List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition. The entries listed here had de facto control over their claimed territory and were self-governing with a desire for full independence; or if they lacked such control over their territory, they were recognized by at least one other recognized nation.

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

The criteria for inclusion in this list are similar to those of the list of states with limited recognition. To be included here, a polity must have claimed sovereignty, has not had recognition by at least one widely accepted state for a significant portion of its de facto existence, and either:

  • had a population and an organized government with a capacity to enter into relations with other states; or
  • had de facto control over a territory or a significant portion of the territory of an otherwise-recognized sovereign state

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory[edit]

Africa[edit]

The total number of countries in the African continent varies due to the instability throughout the region. See the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa article for a current list.

Great instability was created by graft under leaders in West Africa.[1]

Many leaders marginalised ethnic groups and fanned ethnic conflicts (some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule) for political gain. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.

A variety of other causes have been blamed for Africa's political instability, including Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, over-reliance on foreign aid,[2] as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund.[3] When a country became independent for the first time, it would often align itself with one of the two superpowers in order to get support. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. The 1970s saw an escalation, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by funding insurgency movements. There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist/Soviet policies made the situation worse. The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath have killed an estimated 5.5 million people.[4] Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur which has become a humanitarian disaster. Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa has also been a prevalent issue.

In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined.[a] For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China,[6] which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Several African economies were among the world's fastest growing as of 2011 and that growth continues through 2019.[7] A significant part of this growth can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile phone.

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Shilluk Kingdom 15th century–1861 now part of Sudan
Ndwandwe 1780–1825 Now part of South Africa
Mthethwa Paramountcy 1780–1817
Republic of Swellendam 1795 A republic declared in revolt against the Dutch East India Company; it lasted 3 months before being re-incorporated into the Cape Colony.
Graaff-Reinet Formed in rebellion to Dutch East India Company; it took 2 years to be incorporated into the Cape Colony, though this time under British rule.
Islands of Refreshment
(Tristan da Cunha)
1811–1816 Now a British Overseas Territory Declared by American whaler Jonathan Lambert and four others, who were the first permanent inhabitants of the modern day Tristan da Cunha islands in the South Atlantic. Lambert declared himself the sovereign of the islands. Annexed in 1816 by the Cape Colony under the United Kingdom to prevent France from obtaining the islands.
Griqualand West 1813 Now part of South Africa Enjoyed de facto independence since the founding of Griquatown in 1813, Griqualand West eventually proclaimed itself a British colony in 1873. It did not gain recognition by Britain nor the neighboring Cape Colony and was annexed in 1880.
Potchefstroom Republic 1830 A republic that existed only for a couple of months before joining with Winburg Republic. It was effectively a city-state.
Winburg Republic 1836 Established on land on the Vet and Vaal Rivers donated to the Voortrekkers by Bataung Chief Makwana in 1836 in exchange for protection from neighboring Basotho tribes. Joined in union with the newly established Potchefstroom Republic in 1838 to form the Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom.
Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom 1838 Formed from the union of the Potchefstroom Republic and the Winburg Republic in 1838; the nation lasted until Potchefstroom left the union to join with Pietermaritzburg.
Natalia Republic 1839 Established in 1839 by local Afrikaans-speaking Voortrekkers after the Battle of Blood River. This Boer Republic lasted for four years before being annexed by British troops under George Napier.
Andries-Ohringstad Republic 1845 A fort was established by a group of Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Hendrik Potgieter with the help of a Dutch merchant Gregorius Ohrig. The settlers arrived in 1845 and were decimated by malaria. Forced to abandon the area, the republic was officially abandoned in 1849.
Liberia 1847–1862 Now recognized A collection of African American settlements in West Africa, sponsored by the American Colonization Society. The purpose of Liberia was to repatriate freed slaves back to Africa from the United States. The US government refused to recognize Liberia's independence until 1862, during the American Civil War.
Republic of Maryland 1854–1857 Now part of Liberia An African American settlement in West Africa, whose independence was unrecognized by the United States. It joined the also unrecognized Liberia in 1857 in reaction to a native insurgency.
Utrecht Republic 1854 Now part of South Africa A republic proclaimed by Andreas Theodorus Spies following a land purchase from the King of the Zulu, Mpande. It joined with the Lydenburg Republic in 1858.
Lydenburg Republic 1856 A Boer republic which was created following the dissolution of the Andries-Ohringstad Republic. Eventually this nation expanded with the inclusion of the Utrecht Republic in 1858. The republic lasted until 1860 when it was incorporated into the South African Republic
Zoutpansberg Republic 1857 A small Boer Republic that joined with the South African Republic in 1864. The white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, and were later regarded as typical "back velt Boers". Zoutpansberg contained a larger native population than any other region of the Transvaal.
Sultanate of Utetera 1860–1887 Now part of Democratic Republic of Congo Founded by infamous slave trader Tippu Tip
Griqualand West 1861 Now part of South Africa Founded by Adam Kok III as a final resting place[clarification needed] for Griqua people. The State suffered from a secret deal signed between the British Empire and Orange Free State causing unceasing instability. Although the reasons for its annexation are still debated, it was eventually integrated with the Cape Colony in 1880.
Klipdrift Republic 1870 A Republic proclaimed during a dispute over diamond mines near what would become Griqualand West.
Republic of Stellaland 1882 A Boer republic which existed briefly before its union with its neighboring Boer republic, the State of Goshen.
Free Republic of Rehoboth 1872–1990 Now part of Namibia The Baster are a community of mixed race descent, who left the British-ruled Cape Colony in 1868 and settled in a territory on a high plateau between the Namib and Kalahari deserts in what is now central Namibia, where they founded the Free Republic of Rehoboth (Rehoboth Gebiet), in 1872. They adopted a constitution known in Afrikaans as the Vaderlike Wette (Paternal Laws), which still continues to govern the internal affairs of the Baster community into the 21st century. Since the independence of Namibia, in 1990, the new state confiscated all of their territory without compensation.
Goshen 1882 Now part of South Africa A Boer Republic which merged with the Republic of Stellaland to form the United States of Stellaland in 1883.
United States of Stellaland 1883 A Boer republic which created from the union of neighboring Republic of Stellaland and State of Goshen. The republic lasted until it became a protectorate of the South African Republic on 10 September 1884 only to be annexed 6 days later.
Nieuwe Republiek 1884–1888 Created on 16 August 1884 with land donated by the Zulus through a treaty. The territory was part of the old Boer Republic of Natalia. The republic enjoyed independence until it was annexed by the South African Republic by its own request.
Colinsland 1884–1885 Now part of Guinea Disputed German colony in modern-day Guinea. The colony was initiated by the German merchant Frederick Colin, with limited support from the German government. Conceded to France (which had already claimed the area) in exchange for minor territories in other parts of Africa, and respect for Colin's commercial rights in the territory.
Republic of Lijdensrust 1884–1887 Now part of Namibia was a short-lived Boer republic in the area of present-day Namibia. Later joined German South-West Africa.
Mahdist State 1885–1899 Now part of Sudan Islamic state established during the Mahdist War by rebels. The rebellion failed and the state was dissolved.
Klein Vrystaat 1886 Now part of South Africa A Boer republic which declared its independence from lands formerly controlled by the Swazi king Mswati II. It was eventually incorporated into the South African Republic in 1891 at its own request.
New Moscow 1889 Now part of Djibouti Russian colony set up by Cossacks in East Africa. The colony was unsanctioned by the Russian government. The territory of New Moscow was under the ostensible rule of French Somaliland, who forced the colonists to surrender and deported them back to Russia.
Dervish State 1895–1920 Now part of Somalia, Somaliland and Ethiopia A state in Ciid-Nugaal wherein Diiriye Guure was king and his emir Mohammed Abdullah Hassan launched an armed resistance against colonial powers (specifically the United Kingdom, Italy, and Ethiopia) in Somalia. It was eventually defeated in 1920 by the British and Italians.

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Empire of the Sahara 1903–1908? Now part of Morocco A self-proclaimed monarchy declared by wealthy Frenchman Jacques Lebaudy, who wished to establish an imperial territory in Cape Juby. Lebaudy was backed by as many as 400 mercenaries and sixteen cannons. Lebaudy later relocated his court to the Savoy Hotel in London. His claim was recognized by no nation.
Zaian confederation 1914–1921 A confederation of Berber tribesmen in the interior of Morocco, which resisted French conquest in the Middle Atlas mountains for several years. The confederacy was supported by the Central Powers following the outbreak of the First World War, and was only subdued after the Treaty of Versailles.
South African Republic 1914–1915 Now part of South Africa A provisional government set up in the Maritz Rebellion of the First World War. It was an attempt by Boer troops to revive the South African Republic, which had been annexed into the British Empire twelve years prior at the conclusion of the Second Boer War. The mutiny was put down in under six months by the South African government.
Sultanate of Darfur 1915–1916 Now part of Sudan A protectorate of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The Sultan, Ali Dinar, renounced his allegiance to the British Empire in support of the Ottoman Empire, after their entry into the First World War against Britain. The rebellion was put down in the 1916 Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition.
Senussiyya 1915–1917, 1923–1932, 1939–1951 Now part of Libya and Niger An Arab religious order that controlled much of Libya and northern Niger throughout the early 20th century. Fought against French colonial expansion in Niger during the Kaocen revolt. Fought against Italian colonization in three stages:
Tripolitanian Republic 1918–1923 Now part of Libya A republic proclaimed following the Paris Peace Conference; it disintegrated sometime in 1923 and was annexed into Italian Tripolitania.
 Republic of the Rif 1921–1926 Now part of Morocco An independent Berber republic declared following a rebellion against Spanish rule within the Rif region of northern Morocco. The republic was made up of a confederation of many Berber tribes. Defeated by Spain, with French military assistance, in the protracted Rif War.
Macha Oromo Confederation 1936 Now part of Ethiopia Rump Oromo state in western Ethiopia that was proclaimed following Italian victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. Requested to be accepted as a British mandate territory to avoid annexation into the Italian Empire, but was recognized by no country and was occupied by the Italian army within the year.
Ethiopian Empire 1937–1941 Occupied by Italy in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. Despite lobbying by Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie from exile, only six nations did not recognize Italy's control over Ethiopia by 1937 (China, New Zealand, the Soviet Union, the Republic of Spain, Mexico, and the United States). During the East African campaign of the Second World War, the Allies recognized Selassie and restored Ethiopia's full independence.
Sultanate of M'Simbati 1959 Now part of Tanzania Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. The "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.
Kingdom of Sanwi 1959–1970 Now part of Ivory Coast Following self-government in the Ivory Coast, the traditional kingdom of Sanwi attempted secession from the republic several times during the early decades of decolonization. In 1960, the king of Sanwi even formed an unrecognized government-in-exile in Ghana.[8] The movement was combated by President Félix Houphouët-Boigny, partially with the aid of the French Armed Forces.
State of Katanga 1960–1963 Now part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Declared secession during the Congo Crisis. Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation. Although not recognised by any other country, Katanga received considerable financial, military and political support from Belgium, the Central African Federation, and Portugal. Lobbyists on behalf of Katanga also unsuccessfully attempted to bribe the government of Costa Rica in return for diplomatic recognition.[9]
 South Kasai 1960–1962 Declared secession during the Congo Crisis. Unlike Katanga, South Kasai did not fully secede from the Congo, instead seeking full autonomy. Its autonomy was not recognized by any nation, but it received some aid from foreign powers, especially Belgium. The official name of the country was the Mining State of South Kasai.
Kingdom of Rwenzururu 1962–1982 Now part of Uganda A secessionist movement that began just before decolonisation in Uganda and continued for twenty years. Within colonial Uganda, several kingdoms were allowed to continue their existence as subnational entities with some autonomy. The people of the Rwenzururu region demanded separation from the Tooro Kingdom as their own monarchy, but were denied by the colonial government. The Rwenzururu kingdom declared its independence three months before Uganda's independence. After two decades of conflict, Rwenzururu became an autonomous kingdom within Uganda.
Kel Ahaggar 1962–1977 Now part of Algeria A Tuareg confederation inhabiting the Hoggar Mountains (Ahaggar mountains) in Algeria. The confederation is believed to have been founded by the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan, whose monumental tomb is located at Abalessa. The official establishment is dated to around 1750. It has been largely defunct since 1977, when it was terminated by the Algerian government.
People's Republic of Zanzibar 1964 Now part of Tanzania Following the 17 January 1964 coup which deposed the Sultan of Zanzibar, the revolutionary group purporting to represent the island's black majority proclaimed a People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. It immediately made an offer of union with the government of Tanganyika.
 Rhodesia 1965–1979 Now Zimbabwe Unilateral Declaration of Independence in November 1965. It did not receive official recognition from any state. It had a trading relationship with apartheid South Africa, which did not formally recognise Rhodesia to preserve its fragile position with other nations and did not apply UN sanctions against the republic. Portugal also maintained informal relations until the Carnation Revolution of 1974. State received full international recognition after signing the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979 and became, on 18 April 1980, the independent Republic of Zimbabwe.
Marxist State of South Kivu 1967–1988 Now Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 Now Zimbabwe See Rhodesia
 Biafra 1967–1970 Now part of Nigeria Majority Igbo state which seceded from post-independence Nigeria due to ethnic divisions, beginning the Nigerian Civil War. Controlled territory in eastern Nigeria, recognized by five states (Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Zambia).
 Republic of Benin 1967 Occupied by Biafra in August, later given independence in September as a puppet state. Retaken by the Nigerian army one day after the declaration of independence.
South Sudan Provisional Government 1967–1969 Now part of South Sudan An African insurgency formed mostly from the Anyanya movement during the First Sudanese Civil War, in rebellion against the predominantly Muslim, Arabic-speaking Sudanese government. The separatist movement was rife with political wrangling and ethnic tensions within its own ranks. The SSPG collapsed in 1969 and was reformed into the Nile Provisional Government.
Nile Provisional Government (Nile Republic) 1969–1970 Formed out of the SSPG as an attempt to rebrand the nation from South Sudan to the Nile Republic. Collapsed after one year due to a coup. Following this, most of the separatists agreed to the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement, in which most of Anyanya agreed to recognize the Sudanese government in return for autonomy, ending the First Sudanese Civil War.
Kalakuta Republic 1970–1977 Now part of Nigeria Micronation created by political activist Fela Kuti in defiance of the Nigerian military junta. Burned to the ground by the Nigerian Armed Forces in 1977.
Republic of Martyazo 1972 Now part of Burundi A state declared by Hutu separatists inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba and Lake Nyanza; lasted for little over a week.
Cabinda (province) Cabinda 1975 Now part of Angola Cabinda was a Portuguese protectorate known as the Portuguese Congo. During the Portuguese Colonial War period, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought for the independence of Cabinda from the Portuguese. The independence was proclaimed on 1 August 1975. After the Angolan independence came in effect in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) with support of troops from Cuba.
Sultanate of Aussa 1975–1991 Now part of Ethiopia Subnational monarchy in Ethiopia that represented the Afar people. When the Derg regime took power over Ethiopia in 1975, Sultan Alimirah Hanfare was exiled, partially resulting in the creation of the Afar Liberation Front which fought against the communist junta. The Sultan returned to Ethiopia in 1991 after the fall of the Derg.
 Ciskei 1972–1994 Now part of South Africa Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.
 Transkei 1976–1994
 Venda 1979–1994
 Bophuthatswana 1977–1994
Casamance 1982–2014 Now part of Senegal A mostly defunct independence movement fought in the Casamance conflict, centered in the Casamance region of southern Senegal. The conflict largely stemmed from an ethnic divide between the more prosperous Wolof people of northern Senegal, who make up a plurality of the nation's overall population, and the less prosperous ethnicities of southern Senegal (primarily the Jola). The conflict lasted for over thirty years, with varying levels and stages of violence. In 2014, most separatist factions agreed to a ceasefire with the Senegalese government.
Islamic Republic of Imbaba 1989–1992 Now part of Egypt [10]: 33 
Mohéli 1997–1998 Now part of Comoros Seceded in 1997 but quietly rejoined the next year.
 Anjouan 1997, 2008 Joined with Comoros, then seceded twice to gain independence. Anjouan rejoined Comoros after talks during the first secession. After the second event, the secessionist government was forcefully removed.
Caprivi 1999 Now part of Namibia Secessionist movement that waged an insurrection in 1999 for control of the Caprivi Strip. The Caprivi Strip has no uniform ethnic group and has been subject to ethnic division, especially between the Mafwe, majority group in the Caprivi Strip, and the Ovambo, majority group in Namibia.
Jubaland 1998–2001 Now part of Somalia Declared independent during the Somali Civil War. Led by General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, the former Somali minister of defense and son-in-law of Siad Barre, the previous military dictator of Somalia. Morgan was ousted by the Allied Somali Forces the next year, which allied with the Transitional Federal Government in 2001.[11]
Puntland 1998–2004 Declared its own autonomy during the Somali Civil War. It did not seek outright independence, but rather recognition of its status as an autonomous state.[12] Reconciled with the government of Somalia with the signing of the Transitional Federal Charter in 2004.
Maakhir 2007–2009 Short-lived territory on the border between the Puntland state of Somalia, and Somaliland, and was proclaimed as a state independent of both. Quickly subsumed into Puntland.
Republic of Azania 2011–2013 Republic which claimed sovereignty over the Somali state of Jubaland. Following the capture of most of Jubaland by the Islamic militant group al-Shaabab, Kenya launched a counteroffensive and aided in setting up the republic from the former Jubaland administration. The action was condemned by Somalia. Azania reformed back into the Jubaland State of Somalia in 2013.
Democratic Republic of Bakassi 2006–2009 Now part of Cameroon Small secessionist movement led by the Bakassi Movement for Self-Determination (BAMOSD). The movement began during the transfer of the disputed Bakassi territory from Nigeria to Cameroon, with local leaders who were against the transfer declaring independence. By 2009, Cameroon had assumed complete control over Bakassi.
Republic of Toumoujagha 2007 Now part of Mali and Niger In 2007, a group allegedly consisting of Tuareg rebels proclaimed the independence of a republic made up of the Tuareg regions of Mali and Niger over the internet.[13] Occurred during the 2007–2009 Tuareg rebellion.
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2011 Now part of Libya Many countries began to withdraw recognition of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya as the rightful government of Libya from the early stages of the First Libyan Civil War in February 2011 and shifted recognition to the National Transitional Council.
 State of Azawad 2012–2013 Now part of Mali Self-declared during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion and controlled most of Northern Mali. It was unrecognized by any state. Revoked its declaration in return for a peace deal after most of its territory was taken over by jihadist groups.
Khatumo State 2012–2017 Now part of Somaliland First incarnation; Declared an autonomous state in 2012. Ceased to function by 2015, and was reincorporated into Somaliland by 2017. Re-established in 2023.
 Logone 2015–2021 Now an insurgency in the Central African Republic Also known as Dar al-Kuti (French: Dar el-Kouti), was a partially-realized, self-declared autonomous region and proto-state internationally recognised as part of the Central African Republic. It was formed by the Muslim rebel movement Popular Front for the Rebirth of Central African Republic (FPRC) with support of other armed groups on 14 December 2015. On 10 April 2021 Kaga-Bandoro was recaptured by government forces.

Americas[edit]

17th through 19th centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Theocratic Republic of Guairá 1627–1632 Now part of Brazil Jesuit missions in western of Paraná
Republic of Long Island 1664–1665 Now Part of United States [14]
Republic of Pirates 1706–1718 Now part of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands Loose confederacy ran by various pirate ship crews according to an informal pirate code. It was set up following the collapse of English authority in much of the Bahamas. English rule was restored by 1718 with the Acts of Grace.
 United States 1776–1783 (Internationally recognized in 1783) Now recognized Thirteen British colonies declared themselves independent in 1776 during the American Revolution and united to form the United States of America, which was recognized following the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
Watauga Association 1772–1778 Now part of the United States Annexed into the State of North Carolina.
Vermont Republic 1777–1791 Admitted to the Union as the State of Vermont, after a compromise ended its jurisdictional disputes with New York.
Northwestern Confederacy 1783–1795 Native American confederacy in the Great Lakes region. It was formed at the end of the American Revolutionary War with the goal of resisting the westward expansion of the United States. The U.S. claimed all the territory of the confederacy with the Northwest Ordinance. The alliance fell apart after the Northwest Indian War.
State of Franklin 1784–1788 Began operating as a de facto independent republic after the failed statehood attempt
Trans-Oconee Republic 1794–1794 A short-lived, independent state west of the Oconee River (in the state of Georgia). Established by General Elijah Clarke in May 1794, it was an attempt to head off the new Federal government's ceding of lands claimed by Georgia back to the Creek. In September 1794, state and federal troops forced Clarke and his followers to surrender and leave the settlements. .
State of Muskogee 1799–1802 A Native American state in Spanish Florida; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. Disappeared when the Spaniards captured its founder, William Augustus Bowles and removed him to a prison in Cuba.
Tecumseh's confederacy 1808–1813 Native American confederacy formed around the leadership of Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, who resisted American claims to the Northwest territory of the Great Lakes. The alliance fell apart during the War of 1812, after Tecumseh's death in 1813.
Republic of South Haiti 1810 Now part of Haiti Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the Kingdom of Haiti, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. Haiti was reunited soon afterwards.
Republic of West Florida Now part of the United States Republic formed out of an Anglo-American rebellion in Spanish West Florida. Consisted of the part of Louisiana now known as the Florida Parishes. None of these Florida Parishes were in what today is the state of Florida. Against the wishes of most of its leaders, the republic was forced to acquiesce to American authority, and later annexed.
First Republic of Venezuela 1811–1812 Now Venezuela
Republic of East Florida 1812 Now part of the United States Republic declared by mostly American insurgents against Spanish rule in East Florida, with the goal of annexation into the United States. The republic had the support of President James Monroe. A day after declaring independence, the insurgents surrendered their territory to the American army. The American government later disavowed their support of the insurgents and returned all captured land.
Second Republic of Venezuela 1813–1814 Now part of Venezuela and Guyana
Republic of the Floridas 1817 Now part of the United States Republic proclaimed by Gregor MacGregor, Scottish soldier and adventurer, after capturing Amelia Island in East Florida. The republic claimed all of West and East Florida, but in reality Amelia Island was the only territory it held. Following the failure of the Spanish to retake the island, it was occupied by the United States navy. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, effective 1821, transferred West and East Florida to the United States.
Pernambuco 1817 Now part of Brazil The Pernambucan revolt of 1817 occurred in the province of Pernambuco in the Northeastern region of Brazil, and was sparked mainly by the decline of sugar production rates and the influence of the Freemasonry in the region. Other important reasons for the revolt was to establish an independent state.
Third Republic of Venezuela 1817–1819 Now part of Venezuela and Guyana
Republic of Texas 1819 Now part of Mexico was an 1819 attempt to take control of Spanish Texas by filibusters. It was led by James Long and successfully established a small independent government, known as the Republic of Texas (distinct from the later Republic of Texas created by the Texas Revolution). The expedition crumbled later in the year, as Spanish troops drove the invaders out. Long returned to Texas in 1820 and attempted to reestablish his control. In October 1821, Long was defeated by Spanish troops, captured and sent to Mexico City where he was killed by a guard.
Republic of Tucumán 1820 Now part of Argentina Now part of Argentine provinces of Catamarca, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.
Entre Ríos Province Republic of Entre Ríos 1820–1821 Today the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes.
Free Province of Guayaquil 1820–1822 Now part of Ecuador
Protectorate of Peru 1821–1822 Now part of Chile and Peru Had claims outside of Chile and Peru
Confederation of the Equator 1824 Now part of Brazil Another attempted independence from Pernambuco, in the Empire of Brazil.
Republic of Madawaska 1827–1842 Now divided between Canada and the United States Within the provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec and the state of Maine.
Republic of Indian Stream 1832–1835 Now part of the United States Annexed by the United States. Within the state of New Hampshire.
Cabano Government 1835–1840 Now part of Brazil
Riograndense Republic 1836–1845 The state was proclaimed by the Farroupilha rebels during the Ragamuffin War in 1836. The rebellion eventually failed and republic was dissolved. It is currently the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Republic of Texas 1836–1846 Now part of United States

Republic of South Peru, Republic of North Peru and Peru-Bolivian Confederation

1836–1839 Now part of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru The Peru-Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled "Supreme Protector", was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz. The confederation was a loose union between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru, which included the capital Tacna) and Bolivia.
Bahia Republic 1837–1838 Now part of Brazil The Sabinada (1837–1838) was a revolt by military officer Francisco Sabino that occurred in Brazil's Bahia province between 6 November 1837 and 16 March 1838. Calling for the abolition of slavery and the redistribution of land, the rebel "Bahia Republic" fought against the government for one year until their capital of Salvador was conquered.
Republic of Canada 1837–1838 Now part of Canada The self-proclaimed government was established on Navy Island in the Niagara River in the latter days of the Upper Canada Rebellion
Republic of Lower Canada 1837–1838 A government established on the aftermath of Rebellions of 1837 in Lower Canada.
Republic of Los Altos 1837–1840 Now part of Guatemala The United Provinces of Central America were riven by strife for much of their existence. Guatemala’s ruling class was appalled by the thought of an illiterate and brutish peasant Governor Rafael Carrera, and led the six western provinces into secession. The new state of Los Altos, under Liberal leadership, appealed for recognition to the UPCA. In January 1840, Carrera reconquered Los Altos, and then defeated the UPCA's army in March, sounding the death knell for the United Provinces. Los Altos rebelled again when Carrera declared Guatemala an independent republic in 1847, but was again rapidly crushed.
Juliana Republic 1839 Now part of Brazil Today's Santa Catarina.
Republic of the Río Grande 1840 Now part of the United States and Mexico Consisted of part of southern Texas and the 3 Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.
Estado del Istmo 1840–1841 Now part of Panama A failed attempt to separate Panama from Colombia. It was recognized by Costa Rica.
 Republic of Yucatán 1841–1843, 1846–1848 Now part of Mexico A state from 1841 to 1848, it was proclaimed after the Mexican government tried to centralize and tried to join the US during the Mexican–American War; it was rejected and joined a federal Mexico after the war ended. A revolt in Yucatán in 1916, led by Felipe Cerillo but with active Mayan involvement, effectively separated the region from the weak Mexican state. On 3 April 1916 Carillo declared the independence of the Socialist Republic of Yucatan, but the Republic failed to garner much support, and was quickly overrun by Mexican forces.[15][16]
Adelsverein 1842–1853 Now part of the United States A colonial attempt to establish a new German settlement within the borders of Texas.
Chan Santa Cruz (Noh Cah Santa Cruz Balam Nah) 1847–1915 Part of Mexico Chan Santa Cruz was a Mayan territory in the southeast of what is now the Mexican state of Quintana Roo (within the Republic of Yucatán at the time). The local Mayan people revolted in 1847 following the Republic of Yucatán's second secession from Mexico, driving nearly all whites from the Yucatán peninsula in what became known as the Caste War. After being defeated, some rebel Maya established a stratified religious community in the jungle known as Chan Santa Cruz, which remained a base of operations for rebel Cruzobs for the next fifty years. After decades of campaigning on both sides, the Cruzobs recognized the Mexican government in 1915, though some settlements continued anti-Mexican resistance until the 1930s and 40s.
California Republic 1846 Now part of the United States Formed during an Anglo-American revolt in Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. This "state" never actually possessed a high level of organization, and was only in existence for a matter of weeks before the rebels deferred to the US government and American troops.
Beaver Island 1850–1856 Mormon theocracy led by James Strang, who was declared king of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and whose branch was in opposition to Brigham Young and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in considering itself to be the sole legitimate successor of the Church of Christ organized by Joseph Smith. This “Strangite” faction controlled Beaver Island of Michigan until Strang was murdered in 1856, whereupon the Strangites were expelled from the area by neighbouring islanders.
Great Republic of Rough and Ready 1850 A short-lived secessionist state from the United States to avoid mining taxes. It rejoined less than three months later.
State of Buenos Aires 1852–1861 Now part of Argentina
Republic of Baja California 1853–1854 Now part of Mexico The filibuster William Walker took control of La Paz, the capital of the sparsely populated Baja California, and 200 more men joined him. Walker declared La Paz the capital of a new Republic of Baja California, with himself as president and a constitution copied from that of Louisiana. Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months later, he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora.
Republic of Sonora 1854 A lesser to William Walker's Republic of Baja California, it was a merger between that and Sonora.
Provisional Revolutionary Government of Cibao 1857–1861 Now part of Cibao within the Dominican Republic
(Spanish occupation of the Dominican Republic 1861–65)
On July 7, 1857, a popular civic-military movement broke out in Santiago with the purpose of overthrowing the government of the conservative president Buenaventura Báez. Immediately his spokesmen announced the integration of a revolutionary provisional government based in Santiago de los Caballeros. The Cibaenians launched a manifesto and expressed that they did it to "shake off the yoke of Mr. Báez's government that they do not know from now and declare themselves governed (until a congress elected by direct vote, constitute new powers) by a provisional revolutionary government, with its seat in the city of Santiago de los Caballeros."

General José Desiderio Valverde was chosen as president of the anti-Báez and Santana provisional government, and the lawyer Benigno Filomeno Rojas as vice president. Both counted on the support of the tobacco producers and the Cibaenian trade.

Among its first measures was the organization of an armed movement to march to the city of Santo Domingo, in order to overthrow President Buenaventura Báez, who was prepared to resist. The troops of the provisional revolutionary government of the Cibao were commanded by General Juan Luis Franco Bidó. In a few days they surrounded the city of Santo Domingo, thus initiating a civil war. The hostilities lasted almost a year. The groups in conflict fought with all the means at their disposal to emerge victorious, increasing violence and destruction in the country.

The triumph of the revolution was resounding, Báez renounced power and traveled to exile, but the project would be frustrated, since the liberal thinking of the Cibaenians would be overshadowed by the military figure of General Pedro Santana, who returned to the Presidency of the Republic in 1858 and ignored the liberal constitution of Moca.

In this way, the revolution of July 7, 1857, ended and the liberal constitution of Moca was annulled. Santana returned to govern with the Constitution of 1854 that guaranteed an authoritarian government.

The following day, July 8, 1857, the "Dominican Republic" awoke with two government administrations: the provisional revolutionary government of Cibao and the "government" of President Buenaventura Báez.

On September 25, the provisional revolutionary Government of the Cibao summoned the country to elect the deputies as of December 7, 1857. At that time the women and men of greater intellectual capacity in the Cibao wished to produce a constitution that would allow an authentically democratic and representative government by the people.

"The new constitution was drafted in Moca and proclaimed on February 19, 1858." That day, the Constituent Assembly meeting in Moca proclaimed the liberal constitution that repealed the conservative one of December 1854.

Established public freedoms and abolished the death penalty for political reasons and enshrined as rights the freedom of expression, free transit and freedom of peaceful assembly.

He did not re-elect the president in succession and absolute respect for civil liberties without restrictions, including freedom of expression. established that the capital of the so-called republic, outside the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.

The constitution of Moca consecrated free transit and freedom of peaceful assembly. That the government would be civil, republican, popular, representative, elective and responsible, and every citizen with the right to vote could do it directly and secretly, instead of the indirect way as established by the previous constitutions.

In addition, the governors of provinces could not be the commanders of arms as it was available until February 19, 1858.

Under the constitution of Moca, the municipal power was restored and the Armed Forces were declared obedient to the civil power, without powers to deliberate and with the function of defending national sovereignty, public order, as well as observing and complying with the constitution and laws.

It was established on a transitory basis that the next constitutional government was chosen by the members of the constituent assembly, which they did on March 1, 1858.

The constituent assembly of Moca was integrated by the provisional government of Santiago, chaired by General José Desiderio Valverde, who convened on September 25, 1857, to elect deputies from December 7, 1857.

For the assembly, the most enlightened women and men of the country were chosen, whose thought corresponded to the movement proclaimed by the revolution of July 7, 1857, to overthrow the government of Buenaventura Báez, which they described as a dictatorship.

United States of New Granada 1860–1861 Now part of Colombia Cauca State seceded from Granadine Confederation, with Bolivar State following shortly after. They establised the United States of New Granada (Magdalena, Santander and Tolima joined later), occupying Bogota and creating the United States of Colombia.
Palmetto Republic 1860–61 Now part of the United States Secessionist state established on December 20, 1860, when South Carolina became the first state to secede from the United States. It lasted a month and a half before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.
Republic of Mississippi 1861 Secessionist state established January 9, 1861 when Mississippi seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before joining the Confederate States of America.
Republic of Florida Secessionist state established January 10, 1861, when Florida seceded from the United States. Only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.
Republic of Louisiana Secessionist state formed on January 11, 1861, when Louisiana seceded from the United States. It only lasted two and a half weeks before joining the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861.
Alabama Republic Secessionist republic declared January 11, 1861 when Alabama seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.
Republic of Texas Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and lasted as an independent state for a month before joining the Confederate States of America.

Not to be confused with the earlier (1836–1845), partially recognized Republic of Texas.

Confederate States of America 1861–1865 Originally formed by seven southern states that seceded from the United States, it consisted of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana. After the beginning of the American Civil War, the states of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Reintegrated back into the United States throughout the Reconstruction Era.
Republic of Winston 1860–1862 Reintegrated back into the United States after the Union occupied Northern Alabama
State of Scott 1861–1865 Following Tennessee's secession the Free and Independent State of Scott declared independence, remained an unorganised unrecognised state for well over a hundred years
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia 1860–1862 Now part of Argentina and Chile Set up by a French adventurer who tried to gain legitimacy for his state, only to be denied. The self-proclaimed kingdom was mostly a legal fiction and did only loosely control a small portion of the territory it claimed. In fact the Mapuche warlords that submitted to it were totally autonomous, and used the kingdom only as pretext to obtain foreign support. It was conquered and partitioned by Chile and Argentina.
Confederate government of Kentucky 1861–1865 Now part of the United States
Confederate government of Missouri
Confederate government of West Virginia
Republic of Manitobah 1867–1869 Now part of Canada Within the province of Manitoba.
Republic of Puerto Rico 1868, 1898 Now part of the United States State declared independence on 23 September 1868 during the Lares uprising against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico, following the repeated refusal of Spain to give the island autonomy. The uprising began in September in the town of Lares, where the rebels were defeated by November at the latest. The revolt succeeded in garnering limited political reforms.

A group of anti-Spanish rebels also declared independence on 13 August 1898 in the closure of the Puerto Rican campaign during the Spanish–American War but were unable to secure independence.

Provisional Government of Saskatchewan 1885 Now part of Canada A self-declared Métis territory formed during the North-West Rebellion. Led by Métis political leader Louis Riel, who had previously organized the Red River Rebellion in 1869. Defeated by the Canadian army after just over two months of fighting. Riel was later found guilty of high treason and hanged.
Republic of Independent Guyana 1886–1891 Now part of Brazil Established by French settlers in defiance of both France and Brazil.
Transatlantic Republic of Mato Grosso 1892 Modern day's Mato Grosso do Sul
Principality of Trinidad 1893–1895 American James Harden-Hickey divorced his wife in 1893 (1894?) and announced his intention to move to India and take up a life of Hindu asceticism. On the trip there, a storm forced his ship aground on the island of Trinidad (no relation to the Caribbean Trinidad) in the South Atlantic. Seeing that the island was uninhabited, Harden-Hickey declared himself Prince James I of Trinidad and advertised for settlers in the London Times. The following year, the United Kingdom annexed the island in order to anchor a transatlantic telegraph cable. Prince James was encouraged, hoping that the cable would bring the attention he needed to start his reign. However, the plan was scrapped and Brazil annexed the island again in 1897.
Federal State of Loreto 1896 Now part of Peru
Manhuassu Republic 1896 Part of Brazil Manhuassu Republic was a republican state proclaimed on May 15, 1896, in the municipality of Manhuassu, which lasted twenty-two days.

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Jungle Nation 1899–1900 Now part of Peru Proclaimed on 22 May 1899, by colonel Emilio Vizcarra, who then acquired the title of the Supreme Leader. The state was formed from the territory of Department of Loreto, Peru. It was reincorporated into Peru in 1900, shortly after the death of Vizcarra on 27 February 1900.
Republic of Acre 1899–1903 Now part of Brazil A trio of attempts to free Acre from Bolivia. Each attempt was defeated, but part of Acre was turned over to Brazilian control after the final attempt.
Celestial Monarchy 1912–1916
Morelos Commune 1913–1917 Now part of Mexico During the Mexican Revolution, from roughly around 1913 to 1917, the peasants from the Mexican region of Morelos established a territory with an alternative political, and economic system. They were heavily influenced by Emiliano Zapata and his ideology of zapatism.
Republic of Arauca 1916–1917 Now part of Colombia Declared during a rebellion near the border with Venezuela. The republic lasted six weeks, until Colombian authority was restored.[17]
Third Federal State of Loreto 1921–1922 Now part of Peru and Ecuador
Republic of Tule 1925 Now part of Panama A short-lived state of the indigenous Guna people, which was declared in reaction to colonial persecution. Developed into the Guna Revolution against Panamanian authority. After just under two months, the Gunas agreed to revoke their declaration of independence in return for civil rights.
Socialist Republic of Chile 1932 Now Chile A political entity in Chile, that was proclaimed by the Government Junta that took over that year.
State of Maracaju 1932 Now part of Brazil Modern day's Mato Grosso do Sul
State of São Paulo 1932 Modern day's São Paulo
Socialist Republic of Brazil 1935 Unrecognised government of Brazil lasted 4 Days
Marquetalia Republic 1948–1964 Now Part of Colombia Attempted Communist state
Principality of Outer Baldonia 1949–1973 Now part of Nova Scotia, Canada
State Union of Jeová 1952–1953 Now part of Brazil
Republic of Anguilla 1967–1969 Now a British overseas territory Created due to opposition to a union with modern St. Kitts and Nevis. It ceased to exist after being occupied by the British Army.
Republic of New Afrika 1968–1971 Now part of the United States Black separatist organization active in the southeastern United States during the Civil rights movement, which sought to annex Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina and form a black-majority nation. The movement's leaders drafted a constitution and declaration of independence in 1968, but after being involved in two shootouts and the resulting prosecution of some leading members, the provisional government ceased to function as a serious organized entity.
Provisional Government Committee of Rupununi 1969 Now part of Guyana Secessionist government formed during the Rupununi Uprising, an insurrection aimed at breaking away from the newly independent state of Guyana, and becoming either an independent territory protected by Venezuela, or being directly incorporated into Venezuela.
Ganienkeh 1974–1977 Now part of the United States Attempt at a Native American State
Argentina Military Administration of the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands 1982 Now a British overseas territory
Republic of Airrecú 1993 Now part of Nicaragua Relations between Costa Rica and Nicaragua have traditionally been strained. This situation was not improved when the Costa Rican government granted land rights to settlers along the San Juan River, which forms part of the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A dispute ended with Costa Rica acknowledging that the territory in fact belonged to Nicaragua, and promised to remove the settlers. The settlers, however, refused to leave. In June 1993, they declared their independence as the Republic of Airrecú, which means "friendship" in a local Indian language. The Nicaraguan Army immediately descended upon the area and escorted the Republic into Costa Rica.
Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities 1994–2023 Zapatista Army Controlled territory in Mexico
Community Nation of Moskitia 2009 Now part of Nicaragua In April 2009 a group of Miskito elders declared independence from Nicaragua under the name Community Nation of Moskitia. This declaration has not been met with any formal response from the government of Nicaragua nor has it been recognised by any other state.

Asia[edit]

17th to 19th centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Jaxa 1665–1674 Now part of Russia Microstate along the border with the Qing dynasty along the Amur River.
Free Ilocos 1762–1763 Now part of the Philippines
Lanfang Republic 1777–1884 Now part of Indonesia Established by Chinese in Indonesia as the Dutch began to conquer Indonesia to protect the ethnic Chinese; it was a tributary state of the Qing dynasty of China. When the Qing dynasty weakened, it was conquered by the Dutch, who added it to integrated it into the Dutch East Indies.
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 1851–1864 Now part of China This heterodox Christian secessionist state was established by the God Worshipping Society led by Hong Xiuquan who claimed to be the brother of Jesus Christ. They incited the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty. After seizing some territories in southern China, they established their capital in Nanking and proclaimed the founding of the kingdom. However, the Tianjing incident caused a major setback for the kingdom, after infighting between their leaders the number of their supporters began to dwindle. This allowed the modernized Qing armies with the help of western aid to quash the rebellion. Although the Qing were victorious, the rebellion weakened the Qing empire and some Taiping remnants continued the fight in other rebellions and struggles against western powers.
Yettishar 1865–1877 Now part of China Muslim Turkic state that existed in Xinjiang between 1865 and 1877 during the Dungan Revolt against the Qing dynasty.
Republic of Ezo 1869 Now part of Japan Set up in Hokkaido by supporters of the Tokugawa clan following the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate after the Boshin War and Meiji Restoration; they received support from France, but only lasted five months.
Sultanate of Aceh 1874–1904 Now part of Indonesia A sultanate in modern Indonesia, it was later conquered by the Dutch.
Zheltuga Republic 1883–1886 Now part of China A proto-state set up by Russian and Chinese prospectors illegally mining on the Chinese side of the Amur River. The settlement was known for its lawlessness, housing escaped convicts, deserters from other mines, sex workers on the other side of the river (as women were not allowed in Zheltuga), and some punishments being carried out with spiked whips. Zheltuga was later discovered by the Chinese, resulting in the deportation of all Russians and the settlement being burned to the ground.
Kingdom of Sedang 1888–1889 Now part of Vietnam Marie-Charles David de Mayréna was born in France in 1842. He stopped in Vietnam 1884 and started a plantation. In 1888, the King of Siam began claiming territory west of French territory. Anxious, the Governor of the Indochinese Union agreed to Mayréna's proposed expedition to the interior. When Mayréna reached the central highlands, he organized the local tribes into the Kingdom of Sedang, and declared himself King Marie I. He offered to cede his kingdom to France in exchange for monopoly rights. When the French government declined, Mayréna approached the English at Hong Kong. When he was rebuffed there, Mayréna went to Belgium. In 1889, a Belgian financier named Somsy offered arms and money to Mayréna in exchange for mineral rights. The French Navy blockaded Vietnamese ports to prevent his return, and his arms were seized as contraband at Singapore.
Republic of Formosa 1895 Now part of the Republic of China Declared independence upon the Japanese annexation of Taiwan following Chinese defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War.
Sovereign Tagalog Nation 1896–1897 Now part of the Philippines A revolutionary state that later became the First Philippine Republic
Republic of Biak-na-Bato 1897 A revolutionary state that later became the First Philippine Republic.
Dictatorial Government of the Philippines 1898 Succeeded by the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines.
Revolutionary Government of the Philippines Succeeded by the First Philippine Republic.
Cantonal Republic of Negros 1898–1901 On January 1, 1899, the Federal Republic of Negros was proclaimed as a State or Canton with two Provinces. Notice of its establishment was sent to General Aguinaldo. On March 4, the island of Negros was surrendered to U.S. forces.[18][19][20]
First Philippine Republic 1899–1902 Existed as an unrecognized independent sovereign state from its declaration on June 12, 1898, up to the surrender of Géneral Miguel Malvar on April 16, 1902[21][22] It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and pursued a protracted war against the United States following the 1898 cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain.
Republic of Zamboanga 1899–1903 República de Zamboanga was a revolutionary republic, founded shortly after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.
Xibei San Ma 1862–1949 Now part of China

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Tagalog Republic 1902–1906 Now part of the Philippines Revolutionary body set up during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War.
Tianjin Provisional Government 1900–1902 Now part of China
Heavenly Kingdom of the Great Mingshun 1903 Now part of China An attempted Chinese Christian state that bore reference to the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Its leaders wished to establish a Westernized constitutional monarchy, but were captured a few days before the main insurrection was set to occur. The kingdom lasted for three days.
Uryankhay Republic 1911–1914 Now part of Russia and Mongolia
Fengtian 1911–1928 Now part of China
Shanxi 1911–1937
Sinkiang 1911–1944
Uryankhay Krai 1914–1921 Now part of Russia
Empire of China 1915–1916 Now part of China
Yunnan clique 1916–1927
Basmachi Kokand 1916–1922 Now part of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Turkestan 1916–1934 Now part of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan
Sultanate of Tarim 1916–1945 Now part of Yemen
Guizhou 1916–1949 Now part of China
Green Ukraine 1917–1922 Now part of Russia Areas with a Ukrainian majority declared independence
Yakutia 1918 In February 1918 the acting government of Yakutia proclaimed the independence of Yakutia in response to the Bolshevik seizure of power. This independent government was overthrown on July 1
Provisional Siberian Government
Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
Great Mongol State 1911–1919,
1921–1924
Now part of Mongolia and Russia In 1911, the 8th Bogd Gegeen of Outer Mongolia proclaimed independence from the Qing dynasty of China. After 1915 it became a de facto self-governing autonomous region under the suzerainty of the Republic of China. After rebelling against Chinese rule of 1919–1921, it reaffirmed its independence and became the predecessor of the Mongolian People's Republic. Internationally, territories held by this state were widely regarded as part of the Republic of China.
Tibet 1912–1951 Now part of China In 1913, the 13th Dalai Lama proclaimed independence from the Qing dynasty of China,[23] which was only recognized by the internationally unrecognized Mongolia.[24][25] However, there have been doubts over the authority of the Tibetan representative to sign the treaty, and thus its validity.[26] The following year, a treaty accepting Chinese suzerainty was signed and the border was adjusted in favor of British India.[27] The 14th Dalai Lama acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in the Seventeen Point Agreement of 1951,[28] but China continues to reject the 1914 treaty and claims South Tibet (now part of India's Arunachal Pradesh). Internationally, territories held by this state were widely regarded as part of China.
Harbin Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies 1917 now part of China
Alash Autonomy 1917–1920 Now part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan De facto self-governing autonomous region.
State of Buryat-Mongolia 1917–1921 Now part of Russia Established during the Russian Civil War.
Constitutional Protection Junta 1917–1921 Now part of China Established during the Warlord Era.
Turkestan Autonomy 1917–1918 Now part of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan
Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Now part of Azerbaijan Established during the Russian Civil War, this state only lasted several months.[29]
Siberian Republic 1918 Now part of Russia was an unrecognized short-living state that existed on the territory of Russia during the Civil War.
Provisional Regional Government of the Urals The Provisional Regional Government of the Urals was an anti-Bolshevik provisional government, created in Yekaterinburg on August 13 or 19, 1918, which controlled the Perm Governorate, parts of the Vyatka, Ufa, and Orenburg Governorates. It was abolished in October 1918.
Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly 1918 Now part of Russia The Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly was an anti-Bolshevik government that operated in Samara, Russia, during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. It formed on June 8, 1918, after the Czechoslovak Legion had occupied the city.
Russian State 1918–1920 Now Part of Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Mughan Soviet Republic 1919 Now part of Azerbaijan The Mughan Soviet Republic was a short-lived pro-Bolshevik state that existed in present-day southeastern Azerbaijan from March to June 1919.
Anhui clique 1920 Now part of China
Zhili 1920–1928
Provisional Government of the Far East 1920 Now part of Russia
Government of South Russia Now part of Russia and Ukraine
South Russian Government Now part of Russia, Moldova and Ukraine
Eastern Okraina Now part of Russia
Far Eastern Soviet Republic 1920–1922
Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia Now Armenia
Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet Republic Now Azerbaijan
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924 Now part of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic Now part of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan
Republic of Mountainous Armenia 1921 Now mostly part of Armenia An anti-Soviet Armenian state which existed from 26 April until 13 July 1921, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day Armenian provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day Azerbaijan.
Autonomous Government of Khorasan 1921 Now part of Iran
Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia 1921–1922 Now De Facto independent but unrecognized Abkhazia
Kingdom of Syria 1920 Now recognized Lasted for 4 months at the end of World War I until dissolved by the French, who took control.
Azadistan 1920 Now part of Iran
Persian Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1921 Now Gilan province in Iran Created by local guerilleros (Jangali) when Red Army troops entered Iran, but failed to spread the revolutionary movement over the whole of Iran.
Independent State of Raqqa 1920–1921 Now part of Syria Created by rebels against the French occupation of Syria
Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia 1921–1922 Now Georgia
Kingdom of Kurdistan 1921–1924 Now part of Iraq Established by Kurdish nationalists following the collapse of Ottoman Turkey, but were defeated by Britain and incorporated into the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
 Tuvan People's Republic 1921–1944 Now part of Russia Attempt by Tuvans to gain independence following centuries of Chinese rule and years of domination by Imperial Russia; it was put under Soviet control and later formally annexed. Internationally, territories controlled by this state were widely recognized as part of the Republic of China. The Soviet Union and the Mongolian People's Republic were the only countries to recognize its independence.[30][31]
 Mongolian People's Republic 1921–1945, 1953–1992 Now recognized Was unrecognized by several countries from 1940 to 1960 due to being claimed as an integral part of the Republic of China.[32]
Republic of Ararat 1927–1930 Now part of Turkey One of the first Kurdish republics in history, founded in Ağrı Province, Turkey.
Sichuan 1927–1938 Now part of China
Hailufeng Soviet 1927
Shanghai Commune
Emirate of Afghanistan 1929 Now Afghanistan Government set up in Kabul during the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929). Was not recognized by any country.[33]
Korean People's Association in Manchuria 1929–1931 Now part of China An autonomous anarchist zone in Manchuria near Korea populated by two million Korean migrants.
Nghệ-Tĩnh Soviet 1930–1931 Now part of Vietnam
Chinese Soviet Republic 1931–1937 Now part of China Recognised by the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a "rehearsal" of the PRC and a "cradle" in which the Communist Party seized power.
Hunan–Jiangxi Soviet 1931–1935 Now part of People's Republic of China
 Manchukuo 1932–1945 Puppet state of the Empire of Japan ruled by the Puyi. Manchukuo was diplomatically recognised by El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Soviet Union, Italy, Spain, Nazi Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Vichy France, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Denmark, Croatia, China's Wang Jingwei government, Thailand, and the Philippines. The League of Nations never recognized Manchukuo's annexation by Japan. Manchukuo was occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945, ending its puppet state status.
 Mengjiang 1932–1945 Puppet state of the Empire of Japan
First East Turkestan Republic 1933–1934 Set up as part of the movement for an independent Xinjiang. It was defeated by the Nationalists of the Republic of China.
Fujian People's Government Formed following the Fujian Incident, when the former 19th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army broke with commander Chiang Kai-shek and declared a new government. Although originally enjoying popular support, the government lost favour and was crushed by Nationalist forces in 1934.
Northwest Chinese Soviet Federation 1935–1936 was a confederation of two ethnic minority governments established on May 30, 1935, including the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Geledesha and the Tibetan People's Republic
Great Way Government 1937–1938 The Great Way or Dadao Government, formally the Great Way Municipal Government of Shanghai, was a short-lived puppet government proclaimed in Pudong on December 5, 1937, to administer Japanese-occupied Shanghai in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Hatay State 1938–1939 Now part of Turkey
Wang Jingwei regime 1940–1945 Now part of China Puppet government of the Empire of Japan dissolved at the end of World War II. Recognized by the Empire of Japan and its allies.
Second Philippine Republic 1943–1945 Now the Philippines The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
State of Burma 1943–1945 Now Myanmar Japanese puppet states
Provisional Government of Free India 1943–1945 Now India
 Second East Turkestan Republic 1944–1949 Now part of China Soviet satellite state set up in Xinjiang. The Soviets later turned against it and approved its incorporation by China.
Inner Mongolian People's Republic 1945 Now part of China
Kingdom of Luang Prabang 1945 Now Laos Japanese puppet states
/ Empire of Vietnam 1945 Now Vietnam
Kingdom of Kampuchea 1945 Now Cambodia
Inner Mongolian People's Republic 1945 Now part of China During World War II, the Japanese support in Inner Mongolia was established, and a new puppet state named Mengjiang was created. In August 1945, it was destroyed by Soviet and Mongolian troops. On September 9, 1945, the Sunid Yutsi held a Congress of People's Representatives and aimags khoshuns of Inner Mongolia. Held for three days, the Congress proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia and elected an interim government. In November, the Chinese Communist Party managed to bring the situation under control, and reorganized the Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government.
Republic of Indonesia 1945–1949 Now fully recognized as Indonesia Independence de facto recognized by the Netherlands, de jure recognition by Egypt, Syria, and Lebanon.
Hòn Gai-Cẩm Phả Commune 1945 Now part of Vietnam [34]
Saigon Commune 1945 Now part of Vietnam [35][36]
Azerbaijan People's Government 1945–1946 Now part of Iran Soviet puppet state set up in Iranian Azerbaijan but later reclaimed by Iran.
Kurdistan Region Republic of Mahabad 1946–1947 Declared independence from Iran, but then occupied by Iran after the withdrawal of the Soviet Red Army from the north of the country.
Hyderabad State 1947–1948 Now split up among Telangana, Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India One of the largest client states in the British Indian Empire. At independence in 1947 the UK allowed the local rulers of the princely states to choose between joining India, Pakistan or to become independent. The Nizam of Hyderabad chose independence declaring Hyderabad a free, self-governing independent state but the Government of India, desirous of ending marginalization of the population under Nizam, refused to accept his point of view, citing as reasons Hyderabad being surrounded by India on all sides and not having an access to the sea. After extensive attempts by India to persuade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government finally launched a military operation named Operation Polo to overthrow his rule.[37]
Manipur State 1947–1949 Now part of India and Myanmar including Kabaw Valley Manipur was a princely state of the British Indian Empire from 1891 to 1947.

It was granted independence at midnight of 14 August 1947. From 14 August 1947 to October 1949, the region was de jure independent, before acceding to India on 15 October 1949. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Manipur King Bodhchandra Singh relented and acceded Manipur to India in 1949[38] following the Manipur Merger Agreement.[39]

Khanate of Kalat 1947–1948 Now part of Balochistan province in Pakistan Kalat was a princely state in Baluchistan Agency, one of the agencies of British India. The Khan of Kalat declared his nation's independence on August 15, 1947, one day after India and Pakistan declared independence. From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Khan relented and acceded Kalat to Pakistan in 1948.
 People's Republic of China 1949–1971 Now widely recognized as the legitimate government of China Recognised by the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc states from 1949, and the United Kingdom from 1950.[40] Not recognized by the United States or the Western Bloc until the 1970s. Territories held by the People's Republic of China are claimed by the rivaling Republic of China based in Taipei. See Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China for details.
Republic of South Maluku

Republic of South Maluku

1950–1963 Now part of Indonesia The Moluccas formed part of the United States of Indonesia (27 December 1949 – 17 August 1950), but declared independence in April 1950 in reaction of centralizing tendencies from Jakarta. It was quickly conquered by Indonesian troops, but maintains a government in exile in the Netherlands.
Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia 1958–1961
United Suvadive Republic Suvadive Islands 1959–1963 Now part of the Maldives Attempted break-away state; it was supported by Britain briefly before being abandoned.
Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1954–1961 Now part of India Territory made up of two former exclaves of the Portuguese district of Daman (Portuguese India). In 1954, it was invaded and occupied by supporters of their integration in the Indian Union. Thereafter and until formal annexation by India in 1961, it enjoyed a de facto independence. Portugal continued to consider Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Portuguese territory until 1974. The native citizens of the territory continued to be entitled to the grant of Portuguese citizenship until 2006.
Republic of Timor 1961 Now recognized as Timor-Leste In early 1961 the Battle Office for the Liberation of Timor (Bureau de Luta pela Libertação de Timor) was formed under the leadership of Maoclao and backed by Indonesia. A republic was proclaimed in the border town of Batugade on 9 April 1961. It was quickly put down by Portuguese troops.[41]
Champa state 1964–1992 Now part of Vietnam
Shanghai People's Commune 1967 Now part of China Attempt at recreating a Paris commune-style revolution in China.
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam 1969–1976 Now part of Vietnam
Democratic Republic of East Timor 1975 Now recognized Declared independence in 1975; Indonesia invaded and occupied the territory, declaring it the country's 27th province. The United Nations did not recognize the annexation or the declaration of independence and made Portugal the legal administrating power.
Free Lebanon State 1979–1984 Now part of Lebanon In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. The 1978 Israeli invasion allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979, Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent State of Free Lebanon" (Dawlet Lebnaan El Horr El Mest’ell) with the capital Beirut, though his actual headquarters were in Marjayoun. In May 1980, " Free Lebanon Army" was renamed "South Lebanon Army". The statehood claim was downplayed following the death of Haddad in 1984, though his successor Antouan Lahed continued to exercise some authority in Southern Lebanon until the year 2000. On 24 May 2000, following Israeli withdrawal and final collapse of the SLA, Lebanese forces occupied the small town Marjayoun, which was the "capital" of southern Lebanon.
Republic of Artsakh 1991–2023 Now part of Azerbaijan Declared independence in 1991 and de facto acquired it after the First Nagorno-Karabakh War of 1988–1994, backed by Armenia, but was unrecognized by the international community. Lost part of its territory in 2020 due to the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War and was ultimately taken over by Azerbaijan in a 2023 military offensive, with its government going into exile.[42]
Gorno-Badakhshan Republic 1992 Now part of Tajikistan When the civil war broke out in Tajikistan in 1992, the local government in Gorno-Badakhshan declared independence from the Republic of Tajikistan.
Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation of Cambodia 1994–1998 Now part of Cambodia Rival government of the restored Kingdom of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge. Dissolved following the death of Pol Pot.
Democratic Republic of Yemen 1994 Now part of Yemen Breakaway state formed during the 1994 civil war in Yemen. It only lasted six weeks before being reconquered.
Islamic Emirate of Badakhshan 1996 Now part of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2001 Now part of Afghanistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan In 1996, The Taliban took control over Kabul but lost control of the regions they controlled in 2001. However, after the Fall of Kabul in 2021, the Taliban reinstated their rule.
Islamic Emirate of Byara 2001–2003 Now part of Iraq The Islamic Emirate of Byara was a short-lived unrecognized Kurdish Islamic quasi-state, which declared independence from Iraq in 2001 and ended in 2003.
Tamil Eelam 2004–2009 Now part of Sri Lanka For much the Sri Lankan Civil War, the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka were controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a Tamil militant organization which fought to establish a separate state known as "Tamil Eelam". Tamil Eelam was not recognized by any other state. After a failed 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lanka Armed Forces began a relentless offensive against the LTTE in 2006, beginning the final stage of the civil war. By 18 May 2009, the Sri Lankan Army had recaptured all land formerly controlled by the LTTE, and the self-declared Tamil Eelam ceased to exist.
Islamic Emirate of Rafah 2009 Now part of Gaza Strip, Palestine short-lived unrecognized Islamic state located in Rafah. It was founded by Jund Ansar Allah when they declared independence in 2009, two years after the Hamas takeover of Gaza. It collapsed after the 2009 Battle of Rafah.
Bangsamoro Republik Bangsamoro Republik 2013 Now part of the Philippines Following their defeat in Zamboanga City by the Armed Forces of the Philippines on September 28, 2013, the Moro National Liberation Front self-declared Bangsamoro Republic ceased to exist.
Islamic State Islamic State 2014–2020 Now part of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria, Libya and Afghanistan A self-proclaimed worldwide caliphate, ISIL claimed religious, political and military authority over all Muslims in the world.

Europe[edit]

10th to 19th centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Couto Misto 10th century–1868 Now part of Spain and Portugal De facto independent microstate on the border between Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal. By the 1864 Treaty of Lisbon, its territory was partitioned between Spain and Portugal.
Miecław's State 1037–1047 Now part of Poland
Commune of Rome 1144–1193 Now part of Italy and the Vatican City
Senarica 1343–1797 Now part of Italy Had a Peak population of 300
Duchy of Gniewkowo 1373–1374
1375–1377
Now part of Poland
Principality of Wales 1400–1415 Now part of the United Kingdom Controlled the Majority of Wales between 1403 and 1406
Earldom of Desmond 1569–1572 Now part of Ireland
Earldom of Desmond 1579–1582 Now part of Ireland
Irish alliance 1593–1603 Now part of Ireland and the United Kingdom
Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1655–1657 Now part of Lithuania, Belarus and Poland Part of the Swedish Empire for roughly 2 years during the Second Northern War.
Corsica Kingdom of Corsica 1736 Now part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa.
Finland Kingdom of Finland 1742–1743 Now part of Finland and Russia Short-lived puppet state of Russia. Was divided between Sweden and Russia
Corsica Corsican Republic 1755–1769 Now part of France Seceded from Republic of Genoa. Recognized only by Bey of Tunis.[43]
Republic of Liège 1789–1791 Now part of Belgium Republic formed following the Liège Revolution.
United Belgian States 1790 Now part of Belgium and Luxemburg
Rauracian Republic 1792 Now part of Switzerland
Transpadane Republic 1796–1797 Now part of Italy
Republic of Crema 1797
Ligurian Republic 1797–1805
Roman Republic 1798–1799
Tiberina Republic 1798
The Gozitan Nation 1798–1801 Now part of Malta Independent kingdom under Neapolitan King Ferdinand III. It was actually ruled by a provisional government set up by Saverio Cassar, after French troops on the island capitulated to rebels. It became part of the British protectorate of Malta in 1801.
Republic of Connacht 1798 Now part of Ireland French client republic.
Lemanic Republic 1798 Now part of Switzerland Formerly a subject territory of Bern. The Lemanic Republic declared its independence in January 1798 before being incorporated into the Helvetic Republic as Canton of Léman (today: Vaud) in April of the same year.
Revolutionary Serbia 1804–1813 Now Serbia and parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kingdom of Norway 1814 Now part of Norway Norway declared its independence, as a result of the refusal of the Treaty of Kiel after the Napoleonic Wars, adopted a Constitution and elected Danish Prince Christian Frederik as its own king. Resulting to a short war with Sweden, leading to Norway accepting entering into a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss.
First Hellenic Republic 1822–1832 Now Greece
Italy Italian United Provinces 1831 Now part of Italy
First Paris Commune 1832 Now part of France
Kingdom of Tavolara 1836–1962? Now part of Italy[44] The Bertoleoni family claimed to be monarchs of an island off the northeast coast of Sardinia.
Sonderbund 1845–1847 Now part of Switzerland A rival Confederation which broke away from Switzerland 1845 to protect their interests against a centralization of power.
Sicily 1848–1849 Now part of Italy
Provisional Government of Milan 1848
Republic of Mosina 1848 Now part of Poland
Ruthenian State 1848–1851 Now part of Ukraine and Poland
Repubblica di San Marco 1848–1849 Now part of Italy Following 1848 unrests, the republic was proclaimed in 1848 in the territories of Venetia with the capital Venice. Allied with the other Italian states against Austrian Empire, it eventually voted to federate under Kingdom of Sardinia, but it went back to independence after piedmontese defeat. Remaining only Venice and its lagoon under control, the republic surrendered after almost 5 months of siege and after 17 months of existence.
German Empire 1848–1849 Now part of Germany was a short-lived proto-state which existed from 1848 to 1849. In one view, it was a revolutionary new created national state. According to another view, it was the reformed German Confederation.
Slovak National Council 1848–1849 Now part of Slovakia
Serbian Vojvodina 1848–1849 Now part of Serbia and Romania
Hungarian State 1849 Now part of Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Austria, Slovakia and Ukraine
Roman Republic 1849–1850 Now part of Italy and Vatican City
Kingdom of Italy United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Now part of Italy
Second Paris Commune 1870 Now part of France
Lyon Commune 1870–1871
Third Paris Commune 1871
Besançon Commune 1871
Canton of Cartagena 1873–1874 Now part of Spain In 1873 Cartagena was proclaimed as an independent canton, called the Canton of Cartagena. This proclamation started the Cantonal Revolution in Spain, during the First Spanish Republic. It was the beginning of the cantonalism, a movement that sought to establish a federal state composed of autonomous cantons. Some cities and territories joined the cantonal cause and were declared independents too, but they surrendered a few days later. The only canton with an organized government as state, control on its territory and military power was Cartagena, which declared war and faced the Spanish central government during six months, until it was invaded.
Canton of Málaga 1873
Valencian Canton
Republic of Tamrash 1878–1886 Now part of Bulgaria The Republic of Tamrash was a self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains.

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Gurian Republic 1902–1906 Now part of Georgia The Gurian Republic or the Gurian peasant republic was an insurrection that took place in the western Georgian province Guria (then part of the Imperial Russia) prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the November 1905 to January 10, 1906.
Kruševo Republic 1903 Now part of North Macedonia Republic established in Kruševo, North Macedonia at the start of the Ilinden Uprising. It lasted solely 10 days, from the third to the thirteenth of August. It can be considered as one of the first modern governments with leftist views, as both the president, Nikola Karev and his co-writer of the Kruševo Manifesto, Nikola Kirov, were socialists and members of the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party.
Strandzha Commune 1903 Now part of Bulgaria and Turkey
Chita Republic, Krasnoyarsk Republic, Novorossiysk Republic, Sochi Republic, Stary Buyan Republic 1905–1906 Now part of Russia The Chita Republic was a workers and peasants' dictatory republic in Chita during the Russian Revolution of 1905, installed by actual seizure of power in Chita RSDLP Committee and the Council of Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies in November 1905 – January 1906. The Krasnoyarsk Republic — government, organized by the Joint Board of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Krasnoyarsk during the First Russian Revolution. Lasted from 9 to 27 December 1905. The Novorossiysk Republic — the worker-peasant self-government established by the Council of Workers' Deputies in Novorossiysk December 12, 1905, lasted until 26 December of the same year. The Sochi Republic — political education social democratic sense, arising from the modern city of Sochi as a result of the revolutionary uprisings of 1905, lasted from December 28, 1905, to January 5, 1906 (i.e., about 9 days). The Starobuyanskaya Republic — peasant self-government established during the First Russian Revolution in the village of Stary Buyan, lasted from 12 to 26 November 1905.
Liubotyn Republic and Shuliavka Republic 1905 Now part of Ukraine The Lyubotinskaya Republic — proclaimed in December 1905, independent workers' state in the armed insurrection of the workers and railwaymen in Lyubotin during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the December 26 to 30, 1905. The Shuliavka Republic was an early 20th-century worker-based quasi-government organization in the city of Kiev, Ukraine, whose main task was self-defence. The uprising lasted a total of four days, from December 12–16 (o.s., in the Gregorian Calendar, 26–29), 1905.
Markovo Republic 1905–1906 Now part of Russia The Markovo Republic was a self-proclaimed peasant state, located in Russia, in the Volokolamsk area. It was proclaimed on October 18, 1905, when during the Russian Revolution of 1905 peasants took control of the local government in the village Markovo and 5 other villages. It had existed until July 18, 1906.
Republic of Ostrowiec Now part of Poland The Republic of Ostrowiec (Republika Ostrowiecka) — government set December 27, 1905 during the First Russian Revolution in cities Ostrowiec, Iłżę, Ćmielów and locality. Republic fell in the middle of January 1906.
Republic of Zagłębie and Republic of Sławków 1905 The Polish towns Zagłębie Dąbrowskie and Sławków were taken over by revolutionaries during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Both republics existed in November–December 1905, each about 10–12 days.
Comrat Republic 1906 Now part of Moldova established in the village of Comrat, in the Bessarabia Governorate, in protest of the tsarist regime of the Russian Empire. It was created after a mutiny by Andrey Galatsan, a socialist revolutionary, with the support of the local Gagauz population. It lasted six days (from 6 January to 12 January) and is today viewed positively in Gagauzia (now in Moldova) as a premonition of the future Gagauz territorial autonomy.
Provisional Government of Western Thrace 1913 Now part of Greece A small, short-lived republic from August 31 to October 25, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan War when Western Thrace was then occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It was founded as a state with Ottoman support, in order to avoid Bulgarian rule after the Treaty of Bucharest, in which the Ottomans had not taken part. Under British pressure, the Balkan powers and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Constantinople, which satisfied the Turkish claims to recognition of Eastern Thrace. The Ottomans withdrew their forces and by 25 October, the area was annexed by Bulgaria.[45][46]
Republic of Central Albania 1913–1914 Now part of Albania The Republic of Central Albania was a republic declared following the pullout of Ottoman forces from the former Albanian Vilayet. Declared by Essad Pasha Toptani, the republic's existence came to an end when the troops of Wilhelm of Wied took control of the country.
Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus 1914
General Government of Galicia and Bukovina 1914–1917 Now part of Poland and Ukraine
General Government of Belgium 1914–1918 Now part of Belgium
Government General of Warsaw 1915–1918 Now part of Poland
Military Government of Lublin
Republic of Ireland Irish Republic 1916 Now recognized as the Republic of Ireland and part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland An independent republic covering the entire island of Ireland declared on 24 April 1916 during the Easter Rising; sent out a radio broadcast to the nations of Europe: "Irish Republic declared in Dublin today. Irish troops have captured city and are in full possession. Enemy cannot move in city. The whole country rising." The rebels surrendered on 29 April.[47]
Samarina Republic 1917 Now part of Greece First Attempt at an Aromanian State.
Provisional Land Council of Vidzeme 1917 Now part of Latvia
Provisional Land Council of Courland
Crimean People's Republic 1917–1918 Disputed (de facto part of Russia, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine) Defeated by the Red Army.
Latgale Provisional Land Council of Latgale Now part of Latvia
Moldavian Democratic Republic Now part of Moldova and Ukraine Joined Kingdom of Romania
 Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets Now part of Ukraine Soviet Russia puppet state created on efforts of the local Bolsheviks and military support from Moscow and Petrograd. It was cleared out of Ukraine by the Ukrainian People's Republic with the help from Germany and Austria.
Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and the Landless in Latvia Now part of Latvia
Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918) Now recognized
Baku Soviet Commune 1918 Now part of Azerbaijan
Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly 1918 Now part of Russia Anti-Bolshevik Government based in Samara
Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council 1918 Now part of Germany
Republic of Zakopane 1918 Now part of Poland Joined Poland
Supreme Administration of the Northern Region 1918 Now part of Russia
Idel-Ural State 1918 Defeated by the Red Army.
Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic 1918–1920 Now de facto part of South Ossetia, internationally recognised as part of Georgia
 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 1917–1922 Now part of Russia Revolutionary soviet state led by Vladimir Lenin during the Russian civil war.
Republic of Heinzenland 1918 Now part of Austria was a short-lived and unrecognized nation in the region now known as the Austrian federal state of Burgenland, aimed at protecting the German-speaking population in Western Hungary
Slovak People's Republic Now part of Slovakia
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Now part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina) and Montenegro (Boka Kotorska) Temporary state of the Austro-Hungarian South Slavs, declared on October 29, 1918, and merged with the Kingdom of Serbia on December 1, 1918, into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)
First Republic of Pińczów Now part of Poland Area of Pińczów and the surrounding area which was captured at the end of 1918 for a period of six weeks by the city's inhabitants, led by Jan Lisowski, after the disarmament of the occupation troops without a fight.
Republic of Tarnobrzeg 1918–1919 Now part of Poland The Republic of Tarnobrzeg was proclaimed November 6, 1918 in the Polish town of Tarnobrzeg. Disestablished Spring 1919.
Crimean Regional Government Disputed between Ukraine and Russia
Kars Republic Part of Turkey
Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine 1918–1919 Now Ukraine
Kuban People's Republic Kuban People's Republic 1918–1920 Now part of Russia A territory in Russia, it was declared by Kuban Cossacks in 1918. It supported the White Movement and was overrun by the Bolsheviks in 1920.
West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Now part of Ukraine Established in eastern Galicia leading to a losing war with Poland after which it was overrun by Poland and its government joined the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Komancza Republic An association of 30 pro-Ukrainian villages, it planned to merge with the West Ukrainian People's Republic but was suppressed by Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918 Now part of Finland and Russia Lasted only three months during the Finnish Civil War, but was recognized by Soviet Russia.
Republic of Vorarlberg Now part of Austria Amidst the chaos in collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire the Vorarlbergers proclaimed themselves a separate non-Austrian, Germanic people and declared on 3 November 1918 the independence as Republic of Vorarlberg. The secession was blocked by the Allies and the new Austrian republican government. In April 1919, over 80% of the Vorarlbergers voted to secede from Austria and attach themselves to Switzerland, but they were again blocked.[48]
Alsace Soviet Republic (Republic of Alsace-Lorraine) Now part of France The Soviet Republic, existed in Alsace from 10 to 22 November 1918.
Banat Republic Now part of Romania, Serbia and Hungary Established in the Banat region of modern Serbia by members of ethnic groups in the region, it was only recognized by Hungary. It was invaded by Serbia and in 1919 partitioned between Hungary, Romania, and the newly created Yugoslavia.
Don Republic 1918–1920 Now part of Russia Republic was established on the historic territory of the Don Cossacks and was recognized by the Ukrainian State. In 1919 it was part of the Armed Forces of South Russia and eventually overran by Bolsheviks with its annexation to the Soviet Russia and decossackization.
Belarus Belarusian People's Republic 1918 Now recognized as Belarus Attempt by Belarusian nationalists but conquered by Soviet Union. Still exists today as a government-in-exile.
Terek Soviet Republic Now part of Russia was a short-lived republic on the territory of the former Terek Oblast. Its capital was first Pyatigorsk, and later Vladikavkaz.
Don Soviet Republic
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918) Now part of Latvia German Client State
Austria Republic of German-Austria 1918–1919 Now part of Austria and the Czech Republic Brief state declared following the collapse of Austria-Hungary. The Allies of World War I opposed it and it was succeeded by the First Austrian Republic.
Lithuania Lithuania 1918 Now recognized
Republic of Perloja 1918–1923 Now part of Lithuania In the chaos after World War I, responding to such situation the locals established a self-governing parish committee, often called the Republic of Perloja. The Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic 1918–1919 Short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union
Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic 1918–1920 Now part of Latvia
Latvian Provisional Government 1918–1920 Now part of Latvia and Belarus
Free State of Schwenten 1919 Now part of Poland
Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic 1919 Disputed (de facto part of Russia, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine) State allied with the Soviet Union
Italian Regency of Carnaro 1919–1920 Now part of Croatia
Republic of Batumi Now part of Georgia Short-lived state only recognised by the United Kingdom
North Caucasian Emirate Now part of Russia
Republic of North Ingria The Republic of North Ingria was a state of Ingrian Finns in the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus, which seceded from Bolshevist Russia after the October Revolution. Its aim was to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia. Established -January 23, 1919. Disestablished — December 5, 1920.
Republic of Uhtua The Republic of Uhtua (or the Republic of East Karelia) was an unrecognized state, with the focus of a state led by Finns. It existed from 1919 to 1920, created out of five Volosts in the Kemsky uyezd of the Arkhangelsk Governorate, now in the Republic of Karelia. The capital of the republic was the village of Uhtua (now Kalevala).
People's State of Reuss Now part of Germany The People's State of Reuss was a short-lived country in what is now Thuringia. The state was formed on 4 April 1919 after the reigning princes of the two Reuss principalities abdicated and elections were held in both states. It united with six other small states to form Thuringia, a member state of the Weimar Republic, on 1 May 1920.
Hutsul Republic 1919 Now part of Ukraine A state formed from territory in the former Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, it was invaded by the Hungarian Soviet Republic in June 1919 and then became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It originally intended to join the Western Ukrainian National Republic[49]
Bavarian Soviet Republic and Bremen Soviet Republic Now part of Germany The Bavarian Soviet Republic, also known as the Munich Soviet Republic was, as part of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the attempt to establish a socialist state in the form of a democratic workers' council republic in the Free State of Bavaria. It lasted four weeks. Another Republic that also existed for four weeks was the Bremen Soviet Republic.[50]
Slovak Soviet Republic Now part of Slovakia A pro-Hungarian puppet state set up by Red Guards from the Hungarian Soviet Republic in Upper Hungary. It lasted three weeks.[50] After a brief war it was returned to the authority of Czechoslovakia as promised by early peace agreements.
Republic of Prekmurje Existed for six days.
Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia Now part of Belarus
Kholodny Yar Republic 1919–1922 Now part of Ukraine
Monarchy of the North 1919 Now part of Portugal A stated that established by monarchists trying to restore the monarchy. It was crushed by the Portuguese Army.
Republic of Ireland Irish Republic 1919–1922 Now recognized as the Republic of Ireland and part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland An unrecognized Irish nationalist state during the Irish War for Independence it ceased to exist following the Anglo-Irish Treaty which gave Southern Ireland independence as the Irish Free State while keeping Northern Ireland under British control. These terms caused much of the victorious Irish Republican Army to reject the treaty, leading to the Irish Civil War (1922–1923) between pro-treaty Free State forces and Anti-Treaty IRA, who viewed the dissolution of the Republic as illegal.
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1919 Now part of Ukraine The Soviet Republic Ukrainian SSR existed from 1919 to 1991. It was not until 1945 when it was officially recognized as a founding member of the United Nations. It was created as another puppet state of the Soviet Russia. With the fall of the Soviet Union transitioned to Ukraine.
Galician Soviet Socialist Republic 1920 The Soviet Republic Galician SSR existed from July 8, 1920, to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the south-western front of the Red Army.
Olonets Government of Southern Karelia Now part of Russia
Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee Now part of Poland and Belarus was a revolutionary committee created under the patronage of Soviet Russia with the goal to establish a Soviet republic within Poland.
Republic of Central Lithuania 1920–1922 Now part of Lithuania and Belarus was a short-lived puppet republic of Poland, that existed from 1920 to 1922, without an international recognition. It was founded on 12 October 1920, after Żeligowski's Mutiny, when soldiers of the Polish Army, mainly the 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Infantry Division under Lucjan Żeligowski, fully supported by the Polish air force, cavalry and artillery, attacked Lithuania. It was incorporated into Poland on 18 April 1922.
Karelian United Government 1920–1923 Now part of Russia
Lajtabánság 1921 Now part of Austria and Hungary State declared in the Burgenland state of Austria by ethnic Hungarians following the Treaty of Trianon, where Hungary was forced to surrender the territory. It was ceased to exist after a month when Austria annexed it.
Labin Republic Now part of Croatia Republic established in Labin, Croatia.
Serbia Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic Now part of Hungary and Croatia A Soviet-minded[vague] state set up by Hungarian communists fleeing the white terror following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. It was supported by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes but was quickly re-conquered by Hungary.
Republic of Mirdita Now part of Albania Set up by Albanian Catholics trying to break away from Albania which was a mainly Muslim country. It was backed by Yugoslavia but only lasted three months.
Life and Labor Commune Now part of Russia
Autonomous Palatinate 1924 Now part of Germany
Tungus Republic 1924–1925 Now part of Khabarovsk Krai The Tungus Republic was a short-lived state started by the Tunguska uprising as part of the Yakut uprisings of the 1920s the state was ceded back to the USSR in 1925.
Kingdom of Lundy 1925–1930 Now part of the United Kingdom Attempted state by Martin Coles Harman
Asturias and León 1936–1937 Now part of Spain Established during the Spanish Civil War.
Free City of Asch 1938 Now part of the Czech Republic Established during the Sudeten German uprising
Ukraine Carpatho-Ukraine 1939 Now part of Ukraine Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from 30 December 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was occupied and annexed by Hungary between March 15 and March 18, 1939.
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Now part of Russia Puppet state of the Soviet Union led by Otto Wille Kuusinen. Finnish Democratic Republic was diplomatically recognised by USSR, Mongolia and Tuva,[51] latter two being Soviet satellite states. The League of Nations never recognized the Finnish Democratic Republic. Finnish Democratic Republic was merged in 1940 with the Karelian ASSR within the RSFSR to form the Karelo-Finnish SSR, a Soviet republic in its own right, after Finland had ceded the areas to the Soviet Union in the Moscow Peace Treaty.
Slovakia First Slovak Republic 1939–1945 Now part of Slovakia Between 1939 and 1945, First Slovak Republic was a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
Soviet Union Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940–1941, 1944–1990/91 Now part of Estonia The three puppet states[52] which, following the 1940 Soviet invasion of the three countries, were proclaimed in Soviet-occupied Baltic countries in July 1940 and annexed into the Soviet Union in August 1940. The Soviet annexation was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.
Soviet Union Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic Now part of Latvia
Soviet Union Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic Now part of Lithuania
 Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Now part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Affiliated with the Third Reich.
Ukraine Ukrainian State Board 1941 Now part of Ukraine Proclaimed restoration of Ukrainian statehood by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists after the occupation of Lviv by Nazi Germany which immediately suppressed it.
Lokot Autonomy 1941–1942 Now part of Russia
Ukraine Ukrainian Independent United State [uk] 1941–1949 Now part of Ukraine and Poland Territories of Western Ukraine, controlled by Ukrainian Insurgent Army during the World War II.
Republic of Užice 1941 Now part of Serbia Area briefly liberated by Yugoslav partisans after the Invasion of Yugoslavia; it was retaken by the German Army during the First anti-Partisan offensive.
Principality of the Pindus 1941–1943 Now part of Greece Second attempt at an Aromanian State
Bihać Republic 1942–1943 Now part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Area liberated by Yugoslav partisans before being recaptured by the German Army.
Italy Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Now part of Italy German-dominated puppet state under Benito Mussolini, formed in the North of Italy after the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III signed an armistice with the Allies.
Belarusian Central Rada 1943–1944 Now part of Belarus
Mountain Government 1944 Now part of Greece
Free Republic of Vercors 1944 Now part of France On 3 July 1944, the Free Republic of Vercors was proclaimed, the first democratic territory in France since the beginning of the German occupation in 1940. The republic ceased to exist before the end of the month.
Republic of Alto Monferrato 1944 Now part of Italy
Republic of Bobbio 1944
Independent Macedonia 1944 Part of North Macedonia, Serbia and Kosovo
Second Republic of Pińczów 1944 Now part of Poland Region in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship liberated by joint forces of Polish Resistance formations: Home Army, People's Army and Peasants' Battalions, during a period from July to August 1944.[53][54]
Republic of Rose Island 1968–1969 Now part of Italy
Republic of Sbarre Centrali 1970–1971
Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration 1974–1975 Now de facto part of Northern Cyprus, internationally recognised as part of Cyprus
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983
Gagauz Republic 1989–1995 Now part of Moldova The Gagauz people were in general uncomfortable with the potential unification between Moldova and Romania. Thus, the Gagauz Republic declared itself as separate from Moldova. It was later reintegrated into Moldova as an autonomous region in 1995.
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992 Now de facto independent as Transnistria, internationally recognised as part of Moldova
Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic later Republic of Tatarstan 1990–2002 Now part of Russia On August 30, 1990, Tatarstan declared its sovereignty with the Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic and in 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on the new constitution. Some 62% of those who took part voted in favor of the constitution. In the 1992 Tatarstan Constitution, Tatarstan is defined as a Sovereign State. However, the referendum and constitution were declared unconstitutional by the Russian Constitutional Court. Articles 1 and 3 of the Constitution as introduced in 2002 define Tatarstan as a part of the Russian Federation, removing the "sovereignty" term.
Republic of Vevčani 1991–1993 Now part of North Macedonia
 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 1991–2000 Now part of Russia
Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina 1991–1995 Now part of Croatia Suppressed by Croatia.
Dubrovnik Republic 1991–1992
SAO Romanija Now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Kosova 1991–1999 Now Kosovo After United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo became the republic of Kosovo
Kurdistan Region Kurdish Republic of Laçin 1992 Now Azerbaijan [55]
Tatarstan Republic of Tatarstan 1992–1994 Now part of Russia Now part of Russia
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia 1992–1996 Now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina Suppressed by Bosnia and Herzegovina.
 Republika Srpska 1992–1995 Transformed into an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering 50% of the land with 90%+ ethnic Serbs.
Republic of Crimea 1992–1995 Disputed (de facto part of Russia, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine) Rejoined Ukraine to become Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Ilirida 1992 and 2014 Now part of North Macedonia Short-lived attempt at an Albanian state
Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic 1993 Now part of Azerbaijan Short-lived attempt at autonomy.
Republic of Western Bosnia 1993–1995 Now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia, existed during the Bosnian War. Its leader was later convicted of war crimes.
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia 1995–1998 Now part of Croatia The UN gives Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia to Croatia.
Tatarstan Tatarstan 2008 Now part of Russia Declared in Response to the Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Russia[56]
Odesa People's Republic 2014 Now part of Ukraine This republic was declared by an internet group on 16 April, but local Antimaidan protesters said they had not made such a declaration. Unlike in Kharkiv, Donetsk, and Luhansk, pro-Russian protesters in Odesa said they wanted Odesa to be an autonomous region within Ukraine, rather than to join Russia. On 28 October, the SBU said they had foiled a plot to create a People's Republic in the region. They found a munitions cache, and arrested members of an alleged separatist group. They also said that Russian intelligence and security services were behind the plot.
Kharkiv People's Republic[57] 2014 The Kharkiv People's Republic was a short lived republic proclaimed on 7 April by protesters occupying the RSA building. However, later that day, Ukrainian special forces retook the building, thereby ending the control the protesters had over the building.
Republic of Stakhanov 2014–2015 Anti-Luhansk Peoples Republic state
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Republic of Crimea 2014 Disputed (de facto part of Russia, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine) As part of the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, on 17 March 2014 following the official announcement of the Crimean status referendum results, the Supreme Council of Crimea declared the formal independence of the Republic of Crimea, comprising the territories of both the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.[58] Russia officially recognised the Republic of Crimea 'as a sovereign and independent state' by decree[59] before approving the admission of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia.[60]
 Novorossiya ( Donetsk People's Republic/ Luhansk People's Republic) 2014–2015 Due to non-resolution to the war in Donbass, although Minsk Protocol/Minsk II are in effect. Both states attempted to form an unrecognised Confederation-like union known as Novorossiya based on a historical Russian region of the same name. This project was suspended however in 2015, and reverted as allied rebellious separatist People's Republics from Ukraine as since, up until 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, where later that year, these were (illegally) annexed by Russian Federation.
 Donetsk People's Republic 2014–2022 The Donetsk People's Republic existed during the Russo-Ukrainian War, proclaimed on 7 April and designated as a terrorist organisation by Ukraine in May 2014. On 30 September 2022, Russia's president Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions.
 Luhansk People's Republic The Luhansk People's Republic, existed during the Russo-Ukrainian War, proclaimed on 27 April and designated as a terrorist organisation by Ukraine in May 2014. On 30 September 2022, Russia's president Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions.
Catalonia Catalan Republic 2017 Now part of Spain The Autonomous Community of Catalonia of the Kingdom of Spain, put forth an unrecognized referendum without democratic guarantees that resulted in a majority of "yes",[61] a declaration of independence was passed in parliament, but it was suspended by parliament itself later to allow negotiations. Some claim eight seconds after it was declared.[62] The Spanish government has effectively since disbanded the self-proclaimed republic, and announced a new regional election instead. Some of the Catalan leadership went to jail according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978.[63]
Zaporizhzhia 2022 Disputed (de facto part of Russia, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine) Zaporizhzhia region existed during the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine, proclaimed on 28 September 2022. On 30 September 2022, Russia's president Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions.
Kherson 2022 Kherson region, existed during the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine, proclaimed on 28 September 2022. On 30 September 2022, Russia's president Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions.

Oceania[edit]

19th century[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
United Tribes of New Zealand 1835–1840 Now part of New Zealand Independence declared by British Resident James Busby and northern Māori tribal leaders as an attempt to safeguard British claims against French territorial expansion. Led to a formal treaty (the Treaty of Waitangi) between Māori leaders and the British crown in 1840.
Kingdom of New Zealand 1835–1843 Declared by adventurer and New Zealand landowner Charles de Thierry, who, in order to convince the French government to appoint him as governor, falsely claimed that the Māori tribes had chosen him as their sovereign. He later "annexed" the island of Nuku Hiva for his kingdom.
Kingdom of Fiji 1852–1871 Now recognized Created by Fijian chief Seru Cakobau, who styled himself the king of Fiji. His claim was not recognized by the other chiefs of Fiji, leading to almost 20 years of warfare until Cakobau finally succeeded in unifying the island.
Kingdom of Easter Island 1868–1876 Now part of Chile Formed by French sailor Jean-Baptiste Dutrou-Bornier, who bought up much of the severely depopulated Easter Island, and declared his indigenous wife to be its Queen. The kingdom ceased to exist after Dutrou-Bornier's death, with a remaining population of only 111 people.
Kingdom of Rapa Nui 1888–1914 Now part of Chile An independence movement in Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Due to a misunderstanding in the Chilean treaty of annexation, the islanders believed they retained their sovereignty. King Riro Kāinga attempted to negotiate the island's continued sovereignty with Chile, but died under mysterious circumstances. Several other Rapa Nuians declared themselves kings, such as Enrique Ika, Moisés Tuʻu Hereveri, and María Angata
Kingdom of Raiatea-Tahaa 1888–1897 Now part of French Polynesia A Polynesian kingdom that resisted the French annexation of the Leeward Islands. The King of Raiatea, Tamatoa VI, requested a French protectorate, but many of the lesser chiefs refused to comply with French authority and deposed Tamatoa. This led to a resistance government being set up with Queen Tuarii installed on the throne.
Kingdom of Huahine 1888–1894 A Polynesian kingdom that resisted the French annexation of the Leeward Islands. Queen Tehaapapa II acquiesced to French annexation, and like in Raiatea, an anti-French insurrection rose up to rally around a rebel government with the Queen's daughter, Teuhe, installed on the throne.
Kingdom of Bora Bora 1888–1895 A Polynesian kingdom that resisted the French annexation of the Leeward Islands. Unlike in Raiatea and Huahine, Bora Bora remained officially neutral, but due to the war in the rest of the Leewards Islands, the French weren't able to take control over the kingdom until 1895.
Independent Commune of Franceville 1889–1890 Now part of Vanuatu Its independence guaranteed by France, this community of Melanesian natives and European settlers experimented with universal suffrage until France and Britain intervened in the New Hebrides.[64]
Provisional Government of Hawaii 1893–1894 Now part of the United States[65]
Republic of Hawaii 1894–1898

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Name Period Today Notes
Republic of West Papua 1961–1962, 1971, 1988 Now part of Indonesia Many West Papuans demanded a new referendum on the region's status because only around 1,000 of almost 1 million Papuans were consulted in the Act of Free Choice, when West Papua was absorbed into Indonesia. Both West Papuan insurgents and Indonesian military have committed acts of violence against civilians, including an incident in the late 1960s where Indonesian personnel forced 50 men to dig their own grave before killing them.[66] [67]
Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville Interim Government 1990–1998 Now part of Papua New Guinea Signed a peace deal with Papua New Guinea giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ While there is less armed conflict in Africa political violence increases. "Open-source conflict data is increasingly used to supplement reporting and analysis of trends in instability in Africa. A number of recent global reports, including the OECD States of Fragility 2016: Understanding Violence, use conflict data to show changes in conflict type, actors, tactics and intensity across and within countries over time".[5]

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