List of historically significant college football games
The following is a list of historically significant college football games. Games included on this list are single college football games that have historical impact to the sport of college football.
Inclusion on this list requires games of significant historical "firsts" and/or otherwise significant impact to the sport itself, such as significant rules changes or initiation of long-standing ceremony. Historically significant games should be prominently discussed in major historical accounts of college football. Games that may be significant only to a particular team's fan base should not be listed here.
Games are listed in chronological order. The name of the winning team is in bold.
|1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game||Rutgers||New Jersey (Princeton)||New Brunswick, New Jersey||6–4||Considered the first American football game played.|
|1872 Rutgers vs. Columbia football game||Columbia||Rutgers||New York, New York||0–0||First football game to end with a tie score.|
|1874 Harvard vs. McGill football game||Harvard||McGill||Cambridge, Massachusetts||0–0||First rugby football game in the United States. Harvard played three games against McGill. The first was the first college football game in Massachusetts (but did not use a rugby-style ball, as was used in this game), the second this game, and the third the earliest known in Canada.|
|1875 Tufts vs. Harvard football game||Harvard||Tufts||Cambridge, Massachusetts||0–1||Considered the first modern style American football game played in the United States. Significant rule changes made it far more modern than previous games, including each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.|
|1879 Michigan vs. Racine football game||Michigan||Racine College||Chicago, Illinois||1–0||Organized football first played in the state of Illinois. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it "the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies."|
|1880 Kentucky University vs. Centre football game||Kentucky University||Centre||Lexington, Kentucky (Stoll Field)||13¾–0||Organized football was first played in the state of Kentucky when Kentucky University defeated Centre. The first game in the south.|
|1884 Lafayette vs. Lehigh football game||Lafayette||Lehigh||Easton, Pennsylvania||56–0||First game of the Lehigh-Lafayette rivalry, the most-played rivalry in American college football history.|
|1884 Dartmouth vs. Yale football game||Dartmouth||Yale||Hanover, New Hampshire||113–0||First game where one team scored over 100 points; also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out. The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.|
|1887 Virginia vs. Pantops football game||Virginia||Pantops Academy||Virginia||0–0||Organized football was first played in the state of Virginia. Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton's historic first game in 1869. But no record has been found of the score of this contest.|
|1890 Kansas vs. Baker football game||Baker||Kansas||Baldwin City, Kansas||22–9||Organized football was first played in the state of Kansas.|
|1890 Navy vs. Army football game||Army||Navy||West Point, New York||0–24||First Army–Navy Game|
|1890 Vanderbilt vs. Nashville football game||Vanderbilt||Nashville (Peabody)||Nashville, Tennessee (Athletic Park)||40–0||Organized football was first played in the state of Tennessee.|
|1892 Mercer vs. Georgia football game||Georgia||Mercer||Athens, Georgia||50–0||First football game in the Deep South.|
|1892 Wyoming Seminary vs. Mansfield State Normal football game||Wyoming Seminary (high school)||Mansfield State Normal||Mansfield, Pennsylvania||0–0||First nighttime football game played under lights. Game ended at halftime.|
|1892 Biddle vs. Livingstone football game||Livingstone||Biddle||Salisbury, North Carolina||0–5||First black college football game. Played in two 45-minute halves.|
|1893 Army vs. Navy football game||Navy||Army||Annapolis, Maryland||6–4||First documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Midshipman Joseph M. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a local shoemaker/blacksmith and wore it in this game after being warned by doctors that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering a kick to the head in an earlier game.|
|1894 Chicago vs. Stanford football game||Stanford||Chicago||San Francisco, California||4–24||First intersectional contest.|
|1895 Georgia vs. North Carolina football game||Georgia||North Carolina||Atlanta, Georgia||0–6||The first forward pass, though years before the legal forward pass of 1906.|
|1895 Oklahoma City vs. Oklahoma football game||Oklahoma||Oklahoma City||Norman, Oklahoma||0–34||First college football game in Oklahoma Territory.|
|1897 Ohio State vs. Michigan||Ohio State||Michigan||Ann Arbor, Michigan||0–34||First Ohio State-Michigan game.|
|1897 École des Beaux-Arts vs. Académie Julian football game||?||?||Paris, France||?||Considered the first American football game played in Europe.|
|1901 Stetson vs. Florida Agricultural College at Lake City||Stetson||Florida Agricultural College||Jacksonville, Florida||6–0||The first intercollegiate game in Florida, played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.|
|1902 Georgetown vs. Navy football game||Navy||Georgetown||Annapolis, Maryland||0–4||Claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first "roving center" or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.|
|1902 Tournament East-West football game||Stanford||Michigan||Pasadena, California||0–49||First bowl game The name of the game was changed to the Rose Bowl Game starting with the 1923 Rose Bowl when it moved to the newly constructed Rose Bowl Stadium.|
|1905 Michigan vs. Chicago football game||Chicago||Michigan||Chicago, Illinois||2–0||Dubbed "The First Greatest Game of the Century," broke Michigan's 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the "Point-a-Minute" years.|
|1905 Washburn vs. Fairmount football game||Fairmount||Washburn||Wichita, Kansas||0–0||Game using several "experimental rules" that were tested before implementing major nationwide rules changes and the formation of the NCAA. This game had the first "legal" forward pass for a college team, but only because of the new experimental rules created just for this game.|
|1906 Saint Louis vs. Carroll football game||Carroll (Wisconsin)||Saint Louis||Waukesha, Wisconsin||0–22||First regular season game with the first legal forward pass.|
|1906 Carlisle vs. Vanderbilt football game||Vanderbilt||Carlisle||Nashville, Tennessee||4–0||The south's first great intersectional triumph; by a single drop kick.|
|1907 Chicago vs. Illinois football game||Illinois||Chicago||Champaign, Illinois||6–42||First game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.|
|1910 Vanderbilt vs. Yale football game||Yale||Vanderbilt||New Haven, Connecticut||0–0||Vanderbilt battles defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie. The south's first triumph against one of the 'big four' Eastern powers.|
|1911 Kansas vs. Missouri football game||Missouri||Kansas||Columbia, Missouri||3–3||First homecoming football game. The game was "broadcast" play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.|
|1916 Cumberland vs. Georgia Tech football game||Georgia Tech||Cumberland||Atlanta, Georgia||222–0||Most lopsided victory in college football history and most lopsided American football game that has a well documented result.|
|1921 West Virginia vs. Pittsburgh football game||Pittsburgh||West Virginia||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||21–13||First live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Arlin announced that year's Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA on October 8, 1921.|
|1921 Centre vs. Harvard football game||Harvard||Centre||Boston, Massachusetts||0–6||Widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history.|
|1922 Michigan vs. Vanderbilt football game||Vanderbilt||Michigan||Nashville, Tennessee||0–0||Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. The inaugural game at Dudley Field featured the season's two best defenses. Michigan was a heavy favorite to win but Vandy managed a goal line stand to preserve a tie. The game's result was "a great surprise to the sporting world." It features prominently in Vanderbilt's history. Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field.|
|1922 Princeton vs. Chicago football game||Chicago||Princeton||Chicago, Illinois||18–21||First game to be nationally broadcast on radio and considered a hotly contested game. Had Princeton dubbed the "Team of Destiny."|
|1922 Alabama vs. Penn football game||Penn||Alabama||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||7–9||Alabama, a southern school, upset an Eastern power, one of the 'big four', in Penn.|
|1926 Rose Bowl||Washington||Alabama||Pasadena, California||19–20||The game is commonly referred to as "the game that changed the south." Many historians recognize it as the most important game in southern football history.|
|1939 Waynesburg vs. Fordham football game||Fordham||Waynesburg||New York, New York||34–7||First televised football game.|
|1940 Cornell–Dartmouth football game||Dartmouth||Cornell||Hanover, New Hampshire||3–0 (3–7)||Game is known for an officiating error that resulted in a rare postgame reversal of the outcome. Cornell threw an incomplete pass on 4th and goal in the game's final seconds, seemingly ensuring a 3–0 shutout victory by Dartmouth. However, the referees inadvertently allowed Cornell to attempt a "fifth down" play on which Cornell scored an apparent game-winning touchdown. After the error was discovered during postgame film review, Cornell offered to forfeit the game. Dartmouth accepted, marking the only time that the outcome of a college football game was decided off the field.|
|1941 Oklahoma City vs. Youngstown football game||Youngstown State||Oklahoma City||Youngstown, Ohio||48–7||First use of the penalty flag by game officials.|
|1943 Notre Dame vs. Michigan football game||Michigan||Notre Dame||Ann Arbor, Michigan||12–35||First college football game between the #1 (Notre Dame) and #2 (Michigan) teams in the nation, as determined by the AP Poll (since its inception in 1936).|
|1947 Harvard vs. Virginia football game||Virginia||Harvard||Charlottesville, Virginia||47–0||Harvard tackle Chester Pierce became the first African-American player to play against an all-white team in a game south of the Mason–Dixon line.|
|1948 Fruit Bowl||San Francisco State||Southern||San Francisco, California (Kezar Stadium)||0–30||First interracial college football bowl game played in the United States.|
|1952 Rose Bowl||Stanford||Illinois||Pasadena, California||7–40||The first nationally televised college football game.|
|1956 Sugar Bowl||Georgia Tech||Pittsburgh||New Orleans, Louisiana||7–0||First African American player, Pitt's Bobby Grier, to break the color barrier in the segregated Deep South.|
|1957 Notre Dame vs. Oklahoma football game||Oklahoma||Notre Dame||Norman, Oklahoma||0–7||Notre Dame's victory ended Oklahoma's 47-game winning streak, which remains the longest winning streak in NCAA Division I-A/FBS history.|
|1962 Rose Bowl||UCLA||Minnesota||Pasadena, California||3–21||First nationally televised college football game in color.|
|1963 Rose Bowl||USC||Wisconsin||Pasadena, California||42–37||First college football bowl game between the #1 (USC) and #2 (Wisconsin) teams in the nation, as determined by the AP and UPI polls.|
|1963 Maryland vs. North Carolina State football game||Maryland||North Carolina State||College Park, Maryland||14–36||Maryland receiver Darryl Hill became the first African-American to play in the Atlantic Coast Conference and the first to play in any of the "big" Southern conferences (ACC, SEC, Southwest Conference).|
|1963 Army vs. Navy football game||Army||Navy||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||21–15||First time any sports broadcast used instant replay.|
|1967 Kentucky vs. Indiana football game||Indiana||Kentucky||Bloomington, Indiana||12–10||Kentucky running back Nathaniel "Nate" Northington became the first African-American scholarship athlete to play any sport in the Southeastern Conference.[a]|
|1967 Ole Miss vs. Kentucky football game||Kentucky||Ole Miss||Lexington, Kentucky||13–26||A week after Northington made his overall debut, he became the first African-American scholarship athlete to play in a game involving two SEC teams.|
|1967 UCLA vs. USC football game||USC||UCLA||Los Angeles, California||21–20||National live network color television broadcast of a conference championship for a Rose Bowl appearance, the two top candidates for the Heisman Trophy facing each other in a conference rivalry game, which also was the de facto college national championship.|
|1968 Alabama vs. Miami (Fla.) football game||Miami (Fla.)||Alabama||Miami, Florida||6–14||First regular-season college football game nationally televised in prime time.|
|1968 Yale vs. Harvard football game||Harvard||Yale||Allston, Massachusetts||29–29||Both teams entered their season-ending rivalry game undefeated and untied, with the Ivy League championship on the line. Down 22–0 in the first half, Harvard made an improbable comeback and tied the game — including 16 unanswered points in the final minute. The game is the subject of the documentary film Harvard Beats Yale 29-29, a reference to the Harvard Crimson headline.|
|1969 Florida A&M vs. Tampa football game||Tampa||Florida A&M||Tampa, Florida||28–34||The first interracial football game in the South. It was the Pivotal game in the desegregation of college football. Before a sellout crowd of 46,000, A&M won the game, in what may well have been the largest mass act of desegregation since emancipation. It pitted the Florida A&M Rattlers, long one of the dominant teams among black colleges, against the Tampa Spartans, a rising power that was overwhelmingly white.|
|1970 USC vs. Alabama football game||Alabama||USC||Birmingham, Alabama||21–42||USC opened the season visiting the University of Alabama under legendary coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and became the first fully integrated team to play in the state of Alabama. The game, scheduled by Bryant, resulted in a domineering 42–21 win by the Trojans. More importantly, all six touchdowns scored by USC team were by African-American players, two by USC running back Sam "Bam" Cunningham, against an all-white Crimson Tide team. The game hastened the racial integration of football at Alabama and in the South.|
|1971 TCU vs. Baylor football game||Baylor||TCU||Waco, Texas||27–34||On October 30, 1971, TCU coach Jim Pittman collapsed on the sideline in Waco shortly after the annual game between the Horned Frogs and Bears began. The game was continued after Coach Pittman was taken by private car to the hospital as the ambulance had already taken a dizzy school official to the hospital and had not yet returned. Coach Pittman was pronounced dead shortly after arrival. The TCU and Baylor players were informed at halftime, and it was decided to honor Coach Pittman's memory by finishing the game, which TCU rallied to win 34–27. This remains the first, and to date only, time in college football history that a coach died on the field during a game.|
|1975 Ohio State vs. Minnesota||Ohio State||Minnesota||Columbus, Ohio||38–6||In a game that saw the Ohio State Buckeyes win 38–6 against the Minnesota Golden Gophers, eventual two-time Heisman trophy winner Archie Griffin rushes for 124 yards, setting the current NCAA record for Most Consecutive Games Gaining 100 Yards or More in a Career|
|1976 Pioneer Bowl||Morgan State||Grambling||Tokyo, Japan (Korakuen Stadium)||16–42||First college football game played in Asia.|
|1982 Northwestern vs. Northern Illinois football game||Northwestern||Northern Illinois||Evanston, Illinois||31–6||Northwestern ends its 34-game losing streak, which remains the longest losing streak in FBS/1-A history.|
|1982 California–Stanford football game||California||Stanford||Berkeley, California||25–20||Game is well known for its final play, known simply as "The Play" – a kickoff return in which California used a series of laterals to score the game-winning touchdown as time expired. Thinking that the game was over, Stanford's marching band had come out onto the field before the play had concluded. The picture of California's Kevin Moen plowing into oblivious Stanford trombone player Gary Tyrrell upon scoring the game-winning touchdown remains one of the most iconic images in college football. "The Play" is recognized as one of the most memorable plays in college football history. In addition, it denied Stanford quarterback John Elway and the rest of the team a chance to play in a bowl game. Stanford and California fans continue to dispute the results.|
|1987 Fiesta Bowl||Penn State||Miami (Fla.)||Tempe, Arizona||14–10||Game is known for changing the landscape of college football bowl games. Due to the bidding war that began, and both Penn State and Miami being independent, the Fiesta Bowl won out and then became a high-profile bowl. It is also the highest rated championship game in history, recording a 24.9 Nielson rating (more than 70 million viewers); no college football game has gotten that kind of ratings, before or since. This game was billed as the classic good versus evil matchup. Highlighted by Penn State's defense intercepting Heisman Trophy winner Vinny Testaverde five times including one with 18 seconds left near the end zone.|
|1990 Colorado–Missouri football game||Missouri||Colorado||Columbia, Missouri||31–33||Game is known for an officiating error that had far-reaching implications. On the game's final drive, the referees inadvertently allowed Colorado to attempt a "fifth down" play on which the Buffaloes scored the game-winning touchdown as time expired. Aided in part by the controversial victory, Colorado completed a 10-win season and was awarded the AP National Championship.|
|1992 SEC Championship Game||Florida||Alabama||Birmingham, Alabama||21–28||The SEC had expanded to 12 schools and hosted a conference championship game for the first time in college football history.|
|1994 Miami (Fla.) vs. Washington football game||Miami (Fla.)||Washington||Miami, Florida||20–38||The loss ended Miami's NCAA-record 58-game home winning streak.|
|1995 Illinois vs. Wisconsin football game||Wisconsin||Illinois||Madison, Wisconsin||3–3||Last tie game in NCAA Division I-A.|
|1995 Las Vegas Bowl||Nevada||Toledo||Whitney, Nevada||37–40||First overtime game in NCAA Division I-A.|
|1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game||Willamette||Linfield||Salem, Oregon||27–0||Kicker Liz Heaston becomes the first woman to play and score points in a college football game|
|1998 Bethune-Cookman vs. Virginia State football game||Bethune-Cookman||Virginia State||Daytona Beach, Florida||63–57 (8OT)||Bethune-Cookman finally defeats Virginia State after 8 overtimes, the longest college football game.|
|1998 Prairie View A&M vs. Langston football game||Langston||Prairie View A&M||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma||14–12||Prairie View's win ended the Panthers' NCAA all-division record 80-game losing streak.|
|2001 Cumberland vs. Jacksonville State football game||Jacksonville State||Cumberland||Jacksonville, Alabama||72–10||Ashley Martin becomes the first woman to play and score in an NCAA football game and the second woman to play and score in a college game in any division.|
|2002 Las Vegas Bowl||New Mexico||UCLA||Whitney, Nevada||27–13||Katie Hnida becomes the first woman to play in a Division I-A bowl game, kicking an extra point attempt that was blocked.|
|2003 New Mexico vs. Texas State football game||New Mexico||Texas State||Albuquerque, New Mexico||72–8||Katie Hnida becomes the first woman to score in a Division I-A game when she kicks two extra points against Texas State University in the fourth quarter of a 72–8 New Mexico win.|
|2003 Stillman vs. West Alabama football game||West Alabama||Stillman||Livingston, Alabama||24–17||Tonya Butler becomes the first woman to kick a field goal in an NCAA football game.|
|2005 Fiesta Bowl||Pittsburgh||Utah||Tempe, Arizona||7–35||Utah becomes the first non-BCS Conference team to appear in and win a BCS Bowl game by blowing out Big East champion Pittsburgh 35–7. The performance of Utah QB Alex Smith propelled him to becoming the #1 overall draft pick in the 2005 NFL Draft. Utah would eventually become a member of the Pac-12 Conference in 2011.|
|2006 Michigan State vs. Northwestern football game||Northwestern||Michigan State||Evanston, Illinois||38–41||The 2006 Michigan State vs. Northwestern football game featured the biggest comeback in NCAA Division I FBS history. The Spartans rallied to score 38 unanswered points to beat the Wildcats 41–38 after falling behind 38–3 with 9:54 left in the 3rd quarter.|
|2007 Appalachian State vs. Michigan football game||Michigan||Appalachian State||Ann Arbor, Michigan||32–34||First win for an NCAA Division I-AA/FCS team over a ranked Division I-A/FBS opponent. As a result of the loss, #5 ranked Michigan dropped out of the Top 25 AP poll, marking the first time a team had dropped from the top five to out of the poll in one week. In the aftermath of the game, the Associated Press amended their polling policy to make FCS teams eligible for the AP Poll, which had previously been limited to FBS teams.|
|2007 Navy vs. Notre Dame football game||Notre Dame||Navy||Notre Dame, Indiana||44–46 (3OT)||Navy's triple-overtime victory over Notre Dame ended the Fighting Irish's 43-game winning streak over the Midshipmen, which is still the NCAA FBS record for most consecutive victories against one opponent.|
|2007 Trinity vs. Millsaps football game||Millsaps||Trinity||Jackson, Mississippi||24–28||Commonly called "Lateralpalooza" – Trinity threw 15 laterals and scored a 60-yard touchdown to win a game against the Millsaps Majors as time expired in the game, producing "the longest play in college football history."|
|2010 Fiesta Bowl||Boise State||TCU||Glendale, Arizona||17–10||First BCS Bowl game played between two non-BCS, or non-AQ, teams, as well as the first BCS bowl game where both teams were undefeated heading into the game. Boise State won the game when Doug Martin got a two-yard touchdown with 7:21 left in the fourth quarter to make it 17–10.|
|2011 Kilimanjaro Bowl||Drake||Mexico all stars||Moshi, Tanzania||17–7||First college football game played on the African continent|
|2012 St. John's (MN) vs. Hamline football game||Hamline||St. John's (MN)||St. Paul, Minnesota||10–55||In his final season, St. John's (MN) head coach John Gagliardi won his 489th career game, the most by any college football coach in history.|
|2014 Virginia Tech vs. Wake Forest football game||Virginia Tech||Wake Forest||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||3-6 (OT)||The most recent scoreless tie in Division I college football, the two teams missed field goals during the game, but scored the first points of the game in the first extra period. In the second overtime, the Hokies lost 11 yards and missed a 53-yard field goal attempt, and the Deacons responded with three rushes for a total of four yards before the 38-yard field goal to win the game. Regardless, it is the most recent scoreless tie in regulation. |
|2015 Portland State vs. North Texas football game||North Texas||Portland State||Denton, Texas||7–66||Portland State's 59-point win is the largest margin of victory of a FCS/I-AA team over a FBS/I-A opponent since NCAA Division I football split into two subdivisions in 1978.|
|2016 Pilot Flying J Battle at Bristol||Tennessee||Virginia Tech||Bristol, Tennessee||45–24||Largest single-game attendance in American football history, with 156,990 at Bristol Motor Speedway.|
|2016 Syracuse vs. Pittsburgh football game||Pittsburgh||Syracuse||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||76–61||Most points scored in a game involving Division I-A/FBS opponents during the regulation four quarters of play since the NCAA began keeping records in 1937.|
|2017 Howard vs. UNLV football game||UNLV||Howard||Whitney, Nevada||40–43||FCS school Howard was a 45-point underdog to UNLV, making the Bison's 43–40 victory the largest point spread upset in college football history.|
|2017 Western Michigan vs. Buffalo football game||Western Michigan||Buffalo||Amherst, New York||71–68||Set new combined scoring record in an FBS game (139 points) and tied the record for most overtime periods (7).|
|2018 Texas A&M vs. LSU football game||Texas A&M||LSU||College Station, Texas||74–72 (7OT)||Set the combined scoring record for any FBS game (146 points); tied the most overtime periods in FBS history (7).|
|2019 North Carolina vs. Virginia Tech football game||Virginia Tech||North Carolina||Blacksburg, Virginia||43–41 (6OT)||The first college game to fully implement overtime rules newly adopted in 2019, in which the fifth and all subsequent overtime procedures consist of two-point conversion attempts (and, if successful, are scored as such).[b]|
- History of American football
- Game of the Century (college football)
- AP Poll#No. 1 vs. No. 2
- List of NCAA college football rivalry games
- List of college bowl games
- College football on television
- College Football Hall of Fame
- List of NCAA football records
- Bowl Championship Series
- List of NCAA conferences
- List of college athletic conferences in the United States
- List of the first college football game in each US state
- The "scholarship" distinction is important here because Northington was not the first African-American athlete to play in the SEC. In March 1966, more than a year before Northington's Kentucky football debut (and also nearly six months before Northington initially enrolled at Kentucky), Tulane baseball player Stephen Martin had become the first African American to play any sport in the SEC. However, Martin was then a walk-on who was attending Tulane on an academic scholarship. Another reason why Martin has been overlooked as an SEC integration pioneer is that Tulane left the conference immediately after Martin's first baseball season of 1966. It should also be noted that Northington was not the only African-American SEC scholarship athlete to make his debut in the 1967–68 school year; Perry Wallace made his varsity debut for Vanderbilt basketball later in 1967.
- Many games earlier in the season had gone into overtime, but all had ended before a fifth overtime procedure was needed.
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Take another look at the coyly, cleverly enigmatic title, borrowed from the famous headline in The Harvard Crimson.
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