List of human disease case fatality rates

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This is a list of human disease case fatality rates (CFRs). A CFR is the proportion of people diagnosed with a disease who die during the course of the disease (Cf. mortality rate). Data are based on optimally treated patients and exclude isolated cases or minor outbreaks, unless otherwise indicated.

Disease Treatment CFR Notes Reference(s)
Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) None 100% Includes Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and all its variants, fatal familial insomnia, kuru, and Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome. [1]
African trypanosomiasis Untreated ~ 100% [2]
Cryptococcal meningitis Untreated ~ 100%
Plague — specifically the septicemic or pneumonic type Untreated ~ 100% [3]
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, Naegleria fowleri None ~ 100% [1]
Rabies Untreated / Vaccine exists ~ 100% Preventable with vaccines and treatable with PEP but, once the symptoms manifest, the CFR is near 100%. [4]
Visceral leishmaniasis Untreated ~ 100% [5]
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva None ~ 100% Death almost always results from complications of FOP, life expectancy is about 40 years [6]
Glanders, septicemic Untreated 95% The rate drops significantly to >50% with treatment. [7]
Smallpox Variola major — specifically the malignant (flat) or hemorrhagic type Untreated ~ 95% The rate drops significantly to 10% with effective treatments. [8]:28[9]
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, Balamuthia mandrillaris & Acanthamoeba None ≥ 90% [10]
Ebola virus disease — specifically EBOV "strain" (formerly Zaire Ebola virus) ~ 83%, up to 90%
The CFR may be considerably lower with supportive care adopted in the 2013-15 West African epidemic. [11][12]
AIDS/HIV infection Untreated 80–90% Data are counted during the first 5 years of infection in developed countries. HIV is not actually mortal but patients are usually killed by respiratory diseases, such as flu or pneumonia because of immunodeficiency caused by HIV virus. [13]:1
Anthrax, specifically the pulmonary form Untreated > 85% Early treatments lower the CFR to 45% as seen in the 2001 AMERITHRAX letter attacks. [8]:88
Lujo virus disease 80%
Aspergillosis, invasive pulmonary form 50–90% [14]
Herpes B virus disease ≤ 70%
Smallpox, Variola major — in pregnant women > 65% [8]:88
Cryptococcal meningitis 40-60% 6 month mortality is >=60% with fluconazole-based therapy and 40% with amphotercin-based therapy in research studies in low and middle income countries. [15]
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ~ 60% [16]
Bubonic plague, untreated Untreated ≤ 60% [8]:57
Tularemia pneumonia, untreated Untreated ≤ 60% [8]:78
Ebola virus disease, Sudan variant (SUDV) ~ 54%
Anthrax, gastorintestinal, intestinal type > 50% [8]:27
Ebola virus disease (for all types of ebolavirus outbreaks combined) 25–90% (50% on average) [11][12]
Marburg virus disease - all outbreaks combined 23%-90% 23% in 1967 when it was first identified and 90% in 2004-2005 when the worst outbreak of the disease occurred. [17][18]
Plague, pneumonic 50% [8]:58
Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome ~ 45%
Tuberculosis, untreated pulmonary, HIV-negative 43% [19]
Reye's Syndrome > 40% [20]
Plague, septicemic 30–50% [8]:58
Tularemia, typhoidal, untreated Untreated ~ 35% [8]:77
Yellow fever 7.5% [21]
Eastern equine encephalitis virus ~ 33% [22]
Anthrax, gastrointestinal, oropharyngeal type 10–50% [8]:27
Ebola virus disease, Bundibugyo variant (BDBV) ~ 32%
Smallpox, Variola major — unvaccinated Unvaccinated 30% [8]:88
Varicella (chickenpox), newborns, untreated Untreated ~ 30% Where the mothers develop the disease between 5 days prior to, or 2 days after, delivery. [13]:110
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) Untreated 26% Dengue haemorrhagic fever is also known as severe dengue.[23] [24]
Leptospirosis < 5–30% [13]:352
Legionellosis ~ 15% [13]:665
Meningococcal disease 10–20%
Typhoid fever, untreated Untreated 10–20% [13]:665
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 11% [25]
Intestinal capillariasis, untreated Untreated ~ 10% [26]
Visceral leishmaniasis ~ 10% [27]
Botulism < 10% [28]
Diphtheria, respiratory ~ 5–10% [29]
Bubonic plague < 5% [8]:57
Tularemia, typhoidal ~ 3–5% [8]:77
Pertussis (whooping cough), infants, unvaccinated, in developing countries Unvaccinated ~ 3.7% [13]:456
Dengue fever (DF) Untreated 1–5% [24]
Smallpox, Variola major — vaccinated Vaccinated 3% [8]:88
Spanish (1918) flu > 2.5% [30]
Measles (rubeola), in developing countries ~ 1–3% May reach 10–30% in some localities. [13]:431
Brucellosis, untreated Untreated ≤ 2% [13]:87
Hepatitis A, adults > 50 years old ~ 1.8% [13]:278
Lassa Fever ~ 1% 15% in hospitalized patients; higher in some epidemics. [13]:334
Mumps encephalitis ~ 1% [13]:431
Pertussis (whooping cough), children, unvaccinated, in developing countries Unvaccinated ~ 1% For children 1–4 years old. [13]:456
Smallpox, Variola minor — unvaccinated Unvaccinated 1% [8]:87–88
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) < 1% [8]:97–98
Anthrax, cutaneous < 1% [8]:27
Typhoid fever < 1% [13]:665
Malaria ~ 0.3% [31]
Hepatitis A 0.1–0.3% [13]:278
Asian (1956–58) flu ~ 0.1% [32]
Hong Kong (1968–69) flu ~ 0.1% [32]
Influenza A, typical pandemics < 0.1% [30]
Varicella (chickenpox), adults 0.02% This is 1:5,000. [13]:110
Hand, foot and mouth disease, children < 5 years old 0.01% This is 1:10,000. [33]
Varicella (chickenpox), children 0.001% This is 1:100,000. [13]:110

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Herriman, Robert, “My List of the Five Deadliest Communicable Diseases”; Examiner.com; 7 May 2010.
  2. ^ "African Sleeping Sickness". Seattle Biomed. 2014. 
  3. ^ "Plague" (PDF). Iowa State University. October 2009. Retrieved November 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. ^ "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  5. ^ World Health Organization, (2013) "Health Topics: Leishmaniasis."
  6. ^ [1], Kaplan, Fredrick, FS. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 22 June 2016.
  7. ^ New Jersey Department of Agriculture (2003), Glanders: Infections in Humans
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q USAMRIID (2011). "USAMRIID's Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook" (PDF) (7th ed.). U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 9780160900150. 
  9. ^ "Smallpox Disease and Its Clinical Management" (PDF). From the training course titled "Smallpox: Disease, Prevention, and Intervention" (www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/training/overview). Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  10. ^ han, Naveed Ahmed, "Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management," American Journal of Infectious Diseases 1 (2): 79-83, 2005
  11. ^ a b "Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103". World Health Organization. March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  12. ^ a b C.M. Fauquet (2005). Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 648. ISBN 9780080575483. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Heymann, David L., ed. (2008). "Control of Communicable Diseases Manual" (19th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0-87553-189-2. 
  14. ^ M. Kousha, R. Tadi and A.O. Soubani, Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review, European Respiratory Review, September 1, 2011, vol. 20, no. 121, 156-174.
  15. ^ Rajasingham, Radha; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Birkenkamp, Kate E.; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R. (25 September 2012). "Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis". PLOS Med. 9 (9): e1001316. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001316. ISSN 1549-1676. PMID 23055838. 
  16. ^ "Cumulative number of confirmed human cases for avian influenza A(H5N1) reported to WHO, 2003-2013" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  17. ^ Jacob, H.; Solcher, H. (1968). "An infectious disease transmitted by Cercopithecus aethiops ("marbury disease") with glial nodule encephalitis". Acta Neuropathologica. 11 (1): 29–44. doi:10.1007/bf00692793. PMID 5748997. 
  18. ^ Hovette, P. (2005). "Epidemic of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Angola". Medecine tropicale: revue du Corps de sante colonial. 65 (2): 127–128. PMID 16038348. 
  19. ^ Tiemersma EW, van der Werf MJ, Borgdorff MW, Williams BG, Nagelkerke NJD. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review. PLoS One 2011; 6: e17601. (20 March 2012) [2]
  20. ^ Lisa A. Degnan, PharmD, BCPS, USPharmacist.com, (20 March 2012) "Reye’s Syndrome: A Rare But Serious Pediatric Condition."
  21. ^ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/
  22. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (16 August 2010) "Eastern Equine Encephalitis."
  23. ^ "Dengue and severe dengue". World Health Organization. Fact sheet N°117. March 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  24. ^ a b Ranjit S, Kissoon N (January 2011). "Dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes". Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 12 (1): 90–100. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181e911a7. PMID 20639791. 
  25. ^ World Health Organization (2003) Consensus document on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, WHO; pg 10.
  26. ^ David Bernstein, M.D., "Intestinal Parasite Infections From Roundworms -- Description, Diagnosis, Treatment."
  27. ^ World Health Organization, (2013) "Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR): Parasitic Diseases - Leishmaniasis."
  28. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998), Botulism in the United States 1899-1996: Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers, Atlanta, Georgia. Foodborne botulism during the 1950s had a CFR of approximately 25%.
  29. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (7 February 2011) "Diphtheria."
  30. ^ a b Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M. (January 2006). "1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12. Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1). ISSN 1080-6059. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  31. ^ "Malaria". WHO. WHO. December 2014. Retrieved 14 Jan 2015. 
  32. ^ a b Li, F C K; B C K Choi; T Sly; A W P Pak (June 2008). "Finding the real case-fatality rate of H5N1 avian influenza". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 62 (6): 555–559. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.064030. ISSN 0143-005X. PMID 18477756. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  33. ^ Wang, X, et al (2014), "Estimating the number of hand, foot and mouth disease amongst children aged under-five in Beijing during 2012, based on a telephone survey of healthcare seeking behavior", BMC Infect Dis, Aug 12;14:437. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-437.