List of human evolution fossils

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution, beginning with the formation of the tribe Hominini (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages) in the late Miocene, roughly 7 to 8 million years ago.

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but show some of the most important findings. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated.

The early fossils shown are not considered ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo). After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.

Late Miocene (7.2–5.5 million years old)[edit]

The chimpanzee–human divergence likely took place during about 10 to 7 million years ago.[1] The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage. For the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline of human evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.

Image Name Age (Ma) Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
El Graeco 7.20 Graecopithecus 1944, 2017 Greece, Bulgaria
Site:Pyrgos Vassilissis, Azmaka
Böhme (Tübingen), Spassov (BAS) Met, Athens; Tübingen, Germany
TM 266 (Toumai) 7.00–6.00[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad
Site:Djurab Desert
Michel Brunet, Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
BAR 1000'00 6.1–5.7[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya
Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut
Trachilos footprints 5.7 Made by hominin or hominin-like primate 2002 Greece Gerard D. Gierliński
ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.65±0.150 Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia
Site:Middle Awash
Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene (5.3–2.58 million years old)[edit]

Image Name Age (Ma) Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ardi 4.40[5] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329. Replica at Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid Lothagam mandible (KNM-LT 329)[6] 4.60±0.40[7] Australopithecus anamensis or undetermined Hominidae 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis,[8] Bryan Patterson[9][10][11]
KNM-TH 13150 4.70±0.55[12] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya Kiptalam Cheboi[9]
KNM-KP 271 4.00[13] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kanapoi, Kenya Bryan Patterson[9]
Laetoli Footprints 3.70 Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 3.40±0.50 Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[14]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KT-12/H1 (Abel) 3.50 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Mamelbaye Tomalta and Michel Brunet N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
KNM-WT 22944 G-J[15] 3.50 Australopithecus sp. 1990 Kenya Multinational team National Museums of Kenya
KNM-WT 40000 (Flat Faced Man)[16] 3.50-3.20 Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[17]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.40±0.10 Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[18]
Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.67 Australopithecus prometheus(?) 1994 Sterkfontein, South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
DIK-1 (Selam) 3.30 Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.20 Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 and AL 400–1. Australopithecus afarensis AL 200-1 3.10±0.10 Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
AL 129-1 3.10±0.10 Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2[19] 3.00 Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Afar Region, Ethiopia Yoel Rak
LD 350-1[20] 2.775±0.025[21] Homo(?) 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum
Taung Child 1 3.03–2.61 Australopithecus africanus 1924 Buxton-Norlim Limeworks, South Africa Raymond Dart University of the Witwatersrand


Lower Paleolithic: 2.58–0.3 million years old[edit]

Name Age (Ma) Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
KNM-WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.50 Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
BOU-VP-12/130[22] 2.50 Australopithecus garhi 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
STS 71 STS 71[23] 2.61–2.07 Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
STS 52a and STS 52b STS 52 2.61–2.07 Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
Original UR 501 (Uraha jawbone) 2.40±0.10 Homo rudolfensis[24] 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
STS 5 (Mrs. Ples)
(STS 14)[25]
2.07[26] Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
DNH 134 (Simon)[27] 2.04[27] Homo erectus 2015 Drimolen Main Quarry, South Africa Andy Herries' team (excavated by Richard Curtis, Andy Herries, Angeline Leece; reconstructed by Jesse Martin) University of the Witwatersrand
DNH 155[28] 2.04–1.95 Paranthropus robustus 2018 Drimolen Main Quarry, South Africa Andy Herries and Stephanie Baker's team (first found by Samantha Good and excavated by Samantha Good, Angeline Leece, Stephanie Baker and Andy Herries; reconstructed by Jesse Martin) University of the Witwatersrand
DNH 152[27](Khethi) 2.04–1.95[27] Paranthropus robustus 2018 Drimolen Main Quarry, South Africa Andy Herries and Stephanie Baker's team (first part found by Khethi Nkosi. later parts by Amber Jaeger, Eunice Lalunio; reconstructed by Jesse Martin & Angeline Leece) University of the Witwatersrand
2.04–1.95[27] Paranthropus robustus 1994 Drimolen, Drimolen Main Quarry, South Africa R. Smith and André Keyser University of the Witwatersrand
KNM-ER 64060 2.03 Homo habilis 2012 Ileret, Kenya
KNM-ER 64061 2.02 Homo erectus 2012-2013 Ileret, Kenya
TM 1517[30] 2.0 Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
MH1 (Karabo)[31][32] 1.98[33] Australopithecus sediba 2008 Malapa, South Africa Matthew Berger and Lee Rogers Berger University of the Witwatersrand
KNM-ER 1813 1.90 Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
KNM-ER 1470 1.90 Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[34]
SK 48 2.25–1.80 Paranthropus robustus 1948 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
SK 46[35] 2.25–1.80 Paranthropus robustus 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
SK 847[36] 2.25–1.80 Homo habilis 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
Replica made with a 3D printer OH 24
1.80 Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8[38] 1.80 Homo habilis 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania
D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.81±0.40[39] Homo erectus 2001 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
Dmanisi skull 4, D3444 D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.81±0.40 Homo erectus 2003 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi skull 5 in situ D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.81±0.40 Homo erectus 2005 (published in 2013) Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000–62003[40] 1.84±0.60 Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 64062 1.84±0.02 Homo erectus 2013 Ileret, Kenya
OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.75 Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
OH 7 1.75 Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
StW 53 1.8–1.6[26] variously A. africanus, H. habilis, H. gautengensis 1976 Sterkfontein, South Africa A. R. Hughes University of the Witwatersrand
KNM-ER 1805 1.74 Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.70
or 0.60–0.50
Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
KNM-ER 406 1.70 Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 732[42] 1.70 Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 23000[43] 1.70 Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM-WT 17400[44][45] 1.70 Paranthropus boisei Not known[46] Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana) Kenya unknown[46] National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenia)
KNM-ER 3733 1.63±0.15[47] Homo ergaster (a.k.a. African Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya
KNM-WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.60 Homo ergaster (a.k.a. African Homo erectus) 1984 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
Replica of the mandible of Peninj, P. boisei Peninj Mandible 1.50 Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
Ileret Footprints 1.50 Homo erectus 2007-2014 Ileret, Kenya
KNM-ER 992. Replica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid KNM-ER 992 1.50 Homo ergaster (a.k.a. African Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM-ER 3883 1.57±0.08 Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.43±0.10 Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
BL02-J54-100[48] 1.40 Similar to H. heidelbergensis Unknown Spain Unknown
KGA 10-525[49][50] 1.40 Paranthropus boisei 1993 Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia A. Amzaye
OH 9, partial skull OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.40 Homo erectus 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania Louis Leakey
Sima del Elephante maxilla[52] 1.40 Homo erectus? 2022 Spain
The Mandible of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca) ATE9-1[53] 1.20 Homo sp.Homo erectus?[52] 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
The Kocabas hominin calvaria Kocabaş 1.10[54] Homo erectus[55] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka 1.00 Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran 4 1.00 Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Sangiran 2 1.15±0.45 Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Madam Buya Madam Buya[56] 1.00 Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate National Museum of Eritrea
ATD6-15 and ATD6-69

(Niño de la Gran Dolina 342)

0.900[57] Homo antecessor
Homo erectus
1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Trinil 2
Java Man
0.850±0.150 Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden
Mandible Ternifine III Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[59] 0.70 Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17[60] 0.70 Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man 0.73±0.50[61] Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
Bodo[62] 0.600 Homo heidelbergensis
Homo erectus
1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Benjamina[63][64] 0.53 Homo neanderthalensis[65] 2001-2001 Spain Ana Gracia Téllez
Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
0.50 Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann Heidelberg University
Saldanha man[66] 0.50 Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove Man 0.50[67] Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK Natural History Museum
Arago XXI Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
0.45 Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
Ceprano Man[68][69] 0.450±0.050 Homo cepranensis
/Homo heidelbergensis
1994 Ceprano, Italy Italo Biddittu Servizio di antropologia, Soprintendenza ai beni culturali, Regione Lazio, Italy
Agamenón[70] 0.43 Homo neanderthalensis[65] 1997 Spain Paleontological teams Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Miguelón 0.40 Homo neanderthalensis[65] 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Aroeira 3 0.40 Homo heidelbergensis 2014 Portugal João Zilhão [de] Museu Nacional de Arqueologia, Lisbon
Salé cranium[71][72][73] 0.40-0.20 Homo sapiens?[74] 1971 Morocco Quarry worker
Replica Swanscombe Man[75] 0.40 Homo neanderthalensis 1935, 1936, 1955 UK Alvan T Marston, John J Wymer and Adrian Gibson Natural History Museum
Replica made by a 3D printer Ndutu[76][77] 0.45±.04 Homo neanderthalensis affinities 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Hexian Man[78][79] 0.412±0.025[80] Homo erectus 1980-1981[81] Hexian, China
Gawis cranium 0.350±0.150 Homo erectus/Homo sapiens 2006 Ethiopia Asahmed Humet
Steinheim Skull 0.35 Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany
Dinaledi Chamber hominins 0.325±0.090[82] Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)
BH-1 0.4[83] Homo heidelbergensis Mala Balanica, Serbia

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000–50,000 years old[edit]

Name Age (ka) Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Dragon Man 309–138 Homo longi 1933 China Hebei GEO University
Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe 1, Rhodesian Man)
299±25[84] Homo rhodesiensis (Homo heidelbergensis) 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
Jebel Irhoud 1 Jebel Irhoud 1–5 315±32[85] Homo sapiens 2017 Morocco INSAP
Samu[86] 275±25 Homo heidelbergensis 1964 Hungary László Vértes
Dali Man[87] 260±20[88] Homo longiHomo daliensis 1978 China Shuntang Liu
Jinniushan 260-200 ka[89] Homo longiHomo daliensis 1984 China[90] Paleolithic Archeology Student Excavation Team[90]
Florisbad Skull 259±35 early Homo sapiens
or Homo heidelbergensis
or Homo helmei
1932 South Africa T. F. Dreyer, G. Venter
Galilee Man 250±50 Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Israel Francis Turville-Petre
Saccopastore 1 250[91] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Grotta Guattari / Italy Mario Grazioli
Saccopastore 2[92] 250 Homo neanderthalensis 1935 Grotta Guattari / Italy Henry Breuil and Alberto Carlo Blanc
Narmada Cranium 236-46 Homo erectus or Homo sapiens Narmada River
Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site, Denbighshire, Wales 230 Homo neanderthalensis 1981 Wales, UK
Apidima 1
(LAO 1/S1)
210[93] Homo sapiens 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[94]
Petralona 1 Petralona 1 200±40[95] Homo heidelbergensis (uncertain) 1960 Greece
Omo remains 233±22[96] or 195±5[97] Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Laterite Baby 190(?)[98] H. erectus
H. sapiens
2001 Tamil Nadu, India P Rajendran
Misliya-1 187±13[99] Homo sapiens 2002 Israel Israel Hershkovitz
Apidima 2
(LAO 1/S2)
170[93] Homo neanderthalensis 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[94]
Penghu 1 160±30 or 40±30[100] Homo tsaichangensis[101][102][103] c. 2008 Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
Herto's skull Herto remains[104] 160 Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
Lateral view Xiahe mandible 160[105] Denisovan 1980 China
Altamura Man 151±21[106] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
Nesher Ramla Homo 140±120 Nesher Ramla Homo
Homo neanderthalensis
2021 Israel Israel Hershkovitz
Maba Man 140±120 early modern human,

Homo neanderthalensis



1958 Shaogun, China Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
LH 18 120±30 Homo sapiens 1976 Ngaloba beds at Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[107]
Tabun C1. Low resolution Tabun C1[108] 120 Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Sarstedt (Sst) I-III[109] 115-58 ka Homo neanderthalensis? 1997-1999 Germany Frangenberg brothers
Krapina 3[110] 113.5±13.5[111] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Ngandong 7 112[112] Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Denisova 8 110[113][114] Denisovan 2010 Russia
Qafzeh 6[115] 95±5[111] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville, M. Stekelis
Qafzeh 9 100–90[111] Homo sapiens[116][117] 1933 Israel B. Vandermeersch
Scladina 103±23[111] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Belgium
Skhul 5 100±20 Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul 9 100±20 Homo sapiens Israel
Klasies River Caves[118] 100±25 Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Eve's footprints 117 Homo sapiens 1995 South Africa David Roberts & Lee R. Berger
Liujiang man 113.5±45.5 Homo sapiens 1958 China
Denny[119][120][121] 90 Hybrid – (Homo neanderthalensis/Homo sapiens denisova) 2012 Denisova Cave / Siberia / Russia Viviane Slon & Svante Pääbo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany)
Obi-Rakhmat 1[122] 75[111] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Tash Skull[123] 70 Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
La Ferrassie 1 70 Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar 1 70±10 Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Sambungmacan (Sm) 1-4 70- 40[124] Homo erectus 1973-2001[125] Indonesia Construction and fossil collectors[125]
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60 Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Kebara 2 (Moshe)[126] 60 Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
Amud 7[127] 55±5 Homo neanderthalensis Israel
LB 1 skeleton LB 1 (Hobbit) 55±5 Homo floresiensis 2003 Liang Bua, Indonesia Peter Brown
Manot 1 55 Homo sapiens 2008 Israel [128]
La Quina 5[citation needed] 52.5±7.5[111] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18[citation needed] 52.5±7.5[111] Homo neanderthalensis France
TPL2 mandible Tam Pa Ling Cave[129] 54.5±8.5[129][130] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000–11,500 years old[edit]

Name Age (ka) Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
Homo luzonensis 50±10 Homo luzonensis 2007 Philippines Florent Détroit & Armand Mijares
Mungo Man 50±10 Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
Mt. Circeo 1 Mt. Circeo 1[131] 50±10 Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
SID-00B 49.2±2.5[132] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Ust'-Ishim man 45 Homo sapiens 2008 Russia Nikolai Peristov
Kents Cavern 4 maxilla 43.5±2.5 Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Tianyuan man 40.5±1.5 Homo sapiens 2007 China
Amud 1[133] 41[134] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Neanderthal 1 Neanderthal 1[135] 40 Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova phalanx distalis Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40 Homo sp. Altai 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
Denisova toe bone hominin toe bone 40 Homo sp. Altai (possible Neanderthal–Denisovan hybrid) 2010 Russia
Oase 2 Oase 1 42–37[136] Homo sapiens (EEMH x Neanderthal hybrid) 2002 Romania
Kostenki-14 (Markina Gora) 40–37[137] Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1954 Russia
SID-20[138] 37.30±0.83[132] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Balangoda Man 37 Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull 36 Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Wadjak 1, aka Java Man Wadjak 1[139] 33±4.5[140] Homo sapiens (proto-Australoid[141]) 1888 Indonesia
Red Lady of Paviland 33 Homo sapiens 1823 Wales, UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32 Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 2 Engis 2 40±10[111][142] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Gibraltar 1 Gibraltar 1 40±10[111] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 1 Le Moustier 40±10 Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisova molar Denisovan tooth 40±10 Homo sp. Altai 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon 1 Cro-Magnon 1 30 Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1868 France Louis Lartet
WLH-50 29±5 Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
Replica of Predmosti 3 Predmost 3[143] 26 Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic Karel Jaroslav Maška
Lapedo Child 24.5 Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens
1998 Portugal João Zilhão
Mid-Upper Paleolithoic human humerus from Eel Point, Caldey Island, Wales, UK[144] 24 Homo sapiens 1997 Wales, UK
MA-1 (Mal'ta boy) 24 Homo sapiens (ANE) 1920s Russia
Minatogawa 1. Replica at the Museum of Tokyo[145] Minatogawa 1 17±1 Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[146][147] 17 Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Gough's Cave[148][149] 14.7 Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru skull. Four views Iwo Eleru skull 13[150] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
"Kotias"[151] 13 Homo sapiens (CHG) Kotias Klde cave, Georgia
Arlington Springs Man 13[152] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Chancelade find 14.5±2.5[153] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Villabruna 1 14 Homo sapiens (WHG) 1988 Italy
Bonn-Oberkassel double burial[154] 14-13[155] Homo sapiens 1914[156] Germany
Bichon man 13.7 Homo sapiens (WHG) 1956 Switzerland
Red Deer cave skull
Red Deer cave skull
Red Deer Cave 13±1.5 Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?
PES-1[157] 31–29 Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens Serbia
PES-2 38.9–92 Uncertain, possibly Homo neanderthalensis Serbia

Holocene (11,500–5,000 years old)[edit]

Name Age (ka) Culture /
Luzia 11.5[158] Paleo-Indian 1975 Brazil
[159] Cerro Sota 2[160] 11 1936 Chile
"Satsurblia" 10 Caucasian Epipaleolithic (CHG)[151] Georgia
Kow Swamp 1 13–9 1968 Australia
Talgai Skull Talgai Skull[161] 10±1 1886 Australia
La Brea Woman 10 Paleo-Indian 1914 United States
Combe Capelle 9.6 (7600 BC)[162] European Mesolithic 1909 France
Asselar man Between 9500 BP and 7000 BP, with caution, 6390 BP[163] Neolithic 1927 Mali
Cheddar Man 9 (7000 BC) British Mesolithic 1903 UK
Kennewick Man 9 (7000 BC) Archaic period (North America) 1996 United States
Tepexpan man 8±3 Paleo-Indian 1947 Mexico
Loschbour man[164] 8 (6000 BC) European Mesolithic (WHG) 1935 Luxembourg
Minnesota Woman 7.9±0.1 Paleo-Indian 1931 Minnesota, United States
Lothagam 4b (Lo 4b)[165] 7.5±1.5[166] 1965–1975 Kenya
Bessé’[167] 7.3–7.2 Toalean 2015 Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ötzi 5.3 (3300 BC) European Neolithic 1991 Ötztal Alps, Italy

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gibbons, Ann. The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books (2007). ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
  • Hartwig, Walter Carl (2004) [2002]. Hartwig, Walter (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2..
  • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate. Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press (2009). ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
  • Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert D.; Pilbeam, David R, eds. (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human evolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5. (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history).
  • Leakey, Richard & Lewin, Roger. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes us Human. Little, Brown and Company (1992). ISBN 0-316-90298-5
  • Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Penguin Books (1987). ISBN 0-14-022638-9
  • Morwood, Mike & van Oosterzee, Penny. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the 'Hobbits' of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books (2007). ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Constable (2003). ISBN 1-84119-697-5
  • Roberts, Alice. The Incredible Human Journey: The Story of how we Colonised the Planet. Bloomsbury (2009). ISBN 978-0-7475-9839-8
  • Shreeve, James. The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. Viking (1996). ISBN 0-670-86638-5
  • Stringer, Chris. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane (2011). ISBN 978-1-84614-140-9
  • Stringer, Chris & Andrews, Peter. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Thames & Hudson (2005). ISBN 0-500-05132-1
  • Stringer, Chris & McKie, Robin. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape (1996). ISBN 0-224-03771-4
  • van Oosterzee, Penny. The Story of Peking Man. Allen & Unwin (1999). ISBN 1-86508-632-0
  • Walker, Allan & Shipman, Pat. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1996). ISBN 0-297-81670-5
  • Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of our Ancestors. Penguin Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-7156-3658-9
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