List of human disease case fatality rates

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This is a list of human disease case fatality rates (CFRs). A CFR is the proportion of people diagnosed with a disease who die during the course of the disease (cf. mortality rate). Data are based on optimally treated patients and exclude isolated cases or minor outbreaks, unless otherwise indicated.

Disease Treatment CFR Notes Reference(s)
Neurodegenerative Diseases Incurable 100% Includes Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and all its variants, fatal familial insomnia, kuru, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome and others. [1]
African trypanosomiasis Untreated ~ 100% [2]
Cryptococcal meningitis Untreated & Co-infection with HIV ~ 100% [citation needed]
Plague — specifically the septicemic or pneumonic type Untreated ~ 100% [3]
Rabies Untreated ~ 100% Preventable with vaccines and treatable with PEP but, once the symptoms manifest, the CFR is near 100%. [4]
Visceral leishmaniasis Untreated ~ 100% [5]
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Incurable ~ 100% Death almost always results from complications of FOP, life expectancy is about 40 years [6]
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, Naegleria fowleri Untreated ~ 99% Amphotericin B has shown efficacy in the limited survivorship population [1]
Glanders, septicemic Untreated 95% The rate drops significantly to >50% with treatment. [7]
Smallpox Variola major — specifically the malignant (flat) or hemorrhagic type Untreated ~ 95% The rate drops significantly to 10% with effective treatments. [8]:28[9]
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, Balamuthia mandrillaris & Acanthamoeba Untreated ≥ 90% Amphotericin B has shown efficacy in the limited survivorship population [10]
AIDS/HIV infection Untreated 80–90% Data are counted during the first 5 years of infection in developed countries. HIV is not actually lethal but patients are usually killed by respiratory diseases, such as flu or pneumonia because of immunodeficiency caused by HIV virus. [11]:1
Anthrax, specifically the pulmonary form Untreated & Unvaccinated > 85% Early treatments lower the CFR to 45% as seen in the 2001 AMERITHRAX letter attacks. [8]:88
Aspergillosis, invasive pulmonary form Opportunistic w/COPD, Tuberculosis and Immunocompromised 50–90% [12]
Herpes B virus disease Untreated ≤ 70% [citation needed]
Smallpox, Variola major — in pregnant women Unvaccinated > 65% [8]:88
Cryptococcal meningitis Co-infection with HIV 40-60% 6 month mortality is >=60% with fluconazole-based therapy and 40% with amphotercin-based therapy in research studies in low and middle income countries. [13]
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ~ 60% [14]
Bubonic plague, untreated Untreated & Unvaccinated ≤ 60% [8]:57
Tularemia pneumonia, untreated Untreated ≤ 60% [8]:78
Anthrax, gastrointestinal, intestinal type Untreated & Unvaccinated > 50% [8]:27
Ebola virus disease — specifically EBOV "strain" (formerly Zaire Ebola virus) Untreated ~ 59%, up to 90%
The CFR may be considerably lower with supportive care adopted in the 2013-15 West African epidemic and the Ebola virus epidemic in the DRC. [15][16]
Marburg virus disease — all outbreaks combined Untreated 23%-90% 23% in 1967 when it was first identified and 90% in 2004-2005 when the worst outbreak of the disease occurred. Antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir have shown promise in treating Filoviridae [17][18]
Plague, pneumonic Untreated & Unvaccinated 50% [8]:58
Tetanus, Generalized Untreated & Unvaccinated 50% CFR drops to 10-20% with effective treatment. [citation needed]
Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Untreated ~ 45% Antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir have shown promise in treating Coronaviridae [citation needed]
Reye's Syndrome > 40% [19]
Baylisascariasis ~40% With occurrence of Neural Larva Migrans; early, aggressive treatment necessary for survival, but only 2 full recoveries from NLM ever documented [20]
Plague, septicemic Untreated & Unvaccinated 30–50% [8]:58
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) Untreated ~36% Antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir have shown promise in treating Bunyavirales [citation needed]
Tularemia, typhoidal, untreated Untreated ~ 35% [8]:77
Yellow fever Unvaccinated 7.5% [21]
Eastern equine encephalitis virus ~ 33% [22]
Anthrax, gastrointestinal, oropharyngeal type 10–50% [8]:27
Tuberculosis, HIV Negative Vaccine 43% There is a vaccine but, doctors do not recommend it in the USA [23]
Smallpox, Variola major — unvaccinated Unvaccinated 30% [8]:88
Varicella (chickenpox), newborns, untreated Untreated ~ 30% Where the mothers develop the disease between 5 days prior to, or 2 days after, delivery. [11]:110
Cancer (overall) Treated 30% [24]
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) Untreated 26% Dengue haemorrhagic fever is also known as severe dengue.[25] [26]
Leptospirosis < 5–30% [11]:352
Legionellosis ~ 15% [11]:665
Meningococcal disease Untreated & Unvaccinated 10–20% [citation needed]
Typhoid fever, untreated Untreated & Unvaccinated 10–20% [11]:665
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 11% Antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir have shown promise in treating Coronaviridae [27]
Intestinal capillariasis, untreated Untreated ~ 10% [28]
Visceral leishmaniasis ~ 10% [29]
Botulism < 10% [30]
Diphtheria, respiratory Untreated & Unvaccinated ~ 5–10% [31]
Bubonic plague Untreated & Unvaccinated < 5% [8]:57
Tularemia, typhoidal Untreated ~ 3–5% [8]:77
Pertussis (whooping cough), infants, unvaccinated, in developing countries Unvaccinated ~ 3.7% [11]:456
Smallpox, Variola major — vaccinated Vaccinated 3% [8]:88
Spanish (1918) flu > 2.5% [32]
Measles (rubeola), in developing countries Unvaccinated ~ 1–3% May reach 10–30% in some localities. [11]:431
Brucellosis, untreated Untreated ≤ 2% [11]:87
Hepatitis A, adults > 50 years old Unvaccinated ~ 1.8% [11]:278
Lassa fever ~ 1% 15% in hospitalized patients; higher in some epidemics. [11]:334
Mumps encephalitis Unvaccinated ~ 1% [11]:431
Pertussis (whooping cough), children, unvaccinated, in developing countries Unvaccinated ~ 1% For children 1–4 years old. [11]:456
Smallpox, Variola minor — unvaccinated Unvaccinated 1% [8]:87–88
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) < 1% [8]:97–98
Anthrax, cutaneous < 1% [8]:27
Malaria ~ 0.3% [33]
Hepatitis A Unvaccinated 0.1–0.3% [11]:278
Asian (1956–58) flu ~ 0.1% [34]
Hong Kong (1968–69) flu ~ 0.1% [34]
Influenza A, typical pandemics < 0.1% [32]
Varicella (chickenpox), adults Unvaccinated 0.02% This is 1:5,000. [11]:110
Hand, foot and mouth disease, children < 5 years old 0.01% This is 1:10,000. [35]
Varicella (chickenpox), children Unvaccinated 0.001% This is 1:100,000. [11]:110

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Herriman, Robert, "My List of the Five Deadliest Communicable Diseases" Examiner.com; 7 May 2010.
  2. ^ "African Sleeping Sickness". Seattle Biomed. 2014.
  3. ^ "Plague" (PDF). Iowa State University. October 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  4. ^ "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  5. ^ World Health Organization, (2013) "Health Topics: Leishmaniasis."
  6. ^ Kaplan FS, Zasloff MA, Kitterman JA, Shore EM, Hong CC, Rocke DM (2010). "Early mortality and cardiorespiratory failure in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 92: 686–91. doi:10.2106/JBJS.I.00705. PMC 2827822. PMID 20194327.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ New Jersey Department of Agriculture (2003), Glanders: Infections in Humans
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q USAMRIID (2011). "USAMRIID's Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook" (PDF) (7th ed.). U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 9780160900150.
  9. ^ "Smallpox Disease and Its Clinical Management" (PDF). From the training course titled "Smallpox: Disease, Prevention, and Intervention" (www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/training/overview). Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  10. ^ han Naveed Ahmed (2005). "Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management". American Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1 (2): 79–83.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Heymann, David L., ed. (2008). "Control of Communicable Diseases Manual" (19th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0-87553-189-2.
  12. ^ M. Kousha, R. Tadi and A.O. Soubani, Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review, European Respiratory Review, September 1, 2011, vol. 20, no. 121, 156-174.
  13. ^ Rajasingham, Radha; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Birkenkamp, Kate E.; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R. (25 September 2012). "Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis". PLOS Med. 9 (9): e1001316. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001316. ISSN 1549-1676. PMC 3463510. PMID 23055838.
  14. ^ "Cumulative number of confirmed human cases for avian influenza A(H5N1) reported to WHO, 2003-2013" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  15. ^ "Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103". World Health Organization. March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  16. ^ C.M. Fauquet; M.A. Mayo; J. Maniloff; U. Desselberger; L.A. Ball, eds. (2005). Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 648. ISBN 978-0-08057-548-3.
  17. ^ Jacob, H.; Solcher, H. (1968). "An infectious disease transmitted by Cercopithecus aethiops ("marbury disease") with glial nodule encephalitis". Acta Neuropathologica. 11 (1): 29–44. doi:10.1007/bf00692793. PMID 5748997.
  18. ^ Hovette, P. (2005). "Epidemic of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Angola". Medecine tropicale: revue du Corps de sante colonial. 65 (2): 127–128. PMID 16038348.
  19. ^ Lisa A. Degnan, PharmD, BCPS, USPharmacist.com, (20 March 2012) "Reye’s Syndrome: A Rare But Serious Pediatric Condition."
  20. ^ Kevin R. Kazacos, (2016) "Baylisascaris Larva Migrans - Circular 1412"
  21. ^ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/
  22. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (16 August 2010) "Eastern Equine Encephalitis."
  23. ^ Tiemersma EW, van der Werf MJ, Borgdorff MW, Williams BG, Nagelkerke NJD (2011). "Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review". PLOS ONE. 6: e17601. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017601.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Australia, Cancer (2015-12-18). "5-year relative survival". National Cancer Control Indicators. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  25. ^ "Dengue and severe dengue". World Health Organization. Fact sheet N°117. March 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-08.
  26. ^ Ranjit S, Kissoon N (January 2011). "Dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes". Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 12 (1): 90–100. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181e911a7. PMID 20639791.
  27. ^ World Health Organization (2003) Consensus document on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, WHO; pg 10.
  28. ^ David Bernstein, M.D., "Intestinal Parasite Infections From Roundworms -- Description, Diagnosis, Treatment."
  29. ^ World Health Organization, (2013) "Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR): Parasitic Diseases - Leishmaniasis."
  30. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998), Botulism in the United States 1899-1996: Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers, Atlanta, Georgia. Foodborne botulism during the 1950s had a CFR of approximately 25%.
  31. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (7 February 2011) "Diphtheria."
  32. ^ a b Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M. (January 2006). "1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12. Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1). doi:10.3201/eid1201.050979. ISSN 1080-6059. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  33. ^ "Malaria". WHO. WHO. December 2014. Retrieved 14 Jan 2015.
  34. ^ a b Li, F C K; B C K Choi; T Sly; A W P Pak (June 2008). "Finding the real case-fatality rate of H5N1 avian influenza". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 62 (6): 555–559. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.064030. ISSN 0143-005X. PMID 18477756. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  35. ^ Wang, X, et al (2014), "Estimating the number of hand, foot and mouth disease amongst children aged under-five in Beijing during 2012, based on a telephone survey of healthcare seeking behavior", BMC Infect Dis, Aug 12;14:437. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-437.