List of human evolution fossils

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare,[1] this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page.

Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Late Miocene[edit]

7 million - 5.3 million years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Sahelanthropus tchadensis - TM 266-01-060-1.jpg TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Michel Brunet Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
BAR 1002 ororin Credit Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution.JPG BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.5-5.8 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene[edit]

5.3 million - 2.58 million years old[edit]

Image Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ardi.jpg Ardi 4.4 Ma[5] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329. Réplica at Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid KNM-LT 329 4.2 - 5 Ma[6] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[7][8][9]
KNM-TH 13150 4.15-5.25 Ma[10] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya -
Australopithecus anamensis bone (University of Zurich).JPG KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[11] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kenya Bryan Patterson[7]
Laetoli footprints replica.jpg Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominid 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 Replica 03.jpg LH 4 2.9 - 3.9 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[12]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Mandible of an Australopithecus bahrelghazali K 12 (Abel) 3.5 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Michel Brunet
Kenyanthropus platyops, skull (model).JPG Flat Faced Man[13] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana, Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[14]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.3 - 3.5 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[15]
Little Foot 01.jpg Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
SelamAustralopithecus.jpg DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
Lucy Mexico.jpg AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 and AL 400-1. Australopithecus afarensis AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2. Replica.jpg AL 444-2[16] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[17] LD 350-1[18] 2.75 - 2.8 Ma Homo __? 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum

Pleistocene[edit]

Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 million - 300,000[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Australopithecus africanus - Cast of taung child Face.jpg Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPG KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Original Uraha 501
Uraha Jawbone
[19]
2.3 - 2.5 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
Pelvis, one of the parts of the skeleton STS 14 STS 14[20] 2.04-2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 71. STS 71[21] 2.04 - 2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
STS 52a and STS 52b STS 52[22] 2.04 -2 .58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Mrs Ples Face.jpg STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.04Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Sterkfontein Caves 67.jpg TM 1517[23] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
Australopithecus sediba.JPG MH1 (Karabo)[24][25] 1.977-1.98 Ma[26] Australopithecus sediba 2008 South Africa Lee R. Berger
Homo habilis-KNM ER 1813.jpg KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
Homo rudolfensis.jpg KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[27]
Replica made with a 3D printer OH 24
(Twiggy)
[28]
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8 Replica 03.jpg OH 8[29] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
Paranthropus boisei skull.jpg OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
Dmanisiskull4.JPG D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi Skull 5 or D4500 Copyright Free Draw by Wikipedia User Simon Mer.jpg D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 ( published in 2013) Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 62003 (mandibular fragment)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 60000 (mandible)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
Homo Habilis Oh7.jpg OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
Homo ergaster.jpg KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[31] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805. Pannel 2.jpg KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Fossil teeth (incisors) and stone tools from Yuanmou, Smithsonian Institution.JPG Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma / 0.5-0.6 Ma (disputed)[32] Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
Paranthropus-boisei-Nairobi.JPG KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 732[33] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNMER 23000-cast.jpg KNM ER 23000[34] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM-WT 17400.JPG KNM WT 17400[citation needed] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Kenya
Turkana Boy.jpg KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
[35] StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo gautengensis 1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
Panel 02-SK 847.jpg SK 847[36] 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis 1949 South Africa
Sterkfontein Caves 66.jpg DNH 7
(Eurydice)
[37]
1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
Sterkfontein Caves 63.jpg SK 46[38] 1.5 - 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
Replica of the mandible of Peninj, P. boisei Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
Oh 9 Credit Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution.JPG OH 9
(Chellean Man)
[39]
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM-ER 992. Replica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Pithecanthropus modjokertensis Tjokro Handojo.JPG Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.43 - 1.49 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Fossil KNM-ER 3883.JPG KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[citation needed] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopia A. Amzaye
Atapuerca Jawbone[40] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
The Kocabas hominin calvaria. Kocabas 1.1 Ma [41] Homo erectus [42] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka homo erectus calvaria.jpg Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran IV (Palate).jpg Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Homo antecessor.jpg 780k - 858k Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Calvaria Sangiran II (B).jpg Sangiran 2 0.7 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
1911 Britannica-Anthropology-5.png Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
[43]
0.7 -1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Mandible Ternifine III Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[44] 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17-02.JPG Sangiran 17[45] 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man Skull (replica) presented at Paleozoological Museum of China.jpg Peking Man 680k - 780k Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
[46] Madam Buya 600k - 1.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate
Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Bodo[47] 600k Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPG Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Saldanha man-Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Saldanha man[48] 500k Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove-Tibia.jpg
Boxgrove Man 478k - 524k Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK
Arago 21 Image Credit Tyler Evans Smithsonian.JPG
Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
450k Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[49] Hexian[50] 400k - 500k Homo erectus 1980 China
Homo heidelbergensis-Cranium -5.jpg Skull 5 (Miguelón) 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Replica Swanscombe Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1935 UK Alvan T Marston
Sale skull.jpg Sale[citation needed] 400k Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco
Replica made by a 3D printer Ndutu[51] 350k Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheimer Urmensch Schaedel.jpg Steinheim Skull 350k Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 - 50,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Petralona 1 Petralona 1[52] 250k - 500k Homo heidelbergensis 1960 Greece
Ngandong 7-Homo erectus.jpg Ngandong 7 250k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230k Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
[53] Dali 209k ±23k (disputed)[54] Homo erectus
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Rhodesian Man.jpg Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
200k - 300k Homo rhodesiensis 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
[55] Omo 1 190k Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[56] Omo 2 190k Homo sapiens Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[57] Herto remains 160k Homo sapiens idaltu 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
[58] Jebel Irhoud 1 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[59] Jebel Irhoud 3 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[60][61] Altamura Man 130-172k[62] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
[63] Tabun C1 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Saccopastore 1.JPG
Saccopastore 1 100-130k[64] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
Kaprina 3. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg Krapina[65] 100k - 127k [66] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Panel1-Qafezh 6 01-01-1980 0-39-18 327x239.jpg Qafzeh 6[67] 90k - 100k[66] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
Qafzeh.JPG Qafzeh IX 90k - 100k[66] Homo sapiens[68] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
[69] Qafzeh VI 90k - 100k[66] Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 80k - 127k[66] Homo neanderthalensis Belgium
Skhul.JPG Skhul V 80k - 120k Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IX 80k - 120k Homo sapiens Israel
[70] Klasies River Caves 75k - 125k Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Obi-Rakhmat 1[71] 75k [66] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Task. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg Teshik-Tash Skull[72] 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar skull.jpg Shanidar 1 60k - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Neanderthal-burial.gif Kebara 2 (Moshe)[73] 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[74] Amud 7 50k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis Israel

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 - 10,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now Located at
Sidrón Cave 49k Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Spain
La Quina. H 5. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg La Quina 5[citation needed] 45k - 60k[66] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg La Quina 18[citation needed] 45k - 60k[66] Homo neanderthalensis France
Kents Cavern 41k - 45k Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Amud 1. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg Amud 1[75] 41k [76] Homo neanderthalensis June 28, 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Mungo Man.jpg Mungo Man 40k - 60k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
WLH-50 Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
[77] Mt. Circeo 1 40k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
Neanderthal 1 Neanderthal 1[78] 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40k Homo ? 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
hominin finger bone 40k Homo ? (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2011 Russia
Balangoda man 37k Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull.jpg Hofmeyr Skull 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
[79] Peștera cu Oase 36k Homo sapiens 2002 Romania
Red Lady of Paviland 33k Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Schmerling Planche I.jpg Engis 30k-50k [66][80] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Neanderthal skull from Forbes' Quarry.jpg Gibraltar 1 30k-50k [66] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 1 Le Moustier 30k-50k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisovan tooth 30k - 50k Homo ? 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon.jpg Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 France Louis Lartet
NG 6 27k - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Replica of Predmosti 3 Predmost 3[81] 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[82] Lapedo Child 24.5k Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[82] Eel Point 24k Homo sapiens 1997 UK
Homo floresiensis.jpg LB 1 (Hobbit) 18k Homo floresiensis 2003 Indonesia Peter Brown
Minatogawa 1. Replica at the Museum of Tokyo[83] Minatogawa 1 16k - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[84][85] 17k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Skull of Gough's Cave.jpg Gough's Cave[86][87] 14.7k Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13k[88] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
Arlington Springs Man 13k[89] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Moulage de crâne, Raymonden, Chancelade, Dordogne.jpg Chancelade find 17-12k[90] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1-Homo Sapiens 11,500 Years Old.jpg Luzia 11.5k[91] Homo sapiens 1975 Brazil Annette Laming-Emperaire
[92] Cerro Sota 2[93] 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chile Junius Bird
Wadjak 1, aka Java Man. Wadjak 1[94] 10k - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesia B.D. van Rietschoten

Holocene[edit]

Mesolithic / Neolithic: 10,000 - 5000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
La Brea woman.jpg La Brea Woman ~ 10k Homo sapiens 1914 United States
Homo sapiens Combe Capelle.jpg Combe Capelle 9.6 k[95] Homo sapiens 1909 France O. Hauser
Cheddar Man 9k Homo sapiens 1903 UK
Kowswamp1.JPG Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13[citation needed] 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1920 Algeria C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 25[citation needed] 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1963 Sudan G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadi Kubbaniya[citation needed] 8k - 20k Homo sapiens 1982 Egypt Fred Wendorf
Mnwomanskull.jpg Minnesota Woman 7.8 - 8k Homo sapiens 1931 Minnesota, United States Albert Jenks, via construction crew
Lo 4b[96][97] 6k - 9k Homo sapiens 1965-1975 H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Tepexpan 1.Homo Sapiens 4,700 Years Old.jpg Tepexpan man 5k - 11k Homo sapiens 1947 Mexico H. de Terra
SDM 16704[citation needed] 4.9k - 11.8 Homo sapiens 1929 United States M.J. Rogers

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Prominent Hominid Fossils". Retrieved 2006-08-31. 
  2. ^ "Fossil Hominids: Toumai". Talkorigins.org. 2002-07-31. Retrieved 2012-10-15. 
  3. ^ "Bar 10200'". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  4. ^ "Ardipithecus kadabba". efossils. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  5. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Fossil finds extend human story". BBC News. 
  6. ^ I. A. N., McDougall; Craig, Feibel (1999). "Numerical age control for the Miocene-Pliocene succession at Lothagam, a hominoid-bearing sequence in the northern Kenya Rift". Journal of the Geological Society 156: 731–745. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.156.4.0731. 
  7. ^ a b c Hill, Andrew; Ward, Steven (1988). "Origin of the Hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 My and 4 My". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 31 (59): 49–83. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310505. 
  8. ^ Patterson B, Behrensmeyer AK, Sill WD (June 1970). "Geology and fauna of a new Pliocene locality in north-western Kenya". Nature 226 (5249): 918–21. doi:10.1038/226918a0. PMID 16057594. 
  9. ^ lothagam mandible fragment
  10. ^ Ward, Steven; Hill, Andrew. "Pliocene hominid partial mandible from Tabarin, Baringo, Kenya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 72 (1): 21–37. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330720104. 
  11. ^ Heslip, Steven (2001). "Australopithecus anamensis". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. [self-published source?]
  12. ^ "Oldupai". Ntz.info. Retrieved 2012-10-15. 
  13. ^ KNM-WT 40000
  14. ^ Smithsonian
  15. ^ "http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150527134040.htm". www.sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  16. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/al444-2.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  17. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/87535.php Image at Eurekalert
  18. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-03/asu-doj022715.php Press Release
  19. ^ http://travelmag.co.uk/?p=1254
  20. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sts14.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  21. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/sts-71 Image at Smithsonian
  22. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sts52.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  23. ^ Department of Anthropology: The University of Texas at Austin. "Paranthropus robustus: TM 1517". Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  24. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=south-african-hominin-fossil MH1 image at Scientific American
  25. ^ Juliet King (June 4, 2010). "Australopithecus sediba fossil named by 17-year-old Johannesburg student". Origins Centre. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  26. ^ Jonathan, Amos (2011-09-08). "African fossils put new spin on human origins story". http://www.sciencemag.org/site/extra/sediba/index.xhtml (BBC News). Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  27. ^ Mai, L.L., Owl, M.Y., & Kersting, M.P. (2005), p.286
  28. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/oh-24 Image at Smithsonian
  29. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/oh8.html OH 8 image of foot at Modern Human Origins
  30. ^ a b c Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC et al. (August 2012). "New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo". Nature 488 (7410): 201–4. doi:10.1038/nature11322. PMID 22874966.  F
  31. ^ "Homo ergaster". Australian Museum. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  32. ^ Inverted strata
  33. ^ Donald C. Johanson, Blake Edgar (1996). From Lucy to Language. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 158. 
  34. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/knm-er-23000 Image at Smithsonian
  35. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/stw53.html STW 53 image at Modern Human Origins
  36. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sk847.html SK 847 image at Modern Human Origins
  37. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/dnh7.html DNH 7 image at Modern Human Origins
  38. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/sk-46 Image at Smithsonian
  39. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/oh9.html Chellean OH 9 Image at Modern Human Origins
  40. ^ Michael Hopkin (March 26, 2008). "Fossil find is oldest European yet". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2008.691. 
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ [2]
  43. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/trinil-2 Image at Smithsonian
  44. ^ "Ternifine or Tighenif". Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  45. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sangiran17.html Sangiran 17 image at Modern Human Origins
  46. ^ http://archive.archaeology.org/9809/newsbriefs/eritrea.html
  47. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/bodo.html Bodo image at Modern Human Origins
  48. ^ https://www.msu.edu/~heslipst/contents/ANP440/images/Saldanha.JPG Saldanha man[dead link][self-published source?]
  49. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/pa830.html Hexian PA830 image at Modern Human Origins
  50. ^ Peter Brown. "Hexian". Peter Brown's Australian & Asian Palaeoanthropology. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  51. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/ndutu Image at Smithsonian
  52. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/petralona-1 Smithsonian's Human Origins Program
  53. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/dali.html Dali image at Modern Human Origins
  54. ^ P. Brown Dali archaic Homo Sapiens[dead link][self-published source?] University of New England, Australia
  55. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/omo1.html Omo 1 Image at Modern Human Origins
  56. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/omo2.html Omo II Image at Modern Human Origins
  57. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s877478.htm Herto skull images at ABC Science
  58. ^ http://www.eva.mpg.de/evolution/files/irhoud.htm Jebel Irhoud 1 skull image at Max Planck Institute
  59. ^ Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Reid DJ et al. (April 2007). "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (15): 6128–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104. PMC 1828706. PMID 17372199. Lay summaryPhys.org (March 13, 2007). 
  60. ^ Image of Altamura Man
  61. ^ Image of Altamura Man skull
  62. ^ Martina Lari, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Andrea Borsato, Silvia Ghirotto, Mario Micheli, Carlotta Balsamo, Carmine Collina, Gianluca De Bellis, Silvia Frisia, Giacomo Giacobini, Elena Gigli, John C. Hellstrom, Antonella Lannino, Alessandra Modi, Alessandro Pietrelli, Elena Pilli, Antonio Profico, Oscar Ramirez, Ermanno Rizzi, Stefania Vai, Donata Venturo, Marcello Piperno, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Guido Barbujani, David Caramelli, Giorgio Manzi (2015). "The Neanderthal in the karst: First dating, morphometric, and paleogenetic data on the fossil skeleton from Altamura (Italy)". Journal of Human Evolution. in press. 
  63. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/tabun1.html Tabun 1 Image at Modern Human Origins
  64. ^ "Saccopastore 1". Smithsonian: National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2015-02-15. 
  65. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/krapinac.html Krapina C Images at Modern Human Origins
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Reid DJ et al. (December 2010). "Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (49): 20923–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1010906107. PMC 3000267. PMID 21078988. 
  67. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/qafzeh6.html Qafzeh VI images at Modern Human Origins
  68. ^ Qafzeh IX
  69. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/qafzeh6.html Qafzeh VI Image at Modern Human Origins
  70. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/klasies.html Klasies Images at Modern Human Origins
  71. ^ Norton, Christopher J.; Braun, David R. Asian paleanthropology: From Africa to China and beyond. New York, NY: Springer. p. 107. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9094-2. ISBN 978-90-481-9093-5. 
  72. ^ "What does it mean to be human?". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  73. ^ Johanson, Donald; Edgar, Blake (2006). From Lucy to Language. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-8064-8. 
  74. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/amud7.html Amud 7 Image at Modern Human Origins
  75. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/amud1.html Amud 1 Image at Modern Human Origins
  76. ^ "Human evolution: interpreting evidence". Museum of Science, Boston, US. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  77. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/circeo.html Mount Circeo 1 Image at Modern Human Origins
  78. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/neanderthal1.html Neanderthal 1 images at Modern Human Origins
  79. ^ http://news.softpedia.com/newsImage/Experts-Recreate-the-Face-of-the-First-European-2.jpg/ Images of Peştera cu Oase[self-published source?]
  80. ^ Timeline at Bone & Stone
  81. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/predmosti3.html Predmosti 3 images at Modern Human Origins
  82. ^ a b Schulting RJ, Trinkaus E, Higham T, Hedges R, Richards M, Cardy B (May 2005). "A Mid-Upper Palaeolithic human humerus from Eel Point, South Wales, UK". Journal of Human Evolution 48 (5): 493–505. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.02.001. PMID 15857652. 
  83. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/minatogawa1.html Minatogawa 1 images at Modern Human
  84. ^ Template:Cita magazine
  85. ^ "Lake Tandou Skull". Australia: The Land Where Time Began. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  86. ^ Stringer, C. B. (1985). "The hominid remains from Gough's Cave" (PDF). Proceedings of the University of Bristol Spelaeological Society 17 (2): 145–52. 
  87. ^ McKie, Robin (June 20, 2010). "Bones from a Cheddar Gorge cave show that cannibalism helped Britain's earliest settlers survive the ice age". The Observer. Guardian. Retrieved 2012-10-15. 
  88. ^ "Mystery of a West African skull from 13,000 years ago". Natural History Museum, London, UK. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  89. ^ Johnson, John. "Arlington Man". National Park Service. Retrieved December 25, 2014. 
  90. ^ Leroy-Gourhan, Michel Brézillon ; preface by André (1969). Dictionnaire de la préhistoire (Ed. rev. & corr. ed.). Paris: Larousse. ISBN 2-03-075437-4. 
  91. ^ C. Smith (1999). "Who Was First? Untangling America's Prehistoric Roots". Discovery Communications Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  92. ^ Bird, Junius B. (1988). "Four views of skull from skeleton 99.1/779". In Hyslop, John. Travels and Archaeology in South Chile. University of Iowa Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-58729-014-5. 
  93. ^ Travels and Archeology in South Chile. Cornell University, New York, U.S. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  94. ^ Storm, Paul; Nelson, Andrew (1992). "The many faces of Wadjak man". Archaeology Oceania 27 (1): 37–46. JSTOR 40386932. 
  95. ^ Seidler, Christoph (9 February 2011). "Forscher entzaubern Steinzeitmann". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  96. ^ Powell, Joseph F. (2005). The First Americans: Race, Evolution and the Origin of Native Americans (GOOGLE BOOKS). Cambridge University Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9780521530354. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
  97. ^ Angel, J.L.; Phenice, T.W.; Robbins, L.H.; Lynch, B.M. (1980). Late stone age fishermen of Lothegam, Kenya. National Anthropological Archives, Sithsonian Institution, Part 3. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]