized by Imperial Japan and its allies.
Zamboanga Republic of Zamboanga 1899–1903 Now part of the Philippines. República de Zamboanga was a revolutionary republic, founded shortly after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.
Timor Republic of Timor 1961 Now part of Timor-Leste In early 1961 the Battle Office for the Liberation of Timor (Bureau de Luta pela Libertação de Timor) was formed under the leadership of Maoclao and backed by Indonesia. A republic was proclaimed in the border town of Batugade on 9 April 1961. It was quickly put down by Portuguese troops.[13]


Name Period Today Notes
Couto Misto 10th century – 1868 Part of Spain and Portugal De facto independent microstate on the border between Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal. By the 1864 Treaty of Lisbon, its territory was partitioned between Spain and Portugal.
Corsica Corsica Kingdom of Corsica 1736 Part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa
Corsica Corsican Republic 1755–1769 Part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa; annexed by France. Recognized only by Bey of Tunis[14]
Liege Republic of Liège 1789–1791 Part of Belgium Republic formed following the Liège Revolution
Corsica Corsica Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1794–1796 Part of France Independent kingdom under British King George III, formed on the Irish model[15][16]
Gozo The Gozitan Nation 1798–1801 Part of Malta Independent kingdom under Neapolitan King Ferdinand III. It was actually ruled by a provisional government set up by Francesco Saverio Cassar, after French troops on the island capitulated to rebels. It became part of the British protectorate of Malta in 1801.
Connacht Republic of Connacht 1798 Part of Ireland French client republic
Goust  Republic of Goust 1827 Part of France[17] A French hamlet which was considered for a long time independent due to it never being formally annexed by France.
Tavolara Kingdom of Tavolara 1836–1962? Part of Italy[18] Recognized by the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy; acknowledged by Queen Victoria.
Republic of Saint Mark Repubblica di San Marco 1848–1849 Part of Italy Following 1848 unrests, the republic was proclaimed in 1848 in the territories of Venetia with the capital Venice. Allied with the other Italian states against Austrian Empire, it eventually voted to federate under Kingdom of Sardinia, but it went back to independence after piedmontese defeat. Remaining only Venice and its lagoon under control, the republic surrendered after almost 5 months of siege and after 17 months of existence.
Canton of Cartagena Canton of Cartagena 1873–1874 Part of Spain In 1873 Cartagena was proclaimed as an independent canton, called the Canton of Cartagena. This proclamation started the Cantonal Revolution in Spain, during the First Spanish Republic. It was the beginning of the cantonalism, a movement that tried Spain become a federal state composed by cantons. Some cities and territories joined the cantonal cause and were declared independents too, but they surrendered a few days later. The only canton with an organized government as state, control on its territory and military power was Cartagena, which declared war and faced the Spanish central government during six months, until it was invaded.
Tamrash Republic of Tamrash 1878–1886 Part of Bulgaria The Republic of Tamrash was a self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains.
Kruševo Flag of Kruševo Republic.svg Kruševo Republic 1903 Part of Macedonia Republic established in Kruševo, Macedonia
Chita Republic Chita Republic, Krasnoyarsk Republic, Novorossiysk Republic, Sochi Republic, Starobuyanskaya Republic 1905–1906 Part of Russia The Chita Republic was a workers and peasants' dictatory republic in Chita during the Russian Revolution of 1905, installed by actual seizure of power in Chita RSDLP Committee and the Council of Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies in November 1905 - January 1906. The Krasnoyarsk Republic - government, organized by the Joint Board of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Krasnoyarsk during the First Russian Revolution. Lasted from 9 to 27 December 1905. The Novorossiysk Republic - the worker-peasant self-government established by the Council of Workers' Deputies in Novorossiysk December 12, 1905 lasted until 26 December of the same year. The Sochi Republic - political education social democratic sense, arising from the modern city of Sochi as a result of the revolutionary uprisings of 1905. Lasted from December 28, 1905 to January 5, 1906 (i.e., about 9 days). The Starobuyanskaya Republic - peasant self-government established during the First Russian Revolution in the village of Stary Buyan. Lasted from 12 to 26 November 1905.
Gurian Republic Gurian Republic 1905–1906 Part of Georgia The Gurian Republic or the Gurian peasant republic was an insurrection that took place in the western Georgian province Guria (then part of the Imperial Russia) prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the November 1905 to January 10, 1906.
Liubotyn Liubotyn Republic and Shuliavka Republic 1905 Part of Ukraine The Lyubotinskaya Republic - proclaimed in December 1905, independent workers' state in the armed insurrection of the workers and railwaymen in Lyubotin during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the December 26 to 30, 1905. The Shuliavka Republic was an early 20th-century worker-based quasi-government organization in the city of Kiev, Ukraine, whose main task was self-defence. The uprising lasted a total of four days, from December 12–16 (o.s., in the Gregorian Calendar, 26 - 29), 1905.
Markovo Markovo Republic 1905–1906 Part of Russia Markovo Republic was a self-proclaimed peasant state, located in Russia, in the Volokolamsk area. It was proclaimed on October 18, 1905, when during the Russian Revolution of 1905 peasants took control of the local government in the village Markovo and 5 other villages. It had existed until July 18, 1906.
Republika Ostrowiecka Republika Ostrowiecka 1905–1906 Part of Poland The Ostrovetskaya Republic (Republika Ostrowiecka) - government set December 27, 1905 during the First Russian Revolution in cities Ostrowiec, Iłżę, Ćmielów and locality. Republic fell in the middle of January 1906.
Republika Zagłębiowska Republika Zagłębiowska and Republika Sławkowska 1905 Part of Poland Polish towns Zagłębie Dąbrowskie and Sławków taken over by revolutionary during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Both republics existed in November - December 1905, each about 10–12 days.
Republic of Central Albania Republic of Central Albania 1913–1914 Part of Albania The Republic of Central Albania was a republic declared following the pullout of Ottoman forces from the former Albanian Vilayet. Declared by Essad Pasha Toptani, the republic's existence came to an end when the troops of Wilhelm of Wied took control of the country.
Ukraine 1 Ukraine Ukrainian People's Republic 1917–1920 Part of Ukraine An independent republic and direct predecessor of modern Ukraine established right after the Bolshevik coup-d'etat against the Russian Republic government. During 1918 due to own coup-d'etat had its government swapped between socialists and conservatives while officially referred to as the Ukrainian State. In 1919 by the Unification Act, Ukraine united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic. At that time Ukraine was recognized by numerous countries in Europe.
Idel-Ural Idel-Ural State 1917–1918 Part of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan (Russia) Suppressed by the Red Army.
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina) and Montenegro (Boka Kotorska) Temporary state of the Austro-Hungarian South Slavs, declared on October 29, 1918, and merged with the Kingdom of Serbia on December 1, 1918, into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)
Tarnobrzeg Republic of Tarnobrzeg 1918–1919 Part of Poland The Republic of Tarnobrzeg was proclaimed November 6, 1918 in the Polish town of Tarnobrzeg. Disestablished Spring 1919.
Kuban Kuban People's Republic Kuban People's Republic 1918–1920 Part of Russia A territory in Russia, it was declared by Kuban Cossacks in 1918. It supported the White Movement and was overrun by the Bolsheviks in 1920.
Ukraine, West Ukraine West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Part of Ukraine Established in eastern Galicia it controlled cities once part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and with large numbers of ethnic Poles leading to a losing war with Poland after which it was partitioned by Poland, the Kingdom of Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Ukraine 3 Ukraine Komancza Republic 1918–1919 Part of Ukraine An association of 30 pro-Ukrainian villages, it planned to merge with the West Ukrainian People's Republic but was suppressed by Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918 Part of Finland Lasted only three months during the Finnish Civil War, but was recognized by Soviet Russia.
Republic of Vorarlberg Republic of Vorarlberg 1918 Part of Austria Amidst the chaos in collapse of the Austro-Ungarian empire the Vorarlbergers proclaimed themselves a separate non-Austrian, Germanic people and declared on 3 November 1918 the independence as Republic of Vorarlberg. The secession was blocked by the alies and the new Austrian republican government. In April 1919, over 80% of the Vorarlbergers voted to secede from Austria and attach themselves to Switzerland, but they were again blocked.[19]
Alsace Alsace Soviet Republic (Republic of Alsace-Lorraine) 1918 Part of France The Soviet Republic, existed in Alsace from 10 to 22 November 1918.
Banat Banat Republic 1918 Part of Romania, Serbia, and Hungary Established in the Banat region of modern Serbia by members of ethnic groups in the region, it was only recognized by Hungary. It was invaded by Serbia and in 1919 partitioned between Hungary, Romania, and the newly created Yugoslavia.
Republic of Venezia-Giulia Republic of Venezia-Giulia 1918 Part of Italy and Slovenia Centered on the port of Fiume, now called Rijeka by the Croatian inhabitants, Venezia-Giulia was an important staging area for the Austro-Hungarian Empire's Adriatic trade. After the war, both Yugoslavia and Italy claimed the area. The inhabitants refused to join either nation, preferring to remain independent and retain the cosmopolitan, multi-ethnic nature of the area. After Fiume's seizure by Italian nationalists in 1919, the Republic was partitioned.[20]
Don Republic  Don Republic 1918–1920 Part of Russia (Rostov Oblast) Republic that was recognized by the Ukrainian State. In 1919 it was part of the Armed Forces of South Russia and eventually overran by Bolsheviks with its annexation to the Soviet Russia.
Belarus Belarus Belarusian People's Republic 1918 Independent Belarus Attempt by Belorussian nationalists but reincorporated into the Soviet Union. Still exists today as a government-in-exile.
German Austria Austria Republic of German-Austria 1918–1919 Austria and part of the Czech Republic Brief state declared following the collapse of Austria-Hungary. The Allies of World War I opposed it and it was succeeded by the First Austrian Republic.
Perloja Republic of Perloja 1918–1923 Part of Lithuania In the chaos after World War I, responding to such situation the locals established a self-governing parish committee, often called the Republic of Perloja. The Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.
North Ingria The Republic of North Ingria 1919-1920 Part of Russia The Republic of North Ingria was a state of Ingrian Finns in the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus, which seceded from Bolshevist Russia after the October Revolution. Its aim was to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia. Established -January 23, 1919. Disestablished - December 5, 1920.
Ukraine 4 Ukraine Hutsul Republic 1919 Part of Ukraine A state formed from territory in the former Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, it was invaded by the Hungarian Soviet Republic in June 1919 and then became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It originally intended to join the Western Ukrainian National Republic[21]
Bavarian Soviet Republic, Bremen Soviet Republic Bavarian Soviet Republic and Bremen Soviet Republic 1919 Part of Germany The Bavarian Soviet Republic, also known as the Munich Soviet Republic was, as part of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the attempt to establish a socialist state in the form of a democratic workers' council republic in the Free State of Bavaria. Another Republic that existed was the Bremen Soviet Republic.
Slovakia 1 Slovak Soviet Republic 1919 Part of Slovakia A pro-Hungarian puppet state set up by Red Guards from the Hungarian Soviet Republic in Upper Hungary. After a brief war it was returned to Czechoslovakia as promised by early peace agreements.
Prekmurje Republic of Prekmurje 1919 Part of Slovenia[22] Existed for 6 days.
Limerick Soviet Limerick Soviet 1919 Part of Ireland The Limerick Soviet (republic) was a self-declared Soviet Republic that existed from 15 to 27 April 1919.
Monarchy of the North Monarchy of the North 1919 Part of Portugal A stated that established by monarchists trying to restore the monarchy. It was crushed by the Portuguese Army.
Ireland Republic of Ireland Irish Republic 1919–1922 The Republic of Ireland and part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland An unrecognized Irish nationalist state during the Irish War for Independence it ceased to exist following the Anglo-Irish Treaty which gave Southern Ireland independence as the Irish Free State while keeping Northern Ireland under British Control. These terms caused much of the victorious Irish Republican Army to reject the treaty, leading to the Irish Civil War (1922–1923) between Pro-Treaty Free State forces and Anti-Treaty IRA, who viewed the dissolution of the Republic as illegal.
Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1919 Now part of Ukraine The Soviet Republic Ukrainian SSR existed from 1919 to 1991. It was not until the Peace of Riga in 1920 when it was officially recognized. It was created as an opposition to the Ukrainian government. With the fall of the Soviet Union transitioned to Ukraine.
Galician SSR Galician Soviet Socialist Republic 1920 Now part of Ukraine The Soviet Republic Galician SSR existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army.
Latjtabansag Lajtabánság 1921 Part of Austria and Hungary State declared in the Burgenland state of Austria by ethnic Hungarians following the Treaty of Trianon, where Hungary was forced to surrender the territory. It was ceased to exist after a month when Austria annexed it.
Labin  Labin Republic 1921 Part of Croatia Republic established in Labin, Croatia
Baranya-Baja Serbia Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic 1921 Part of Hungary and Croatia A Soviet-minded[vague] state set up by Hungarian communists fleeing the white terror following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. It was supported by Yugoslavia but was quickly re-conquered by Hungary.
Mirdita Republic of Mirdita 1921 Part of Albania Set up by Albanian Catholics trying to break away from Albania which is a mainly Muslim country. It was backed by Yugoslavia but only lasted three months.
Munster Munster Munster Republic 1922 Part of the Republic of Ireland Though never independent it was the informal name given to Munster which was the base of Irish republicans aiming to create a United Ireland during the Irish Civil War.
Galicia Republic of Galicia 1931 Part of Spain The Galician Republic was an ephemeral passage in the History of Galicia. It only lasted for a few hours on 27 June 1931, a day ahead of the election to the Second Spanish Republic's Constitutional Assembly.
Asturias and Leon Sovereign Council of Asturias and León 1936–1937 Part of Spain As unrecognized state declared during the Spanish Civil War.
Carpatho-Ukraine Ukraine Carpatho-Ukraine 1939 Part of Ukraine Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was returned to Hungary between March 15 and March 16, 1939, remaining under Hungarian control until the Nazi occupation of Hungary in 1944. On June 29, 1945, a treaty was signed under pressure of USSR between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ruthenia officially to the Soviet Union. In 1946 the area was forced to became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast (Transcarpathian Region).
Slovakia 2 Slovakia First Slovak Republic 1939–1945 Part of Slovakia Between 1939 and 1945, First Slovak Republic was a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
Estonia Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940–1991 Part of Estonia A puppet state[23] which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.
Latvia Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940–1991 Part of Latvia A puppet state[23] which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.
Lithuania Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940–1991 Part of Lithuania A puppet state[23] which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.
Croatia  Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Now two independent states, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Affiliated with the Third Reich.
Uzice Republic of Užice 1941 Part of Serbia Area briefly liberated by Yugoslav partisans after the Invasion of Yugoslavia; it was retaken by the German Army during the First anti-Partisan offensive.
Bihać Bihac Republic 1942–1943 Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Area liberated by Yugoslav partisans before being recaptured by the German Army.
Corsica Italy Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Part of Italy German-dominated puppet state under Benito Mussolini, formed in the North of Italy after the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III signed an armistice with the Allies.
Free Republic of Vercors 1944 Part of France On 3 July 1944 the Free Republic of Vercors was proclaimed, the first democratic territory in France since the beginning of the German occupation in 1940. The republic ceased to exist before the end of the month.
East Germany  German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 Part of the Federal Republic of Germany Commonly known as East Germany, the state was not recognized for a time by West Germany and several other countries.
Gagauzia Gagauzia 1990–1994 Part of Moldova Region in Moldova that declared its independence on 19 August 1991 following the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 which was supported by many in the area. This came as a result of the possibility of a union between Moldova and Romania which was opposed in Gagauzia which abandoned independence after gaining autonomy from the Moldovan government.
Chechnya  Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 1991–2000 Part of Russia Reintegrated into the Russian Federation as the Chechen Republic
Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina 1991–1995 Part of Croatia Suppressed by Croatia.
Dubrovnik Republic Republic of Dubrovnik Flag.png Dubrovnik Republic (1991) 1991–1992 Part of Croatia Suppressed by Croatia.
Republika Srpska  Republika Srpska 1992–1995 One of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina Transformed into an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering 50% of the land with 90%+ ethnic Serbs.
Crimea Autonomous Republic of Crimea Republic of Crimea 1992, 1994–1995, 2014 Part of Ukraine de jure, de facto part of Russia Declared in 1992 and again in 1994, spanning the Crimean peninsula. Was ended through negotiations with Ukraine both times[24][25] until seceding in 2014 and almost immediately joining Russia.
Western Bosnia Republic of Western Bosnia 1993–1995 Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia, existed during the Bosnian War. Its leader was later convicted of war crimes.


Name Period Today Notes
Empire of Australia 1804 Part of Australia The Empire of Australia collapsed after the defeat at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.[26]
Bougainville Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville Interim Government 1990–1998 Part of Papua New Guinea Signed a peace deal with Papua New Guinea giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade
Franceville Independent Commune of Franceville 1889–1890 Part of Vanuatu Its independence guaranteed by France, this community of Melanesian natives and European settlers experimented with universal suffrage until France and Britain intervened in the New Hebrides[27]
MinervaRepublic of Minerva 1972 Part of Tonga, but claim disputed by Fiji and a Minerva "principality" group Several previously unclaimed reefs that were occupied and raised in a minor way by a group of libertarian establishmentarians until Tonga laid claim to the territory
New Zealand United Tribes of New Zealand 1835–1840 New Zealand Independence declared by British Resident James Busby and northern Māori tribal leaders as an attempt to safeguard British claims against French territorial expansion. Led to a formal treaty (the Treaty of Waitangi) between Māori leaders and the British crown in 1840.
North Solomons Autonomous Region of Bougainville Republic of North Solomons 1975–1976 Part of Papua New Guinea Seceded twice and returned after peace negotiations both times.
Rotuma Republic of Rotuma 1987–1988 Dependency of Fiji Following the second coup, when Fiji left the British Commonwealth of Nations, a segment of the Rotuman population, known as the "Mölmahao Clan" of Noa’tau rejected the council's decision to remain with the newly declared republic. Arguing that Rotuma had been ceded to Great Britain and not to Fiji, these rebels declared in 1987 independence of Republic of Rotuma and were charged with sedition. It did not have any substantive support, majority opinion appears to favor remaining with Fiji, but rumblings of discontent remain.
Tafea Tafea Nation 1980 Part of Vanuatu Opposed to the Anglo-French condominium that ruled it but which ended the secessionist state.
Tanna Tanna Nation 1974 Part of Vanuatu Declared independence but was suppressed by the Anglo-French condominium.
Vemerana Republic of Vemerana 1980 Part of Vanuatu Central power of Vanuatu restored with assistance of army from Papua New Guinea

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Somalia - British Somaliland and Somaliland
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Dr. Andrew Andersen, Ph.D. Atlas of Conflicts: Armenia: Nation Building and Territorial Disputes: 1918–1920
  5. ^ Kotkin, Stephen; Elleman, Bruce A. (ed.), Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan, p139
  6. ^ Republic of Mountainous Armenia (26 April 1921, capital: Goris, including: Syunik, Vayots Dzor and parts of modern-day NKR)
  7. ^ Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII (1913)
  8. ^ Udo B. Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p380ff
  9. ^ Phurbu Thinley (2008-11-12). "Tibet - Mongolia Treaty of 1913, a proof of Tibet’s independence: Interview with Prof. Elliot Sperling". Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  10. ^ Smith, Warren, "Tibetan Nation", p. 186: "The validity is often questioned, mainly on grounds of the authority of Dorjiev to negotiate on behalf of Tibet...the fact that Dorjiev was a Russian citizen while ethnically Tibetan somewhat compromises his role; the treaty had some advantages to Russia in that it could be interpreted as extending Russia's protectorate over Mongolia to encompass Tibet.
  11. ^ Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Simla (1914)
  12. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp812-813, saying: "After a lengthy discussion...the assembly recommended to the Dalai Lama that the agreement be approved. On 24 October, the Dalai Lama sent an official confirmation to Mao Tse-tung."
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ Thrasher, Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, CT: Archon Books. p. 117. ISBN 0-208-01031-9. 
  15. ^ Thrasher, Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books. p. 282. ISBN 0-208-01031-9. 
  16. ^ Gregory, Desmond (1985). The ungovernable rock: a history of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and its role in Britain's Mediterranean strategy during the Revolutionary War, 1793–1797. London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0838632254. 
  17. ^ Goust photo – jmollivier photos at
  18. ^ Geremia, Ernesto Carlo, and Gino Ragnetti (2005), Tavolara - l'Isola dei Re, ISBN 88-425-3441-2
  19. ^ [4]
  20. ^ [5]
  21. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert; Pop, Ivan I. (June 2002). Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture (book). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-0-8020-3566-0. Retrieved 3009-06-23.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  22. ^ Mocsy
  23. ^ a b c Marek, Krystyna (1954). Identity and Continuity of States in Public International Law. Librairie Droz. p. 475. ISBN 9782600040440. 
  24. ^ Autonomous Republic of Crimea
  25. ^ Encyclopedia of the United Nations ... - Google Books
  26. ^ Middleton, Amy. "The Birth of the Australian Empire?". Australian Geographic. 
  27. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government", Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1