List of homologues of the human reproductive system

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The List of homologues of the human reproductive system shows how indifferent embryonic organs differentiate into the respective sex organs in males and females. Müllerian ducts are also referred to as paramesonephric ducts, and Wolffian ducts as mesonephric duct.


Indifferent Male Female
Gonad Testis Ovary
Paramesonephric duct
(Müllerian duct)
Appendix testis Fallopian tubes
Paramesonephric duct Prostatic utricle Uterus, cervix, vagina[1]
Mesonephric tubules Efferent ducts, paradidymis Epoophoron, paroöphoron
Mesonephric duct
(Wolffian duct)
Rete testis Rete ovarii
Mesonephric duct Epididymis Gartner's duct
Mesonephric duct Vas deferens
Mesonephric duct Seminal vesicle
Urogenital sinus Prostate Skene's glands
Urogenital sinus Bladder, urethra Bladder, urethra
Urogenital sinus Cowper's or bulbourethral gland Bartholin's gland
Labioscrotal folds Scrotum Labia majora
Urogenital folds Penile skin Labia minora
Genital tubercle Penis Clitoris
Genital tubercle Bulb of penis Vestibular bulbs
Genital tubercle Glans penis Clitoral glans
Genital tubercle Crus of penis Clitoral crura
Prepuce Foreskin Clitoral hood
Peritoneum Processus vaginalis Canal of Nuck
Gubernaculum Gubernaculum testis Round ligament of uterus

Diagram of internal differentiation[edit]

Diagrams to show the development of male and female generative organs from a common type
A. primitive urogenital organs in the embryo previous to sexual distinction. B. female type of sexual organs. C. male type of sexual organs.
3. Ureter Ureter Ureter
4. Urinary bladder Urinary bladder Urinary bladder
5. Urachus Urachus Urachus
i. Lower part of the intestine i. Lower part of the intestine i. Lower part of the intestine
cl. Cloaca
cp. Elevation which becomes clitoris or penis (genital tubercle) cc. Corpus cavernosum clitoridis cp. Corpora cavernosa penis cut short
ug. Sinus urogenitalis C. Greater vestibular gland, and immediately above it the urethra C. Bulbo-urethral gland of one side
f. The abdominal opening of the left uterine tube
g. Round ligament, corresponding to gubernaculum g. The gubernaculum
h. Situation of the hymen
ls. Labioscrotal folds l. Labium majus s. Scrotum
n. Labium minus
m, m. Right and left Müllerian ducts uniting together and running with the Wolffian ducts in gc, the genital cord m. Müllerian duct, the upper part of which remains as the hydatid of Morgagni; the lower part, represented by a dotted line descending to the prostatic utricle, constitutes the occasionally existing cornu and tube of the uterus masculinus
ot. The genital ridge from which either the ovary or testis is formed. o. The left ovary t. Testis in the place of its original formation; t’, together with the dotted lines above, indicates the direction in which the testis and epididymis descend from the abdomen into the scrotum.
pr. The prostate
sc. Corpus cavernosum urethrae[contradiction] sp. Corpus cavernosum urethrae[contradiction]
u. Uterus. The uterine tube of the right side is marked m.
v. Vulva
va. Vagina
vh. Ductus aberrans
vs. The vesicula seminalis
W. Left Wolffian body W. Scattered remains of the Wolffian body, constituting the organ of Giraldès, or the paradidymis of Waldeyer.
w, w. Right and left Wolffian ducts W. Scattered remains of Wolffian tubes near it (paroöphoron of Waldeyer); dG. Remains of the left Wolffian duct, such as give rise to the duct of Gärtner, represented by dotted lines; that of the right side is marked w.
po. Epoophoron

Diagram of external differentiation[edit]

Stages in the development of the external sexual organs in the male and female
  • A: Undifferentiated
  • B: Female
  • C: Male
  • D: Female
  • E: Male
  • F: Female


  1. ^ Cai Y (2009). "Revisiting old vaginal topics: conversion of the Müllerian vagina and origin of the "sinus" vagina". Int J Dev Biol 2009; 53:925-34 53 (7): 925–34. doi:10.1387/ijdb.082846yc. PMID 19598112.