List of human evolution fossils

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The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page.

Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Late Miocene[edit]

5.5 million - 7 million years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Site Discovered by Now located at
Sahelanthropus tchadensis - TM 266-01-060-1.jpg TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[1] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Toros-Menalla, Djurab Desert Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[2] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Lukeino Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
ALA-VP 1/20[3] 5.5-5.8 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Middle Awash Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene[edit]

2.58 million - 5.3 million years old[edit]

Image Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ardi.jpg Ardi 4.4 Ma[4] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329. Réplica at Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid KNM-LT 329 4.2 - 5 Ma[5] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[6][7][8]
KNM-TH 13150 4.15-5.25 Ma[9] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya Kiptalam Cheboi[6]
Australopithecus anamensis bone (University of Zurich).JPG KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[10] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kenya Bryan Patterson[6]
Laetoli footprints replica.jpg Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 Replica 03.jpg LH 4 2.9 - 3.9 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[11]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Mandible of an Australopithecus bahrelghazali KT-12/H1 (Abel) 3.5 Ma Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Mamelbaye Tomalta and Michel Brunet N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
Kenyanthropus platyops, skull (model).JPG KNM-WT 40000 (Flat Faced Man)[12] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana, Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[13]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.3 - 3.5 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[14]
Little Foot 01.jpg Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
SelamAustralopithecus.jpg DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
Lucy Mexico.jpg AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 and AL 400-1. Australopithecus afarensis AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
Johanson's knee, AL 129-1 AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2. Replica.jpg AL 444-2[15] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[16] LD 350-1[17] 2.75 - 2.8 Ma Homo ? 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum

Pleistocene[edit]

Lower Paleolithic: 400,000 - 2.58 million[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Australopithecus africanus - Cast of taung child Face.jpg Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPG KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Musée national d'Ethiopie-Australopithecus garhi (1).jpg BOU-VP-12/130[18] 2.5 Ma Australopithecus garhi 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Original Uraha 501
Uraha Jawbone
[19]
2.3-2.5 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
Pelvis, one of the parts of the skeleton STS 14 STS 14[20] 2.04-2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 71. STS 71[21] 2.04 - 2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
STS 52a and STS 52b STS 52[22] 2.04 -2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Mrs Ples Face.jpg STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.04Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Sterkfontein Caves 67.jpg TM 1517[23] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
Australopithecus sediba.JPG MH1 (Karabo)[24][25] 1.977-1.98 Ma[26] Australopithecus sediba 2008 South Africa Lee R. Berger
Homo habilis-KNM ER 1813.jpg KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
Homo rudolfensis.jpg KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[27]
Replica made with a 3D printer OH 24
(Twiggy)
[28]
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8 Replica 03.jpg OH 8[29] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
Paranthropus boisei skull.jpg OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
Dmanisi skull 4, D3444 D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi skull 5 de Dmanisi D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 (published in 2013) Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 62003 (mandibular fragment)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 60000 (mandible)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
Homo Habilis Oh7.jpg OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
Homo ergaster.jpg KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[31] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805. Pannel 2.jpg KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma / 0.5-0.6 Ma (disputed)[32] Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
Paranthropus-boisei-Nairobi.JPG KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
Frammenti di cranio di australopithecus boisei e australopithecus robustus - Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano detail KNM-ER 732.jpg KNM ER 732[33] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNMER 23000-cast.jpg KNM ER 23000[34] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM-WT 17400.JPG KNM WT 17400[35][36] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Not know[37] Kenya Not know[37] National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenia)
Turkana Boy.jpg KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
[38] StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo gautengensis 1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
Panel 02-SK 847.jpg SK 847[39] 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis 1949 South Africa
Sterkfontein Caves 66.jpg DNH 7
(Eurydice)
[40]
1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
Sterkfontein Caves 63.jpg SK 46[41] 1.5 - 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
Replica of the mandible of Peninj, P. boisei Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
OH 9, partial skull OH 9
(Chellean Man)
[42]
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM-ER 992. Replica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Pithecanthropus modjokertensis Tjokro Handojo.JPG Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.43 - 1.49 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Fossil KNM-ER 3883.JPG KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[43][44] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopia A. Amzaye
Atapuerca Jawbone[45] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
The Kocabas hominin calvaria. Kocabas 1.1 Ma [46] Homo erectus [47] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka homo erectus calvaria.jpg Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran IV (Palate).jpg Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Homo antecessor.jpg ATD6-15 and ATD6-69

Niño de la Gran Dolina342

780k - 858k Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Calvaria Sangiran II (B).jpg Sangiran 2 0.7 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
1911 Britannica-Anthropology-5.png Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
[48]
0.7 -1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Mandible Ternifine III Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[49] 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17-02.JPG Sangiran 17[50] 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man Skull (replica) presented at Paleozoological Museum of China.jpg Peking Man 680k - 780k Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
Madam Buya Madam Buya[51] 600k - 1.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate National Museum of Eritrea
Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Bodo[52] 600k Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPG Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Saldanha man-Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Saldanha man[53] 500k Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove-Tibia.jpg
Boxgrove Man 478k - 524k Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK
Arago XXI Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
450k Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[54] Hexian[55] 400k - 500k Homo erectus 1980 China
Argil
Ceprano Man
400 - 500k Homo cepranensis?
Homo antecessor?
Homo heidelbergensis?
1994 Ceprano, Italia Italo Biddittu
Homo heidelbergensis-Cranium -5.jpg Skull 5 (Miguelón) 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Replica Swanscombe Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1935 UK Alvan T Marston
Sale skull.jpg Salé[56][57][58] 400k Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco A quarry worker
Replica made by a 3D printer Ndutu[59] 350k Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheimer Urmensch Schaedel.jpg Steinheim Skull 350k Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany
Homo erectus palaeohungaricus.JPG Samu 350k Homo erectus 1964 Hungary Márton Pécsi
Homo naledi skeletal specimens.jpg Dinaledi Chamber hominins 414k - 236k[60] Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)
Jebel Irhoud 1 Jebel Irhoud 1[61] 315k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2 315k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[62] Jebel Irhoud 3 315k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4 315k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 - 50,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Petralona 1 Petralona 1[63] 150k - 350k Homo heidelbergensis 1960 Greece
IMJ view 20130115 192522.jpg Galilee Man 300k-200k Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Israel Francis Turville-Petre
Saccopastore 1.JPG
Saccopastore 1 250k[64] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
Ngandong 7-Homo erectus.jpg Ngandong 7 250k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230k Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
[65] Dali 209k ±23k (disputed)[66][67] Homo erectus
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Rhodesian Man.jpg Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
200k - 300k Homo rhodesiensis 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
[68] Omo 1 190k Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[69] Omo 2 190k Homo sapiens Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Fossil of Mandible of Penghu 1.JPG Penghu 1 190k—10k[70][71] Homo tsaichangensis[72] Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
Herto's skull Herto remains[73] 160k Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
[74][75] Altamura Man 130-172k[76] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
Tabun C1. Low resolution Tabun C1[77] 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Denisova 8 110k[78][79] Homo sp. Altai 2010 Russia
Krapina 3. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg Krapina[80] 100k - 127k [81] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Panel1-Qafezh 6 01-01-1980 0-39-18 327x239.jpg Qafzeh 6[82] 90k - 100k[81] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
Qafzeh.JPG Qafzeh 9 90k - 100k[81] Homo sapiens[83] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 80k - 127k[81] Homo neanderthalensis Belgium
Skhul.JPG Skhul 5 80k - 120k Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul 9 80k - 120k Homo sapiens Israel
[84] Klasies River Caves 75k - 125k Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Obi-Rakhmat 1[85] 75k [81] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Task. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg Teshik-Tash Skull[86] 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar skull.jpg Shanidar 1 60k - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Neanderthal-burial.gif Kebara 2 (Moshe)[87] 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[88] Amud 7 50k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis Israel

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 - 10,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now Located at
Sidrón Cave 49k Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Spain
La Quina. H 5. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg La Quina 5[citation needed] 45k - 60k[81] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg La Quina 18[citation needed] 45k - 60k[81] Homo neanderthalensis France
TPL2 mandible Tam Pa Ling Cave[89] 46k - 63k [89][90] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos
Kents Cavern 41k - 45k Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Amud 1. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg Amud 1[91] 41k [92] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Mungo Man.jpg Mungo Man 40k - 60k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
WLH-50 Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
Mt. Circeo 1 Mt. Circeo 1[93] 40k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
Neanderthal 1 Neanderthal 1[94] 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova phalanx distalis Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40k Homo sp. Altai 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
Denisova toe bone. hominin toe bone 40k Homo sp. Altai (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2010 Russia
Oase 2 Peștera cu Oase[95] 37.8k Homo sapiens 2002 Romania
Balangoda man 37k Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull.jpg Hofmeyr Skull 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Red Lady of Paviland 33k Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 2 Engis 2 30k-50k [81][96] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Gibraltar 1 Gibraltar 1 30k-50k [81] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 1 Le Moustier 30k-50k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisova molar Denisovan tooth 30k - 50k Homo sp. Altai 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon 1 Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 France Louis Lartet
NG 6 27k - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Replica of Predmosti 3 Predmost 3[97] 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[98] Lapedo Child 24.5k Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[98] Eel Point 24k Homo sapiens 1997 UK
LB 1 skeleton LB 1 (Hobbit) 18k Homo floresiensis 2003 Indonesia Peter Brown
Minatogawa 1. Replica at the Museum of Tokyo[99] Minatogawa 1 16k - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[100][101] 17k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Skull of Gough's Cave.jpg Gough's Cave[102][103] 14.7k Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13k[104] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
Arlington Springs Man 13k[105] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Moulage de crâne, Raymonden, Chancelade, Dordogne.jpg Chancelade find 17-12k[106] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Red Deer cave skull
Red Deer Cave 14.5k - 11.5k Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?
Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1-Homo Sapiens 11,500 Years Old.jpg Luzia 11.5k[107] Homo sapiens 1975 Brazil Annette Laming-Emperaire
[108] Cerro Sota 2[109] 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chile Junius Bird
Wadjak 1, aka Java Man. Wadjak 1[110] 10k - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesia B.D. van Rietschoten
Talgai Skull Talgai Skull[111] 11k - 9k Homo sapiens 1886 Australia William Naish Sydney Museum

Holocene[edit]

Mesolithic / Neolithic: 10,000 - 5000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
La Brea woman.jpg La Brea Woman ~ 10k Homo sapiens sapiens 1914 United States
Homo sapiens Combe Capelle.jpg Combe Capelle 9.6 k[112] Homo sapiens sapiens 1909 France O. Hauser
Cheddar Man scull.jpg Cheddar Man 9k Homo sapiens sapiens 1903 UK
Kow Swamp1-Homo sapiens.jpg Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13[citation needed] 8k - 12k Homo sapiens sapiens 1920 Algeria C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa (Site 6B36)[citation needed] 8k - 15k Homo sapiens sapiens 1963 Sudan G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadi Kubbaniya[citation needed] 8k - 20k Homo sapiens sapiens 1982 Egypt Fred Wendorf
Mnwomanskull.jpg Minnesota Woman 7.8 - 8k Homo sapiens sapiens 1931 Minnesota, United States Albert Jenks, via construction crew
Lo 4b[113][114] 6k - 9k Homo sapiens sapiens 1965-1975 Kenya H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Tepexpan 1.Homo Sapiens 4,700 Years Old.jpg Tepexpan man 5k - 11k Homo sapiens sapiens 1947 Mexico H. de Terra
Del Mar skull[citation needed] 4.9k - 11.8 Homo sapiens sapiens 1929 United States M.J. Rogers
Otzi-Quinson.jpg Ötzi 5.3k Homo sapiens sapiens 1991 Ötztal Alps, Italy Helmut Simon and Erika Simon

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye; Beauvilain, Alain; Blondel, Cécile; Bocherens, Hervé. "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145–151. doi:10.1038/nature00879. 
  2. ^ "Bar 10200'". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  3. ^ "Ardipithecus kadabba". efossils. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Fossil finds extend human story". BBC News. 
  5. ^ I. A. N., McDougall; Craig, Feibel (1999). "Numerical age control for the Miocene-Pliocene succession at Lothagam, a hominoid-bearing sequence in the northern Kenya Rift". Journal of the Geological Society. 156: 731–745. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.156.4.0731. 
  6. ^ a b c Hill, Andrew; Ward, Steven (1988). "Origin of the Hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 My and 4 My". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 31 (59): 49–83. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310505. 
  7. ^ Patterson B, Behrensmeyer AK, Sill WD (June 1970). "Geology and fauna of a new Pliocene locality in north-western Kenya". Nature. 226 (5249): 918–21. PMID 16057594. doi:10.1038/226918a0. 
  8. ^ Lothagam mandible fragment
  9. ^ Ward, Steven; Hill, Andrew. "Pliocene hominid partial mandible from Tabarin, Baringo, Kenya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 72 (1): 21–37. PMID 3103460. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330720104. 
  10. ^ Heslip, Steven (2001). "Australopithecus anamensis". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. [self-published source?]
  11. ^ "Oldupai". Ntz.info. Retrieved 2012-10-15. 
  12. ^ KNM-WT 40000
  13. ^ Smithsonian
  14. ^ "http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150527134040.htm". www.sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2015-05-28.  External link in |title= (help)
  15. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/al444-2.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  16. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/87535.php Image at Eurekalert
  17. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-03/asu-doj022715.php Press Release
  18. ^ "Australopithecus garhi: BOU-VP-12/130". efossils. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  19. ^ http://travelmag.co.uk/?p=1254
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-01-18. Retrieved 2006-07-11.  Image at Modern Human Origins
  21. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/sts-71 Image at Smithsonian
  22. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sts52.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  23. ^ Department of Anthropology: The University of Texas at Austin. "Paranthropus robustus: TM 1517". Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  24. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=south-african-hominin-fossil MH1 image at Scientific American
  25. ^ Juliet King (June 4, 2010). "Australopithecus sediba fossil named by 17-year-old Johannesburg student". Origins Centre. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  26. ^ Jonathan, Amos (2011-09-08). "African fossils put new spin on human origins story". http://www.sciencemag.org/site/extra/sediba/index.xhtml. BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2011.  External link in |work= (help)
  27. ^ Mai, L.L., Owl, M.Y., & Kersting, M.P. (2005), p.286
  28. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/oh-24 Image at Smithsonian
  29. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/oh8.html OH 8 image of foot at Modern Human Origins
  30. ^ a b c Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC, et al. (August 2012). "New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo". Nature. 488 (7410): 201–4. PMID 22874966. doi:10.1038/nature11322. F
  31. ^ "Homo ergaster". Australian Museum. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  32. ^ Inverted strata
  33. ^ Donald C. Johanson; Blake Edgar (1996). From Lucy to Language. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 158. 
  34. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/knm-er-23000 Image at Smithsonian
  35. ^ Leakey, R. E. F. y Walker, A. C. (1988). "New Australopithecus boisei specimens from East and West Lake Turkana, Kenya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 76 (1): 1–24. ISSN 1096-8644. PMID 3136654. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330760102. 
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