List of human-powered aircraft

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This is a list of human-powered aircraft by date.

Type image Country Date Class Designer / builder Notes
Abhilasha HPA Netherlands 2009 Jesse van Kuijk
Aerocicloplano Italy 1906 Aldo Corazzo
Aerocicloplano Italy 1907 Luigi Teichfuss
AeroVelo Atlas Canada 2013 Helicopter Todd Reichert; Cameron Robertson winner of Igor I. Sikorsky Human-Powered Helicopter Challenge with 64 s controlled flight, reaching 3.3 m above ground.
Airglow HPA UK 1990 John and Mark McIntyre
Bauer Bird SA 1973 Ted Bauer
Betterfly UK 2009 David Barford 950m max distance. Capable of 120deg turn. Very stable and easy to fly
Bionic Bat USA 1984 Paul MacCready Jr. Two Kremer speed challenges won, doing 1500 m in 163.28 seconds 18 July 1984 and 143.08 seconds, 2 December 1984.
Bird Ornithopter UK Ornithopter Bryn Bird Two prototypes built, but no record of any flights.
Bliesner 1 to 3 USA 1978 Wayne T. Bliesner unsuccessful precursors to Bliesners more successful efforts. No.3 crashed during towed flight attempts.
Bliesner 4 USA 1979 Wayne T. Bliesner 100 yards.
Bliesner 5 USA 1980 Wayne T. Bliesner 1 mile, crashed during testing.
Bliesner 6 USA 1980 Wayne T. Bliesner a few hops, crashed during testing.
Bliesner 7 USA 1981 Wayne T. Bliesner 300 yards.
Boffin-Coffin New Zealand 1988 Walther Flight trials were unsuccessful, eventually abandoned after persistent ground-handling damage and a violent gust of wind entering the hangar where the aircraft was stored.
BURD USA 1972 Biplane Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT HPA team concluded it was unfliable after several trials [1]
BURD II USA 1974 Biplane Massachusetts Institute of Technology 'Biplane Ultralight Research Device II'
Chrysalis HPA USA 1979 Parks, Youngren & Massachusetts Institute of Technology 40 pilots, some inexperienced.
Chyeranovskii BICh-18 USSR 1937 Only known to have been launched as a glider with the wing mechanism locked, but flown at least once with the wings operated by the pilot after a launch as a glider.
Cochkanoff HPA USSR 1974 Cochkanoff
CT-2.2 RockHopper2 Japan 2005 Yoshiyasu Hirano / Coolthrust Flew over 18 km at the 29th Japan international Birdman Rally in 2005 piloted by Sosuke Tanaka.
Czerwinski HPA Canada 1967 Czerwinski A two-seater with twin propellers built in Ottawa, but no record of any flights.
DaSH PA USA 2015 Alec Proudfoot [2]
Da Vinci II USA 1988 Helicopter California Polytechnic State University
Da Vinci III[3] USA 1989 Helicopter California Polytechnic State University 7 s, height 0.2 m, flight not controlled by pilot.
Dragonfly HPA Scotland 1975 Roger Hardy short flights
Druiff-Neate Cycloplane UK 1909 built by Messrs. C.G. Spencer & Co.
Dumbo-Mercury UK 1971 P.K. Green, W.F.Ball and M.J. Rudd / Weybridge MPAG Originally nickname 'Dumbo' at Weybridge. When taken over by John Potter at RAF Cranwell, it was renamed Mercury.
Dumoulin tracteur pour la navigation aérienne France 1904 Biplane Dumoulin A human powered circular winged biplane with Archimedean screw propellers turned by hand.[4]
DUT Icarus 001 Netherlands Delft University of Technology with the Movement Science Faculty of the University of Maastricht.
Egret I Japan 1973 Kimura / Nihon University 37 yards.
Egret 2 Japan 1974 Kimura / Nihon University 222 yards.
Egret 3 Japan 1974 Kimura / Nihon University
Farman Aviette HPA France 1912
Flycycle 1974
Frost Emmett HPA New Zealand 1970s John Frost / University of Auckland Revisited 1984
Gamera HPH USA 1972 Helicopter University of Maryland
Gamera II HPH USA 2012 Helicopter University of Maryland duration 65 s, height < 1 ft
Gerhardt Cycleplane USA 1923 Multiplane Flight Test Section at McCook Field 20-foot (6.1 m) hop.
Gokuraku Tombo Japan 1986 Team Aeroscepsy Several HPAs built by the team are called the same name.
Two Japanese records set under the FAI rules, 4.437 km (May 1992) and 10.881 km (Aug. 2003)
the 22nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA section won, 23.688 km *the first HPA reached at opposite shore (northwest shore) of Lake Biwa from start point at east shore.
the 30th JIBR HPA-Time trial section won.
Piloted by Hironori Nakayama.
Gossamer Albatross USA 1978 Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman Kremer Prize for first cross-channel flight, 12 June 1979. Two records set, both superseded: 35.82 km straight distance [5] and 2h 49 min Duration.[6]
Gossamer Condor (Pasadena version) USA 1976 Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman One short hop only, in the car park of the Pasadena Rose Bowl.
Gossamer Condor (Mojave version) USA 1976 Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman (Mojave version)
Gossamer Condor (Shafter airport version) USA 1977 Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman Kremer prize for figure-eight course, 1.15 miles (1850 m), 7 min 25 s flight, 23 August 1977.[7]
Hardy HPA Roger Hardy
Hartman HPO UK 1958 Emiel Hartman
Hill Flying Wing Hill
HMPAC Puffin 1 UK 1961 Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club 993 yards.
HMPAC Puffin 2 UK 1965 Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club 875 yards, height 17 feet, turns.
Aviette Hurel France 1974 Maurice Hurel flight trials in june 1974 [8]
HV-1 Mufli Germany 1935 Helmut Haessler & F. Villinger MUSKELFLUG INSTITUT (Institute of Muscle-Powered-Flight)

At the Gesellschaft Polytechnic, Frankfurt, director - Oskar Ursinus - 779 yards from bungee launch. Flugzeug-Typenbuch. Handbuch der deutschen Luftfahrt- und Zubehör-Industrie 1944[9]

HVS HPA Germany 1982 Hutter/Villinger/Schule operated in 20 mph winds.
HYPER-CHick "KoToNo Limited" Japan 1992 Toshiaki Yoshikawa / Team Active Gals First female flight in Japan on 5 July 1992, with Kotono Hori as pilot.

119.45 m (130.190 yards) / 22.98 seconds

Ibis HPA Japan 1978 Nihon University further development of the Jupiter - Stork line.
Icarus HPA-1 USA 1977 Taras Kiceniuk Jr. Longest flight of 30 seconds at Shafter Airport.
Jupiter HPA UK 1972 Christopher Roper /John Potter 1171 m, 1 min 47 s flight [10]
Kiceniuk Icarus 1975 Taras Kiceniuk WIGE HPAC project [11]
Linnet I Japan 1966 Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 47 yards, height 9 feet.
Linnet II Japan 1967 Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 100 yards, height 5 feet.
Linnet III Japan 1970 Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 34 yards.
Linnet IV Japan 1971 Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 66 yards.
Lippisch 1929 Man-Powered Ornithopter Germany 1929 Ornithopter Alexander Lippisch Flown by Hans Werner Krause.
Liverpuffin UK 1972 Dr Keith Sherwin Built from the remains of the Puffin II by students from Liverpool University led by Dr Keith Sherwin.
Malliga I HPA Austria 1967 Josef Malliga [12]
Malliga II HPA Austria 1972 Josef Malliga [12]
Man-Eagle 1 USA 1982 Wayne T. Bliesner short flights a.k.a. 'Bliesner 8'.
Man-Eagle 3 USA 1983 Wayne T. Bliesner Kremer Speed Course.
Man-Eagle 4 USA 1985 Wayne T. Bliesner
Maruoka Man-Powered Screw-Wing Machine Japan 1902 Katsura Maruoka [13]
Mayfly UK 1985 Brian Kerry
McAvoy MPA-1 USA 1962 James M. McAvoy Georgia Tech.
Michelob Light Eagle USA 1986 Mark Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 37 miles. Onboard test equipment.
MiLan'81 Japan 1981 Naito / Nihon University 645 yards.
MiLan'82 Japan 1982 Naito / Nihon University 1800 yards.
Micron HPA UK 1976 Peter Wright
MIT Daedalus 87 USA 1987 Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Daedalus Project.
MIT Daedalus 88 USA 1988 Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Daedalus Project. 1988 Crete to Santorini flight , official FAI world records for total distance (119 km), straight-line distance, and duration (3 h 55 min) for human-powered aircraft.
Monarch A USA 1983 Mark Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 29 flights.
Monarch B USA 1983 Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology First Kremer Speed Prize.
Möwe6-B Japan 1989 Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) First Japanese record set under the FAI rules.
Distance: 3.708 km (Mar. 1990)
Möwe20 Japan 2002 Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) the 27th Japan International Birdman Rally(JIBR) HPA section won, 34.654 km *pilot was not exhausted but took water by organizer direction because the HPA reached end of flyable area (southwest side of Lake Biwa) (Jul. 2003) - straight distance record in JIBR.
Japanese record set under the FAI rules. 11.874 km / 46 min 40 s (Aug. 2004). Piloted by Kai Hirawata.
Möwe21 Japan 2003 Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) Japanese records set under the FAI rules. 49.172 km, 1 h 48 min 12 s (6 Aug. 2005). Current Japanese records. Piloted by Nariyuki Masuda.
Mozi HPA China 2009 OXAI Aircraft Company / Mao Yiqing
Musculair I Germany 1984 Günther Rochelt & Schoberl Two different prizes; first passenger.
Musculair II Germany 1985 Günther Rochelt & Schoberl Kremer Speed Prize.
Nakamura MP-X-6 Japan 1969 Eiji Nakamura [14]
Newbury Manflier UK 1979 Nick Goodhart Two-seater with separate pods; pilot control tasks shared.
Nextz Japan 2009 Team 'F' Winner of 33rd Japan International Birdman Rally HPA-Time trial section.
First Japanese record of speed under the FAI rules: 1500 m in 3 min 15 s = 27.69 km/h (22 Oct. 2012). As of 2012 current Japanese record.
Nieuport Aviette 1921 France 1921
Northrop Institute of Technology HPA USA 1972 Malcolm Smith / NIT two-seater; not completed.
Onigkeit 1938 Germany 1938 Otto Onigkeit Flugzeug-Typenbuch. Handbuch der deutschen Luftfahrt- und Zubehör-Industrie 1944[15]
Pedaliante Netherlands 1937 Enea Bossi & Vittorio Bonomi ? 40 unaided flights?
Pelargos 2 Switzerland 1983 Horlacher/Mohlin/Dubs 1100 yards.
Pelargos 3 Switzerland 1985 Horlacher/Mohlin/Frank 875 yards.
Perkins Inflatable HPA USA 1959 Inflatable Daniel Perkins Precursor to the Reluctant Phoenix.
Phillips Mk.1 HPA UK 1976 ? Ron Phillips First female pilot.
Phillips Mk.2 HPA UK 1976 ? Ron Phillips Two-seater.
Polniak LP Deadal-1[16] Poland 1972 Leon Polniak
Polniak LP Deadal-2[17] Poland 1975 Leon Polniak
Posniak HPA Netherlands 1936 B. Posniak
Poulain/Farman Aviette France 1921 Gabriel Poulain / Farman
Privett HPA USA Doug Privett cannot take off without a ground-crew assist [8]
PSU Zephyrus USA 2011 Pennsylvania State University
Raven Project USA 2001 Paul Illian
Ray Japan 2008 Tohoku University Windnauts (HPA club at Tohoku University) Winner of 32nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA-Distance section. 36 km round-trip; 18 km one-way (longest distance under the rules at the time). Piloted by Wataru Nishiwaki; round trip distance record in JIBR.
Reluctant Phoenix UK 1950's Inflatable Daniel Perkins The culmination of Daniel Perkins' attempts to build a viable inflatable human-powered aircraft; flown inside the R100 airship hangars.
Rickman umbrella wing UK 1909 Rickman
Royal Spoonbill UK 1983 Robert Le Johnno-Johnson / NZHPFG Never completed due to a redesign after being vandalised.[citation needed]
Seehase MD-2 Germany 1937 Hans Seehase
Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 1
Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 2
Singapore Singapore University students / Dr Keith Sherwin Of the two projects only one flew.
Sato Maeda SM-OX Japan 1969 Hiroshi Sato, Kenichi Maeda / Fukuoka Daiichi Highschool Department of Aeroengine 31 yards, height 6 feet.
Snowbird HPO Canada 2010 University of Toronto
Stewart HPOs UK 1959 Ornithopter Alan Stewart several unsuccessful human-powered ornithopters built between 1959 and 1979.
Stork A Japan 1976 Junji Ishii / Nihon University 651 yards - Re-designed (smaller) from the UK Jupiter.[10]
Stork B Japan 1977 Junji Ishii / Nihon University 2094 m, 4 min 28 s flight.[10]
SUMPAC UK 1961 Ann Marsden, Alan Lassiere & David Williams / Southampton University Man-powered Aircraft Committee First independently observed unaided flight. Flown by Derek Piggott.
Swift A Japan Naito / Nihon University
Swift B Japan Naito / Nihon University
To Phoenix Inflatable HPA UK 1982 Inflatable Frederick E. To / Air-Plane Co. Ltd.[18]
Toucan 1 UK 1972 Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts 700 yards - Two-seater, span 123 ft; Bryan Bowen & Derek May [19]
Toucan II UK 1974 Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts
Upturn USA 2012 Helicopter NTS Works Upturn duration 10 s, height 0.60 m
Ursinus 1925 HPA Germany 1925 Oskar Ursinus
Vélair 89 Germany 1989 Peer Frank 3390 yards
Vertigo HPH UK 1987 Andrew Cranfield Human-powered helicopter; achieved short hops, but transmission problems slowed development.
Vine HPA South Africa 1962 S.W. Vine 200 yards - One flight only at Krugersdorp, Transvaal, South Africa.
VMM HPA Belgium 1974 Verstralte/Masschelin/Masschelin Heights of 15 ft at Calais-Marck airport due to Belgian authorities refusing permission to fly.[20][page needed]
White Dwarf blimp USA 1984 Airship Bill Watson Built for the comedian Gallagher, and seen in Showtime special Over Your Head. Set records in airship categories BA-1 through BA-10 for Distance (93.36 km)[21] and Duration (8 h 50 min 12 s.)[22][23]
Wright HPA UK 1972 Peter Wright 300 yards at 4 feet - elevator not used.
Yuri I HPH Japan 1994 Helicopter Akira Naito, Nihon Aero Student Group (NASG) duration 19.5 s, height 0.2 m
Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft Germany 1934 Engelbert Zaschka
Zephyrus β Japan 1997 Ochanomizu Human-powered aircraft study group Japanese female record set under the FAI rules, 1.004 km / 3 min 3 s. (16 Nov. 1997). Piloted by Chihiro Muraoka - current Japanese female records.
Zinno Olympian ZB-1 USA 1976 Lt.Col. Joe Zinno, USAF (Ret.) First controlled flight in Americas [Bernhard C. F. Klein, USA, millpab=aol.com, 05.07.2008

This pedal-powered "aircraft" was designed and built by Lt.Col. Zinno, USAF (Ret.) On his fourth try on April 21, 1976, at Quonset Point, Rhode Island, Joe Zinno barely got off the ground for a few seconds. The machine was damaged in a hangar by a gust of wind coming in the open door.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://tech.mit.edu/V110/N31/wings.31a.html
  2. ^ Clay Lambert (2015-12-07). "Aviation enthusiasts pedal human power". Half Moon Bay Review.
  3. ^ FARLEY, SHANNON (7 December 1989). "Pedal Power : Cal Poly Uses Bicyclist to Get Human-Driven Helicopter Off the Ground" – via LA Times.
  4. ^ Opdycke, Leonard E. (1999). French Aeroplanes before the Great War. Atglen: SchifferPublishing Limited. ISBN 0 7643 0752 5.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Popular Science jan 1978
  8. ^ Schneider, Helmut (Dipl.Ing.) (1944). Flugzeug-Typenbuch. Handbuch der deutschen Luftfahrt- und Zubehör-Industrie (in German) (Facsimile reprint 1986 ed.). Leipzig: Herm. Beyer Verlag. pp. 346–347. ISBN 381120484X.
  9. ^ http://www.icarusengineering.com/HPA-first-flight1975web.JPG
  10. ^ a b Keimel, Reinhard (1980). Propeller-Luftfahrzeugkonstruktionen seit 1945 (1. Aufl. ed.). Graz: H. Weishaupt Verlag. ISBN 3-900310-02-5.
  11. ^ Mikesh, Robert; Shorzoe, Abe (1990). Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941. London: Putnam. p. 21. ISBN 0-85177-840-2.
  12. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1970). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1970–71. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-354-00067-3.
  13. ^ Schneider, Helmut (Dipl.Ing.) (1944). Flugzeug-Typenbuch. Handbuch der deutschen Luftfahrt- und Zubehör-Industrie (in German) (Facsimile reprint 1986 ed.). Leipzig: Herm. Beyer Verlag. p. 348. ISBN 381120484X.
  14. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1972). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1972–73 (63rd ed.). London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. p. 161. ISBN 0-354-00109-4.
  15. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1975). Jane's all the world's aircraft, 1975-76 (66th annual ed.). New York: Franklin Watts Inc. p. 171. ISBN 978-0531032503.
  16. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1983). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83 (73rd ed.). London: Jane's Publishing Company. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-7106-0748-5.
  17. ^ Popular science, february 1974
  18. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1975). Jane's all the world's aircraft, 1975-76 (66th annual ed.). New York: Franklin Watts Inc. ISBN 978-0531032503.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading[edit]

  • Reay, David Anthony (1977). The history of man-powered flight. Oxford: Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-021738-9.

External links[edit]

  • [1] Chris Roper's online book Human Powered Flying
  • [2] Prop designer
  • [3][permanent dead link]
  • [4]
  • [5] Vélair
  • [6] – Yuri human-powered helicopter – YouTube video
  • [7] – human-powered ornithopter
  • [8] – Snowbird
  • [9] – video of first flight for the Snowbird
  • [10] – Gamera human-powered helicopter
  • de:HV-1 Mufli
  • [11] – Snowbird
  • [12] – Coolthrust Japan
  • [13] – Snowbird
  • [14]
  • [15] – Gossamer Condor
  • [16] – Mozi video
  • [17] – Mozi drawings, photos etc.
  • [18] – Mozi article