List of human spaceflights, 1981–1990

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This is a detailed list of human spaceflights from 1981 to 1990, spanning the end of the Soviet Union's Salyut space station program, the beginning of Mir, and the start of the US Space Shuttle program.

  • Red indicates fatalities.
  • Green indicates suborbital flights (including flights that failed to attain intended orbit).
# Crew Launch
spacecraft
Habitation Return
spacecraft
Brief mission summary
80 Soviet Union Vladimir Kovalyonok (3)
Soviet Union Viktor Savinykh (1)
13 March 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz T-4
Salyut 6 26 May 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz T-4
81 Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov (2)
Mongolia Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa
22 March 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz 39
Salyut 6 29 March 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz 39
First Mongolian in space (Gürragchaa).
82 United States John W. Young (5)
United States Robert L. Crippen (1)
12 April 1981
United States STS-1, Columbia
14 April 1981
United States STS-1, Columbia
First Space Shuttle flight. Systems test.
83 Soviet Union Leonid Popov (2)
Romania Dumitru Prunariu
14 May 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz 40
Salyut 6 22 May 1981
Soviet Union Soyuz 40
First Romanian in space (Prunariu). Magnetic field observations. Final Soyuz flight.
84 United States Joseph H. Engle (1)
United States Richard H. Truly (1)
12 November 1981
United States STS-2, Columbia
14 November 1981
United States STS-2, Columbia
First re-use of a crewed orbital spacecraft. Systems test. Earth science observations.
85 United States Jack R. Lousma (2)
United States C. Gordon Fullerton (1)
22 March 1982
United States STS-3, Columbia
30 March 1982
United States STS-3, Columbia
Further system testing. Miscellaneous scientific experiments and Earth science observations.
86 Soviet Union Anatoli Brergovoy
Soviet Union Valentin Lebedev (2)
12 May 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-5
Salyut 7 10 December 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-7
First mission to Salyut 7. Deployment of radio communications satellite.
87 Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov (3)
Soviet Union Aleksandr Ivanchenkov (2)
France Jean-Loup Chrétien (1)
24 June 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-6
Salyut 7 2 July 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-6
First French citizen in space (Chrétien).
88 United States Thomas K. Mattingly (2)
United States Henry W. Hartsfield (1)
27 June 1982
United States STS-4, Columbia
4 July 1982
United States STS-4, Columbia
Final Space Shuttle R&D flight. Miscellaneous scientific experiments plus classified US Air Force payload.
89 Soviet Union Leonid Popov (3)
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov (1)
Soviet Union Svetlana Savitskaya (1)
19 August 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-7
Salyut 7 27 August 1982
Soviet Union Soyuz T-5
Second woman in space (Savitskaya).
90 United States Vance D. Brand (2)
United States Robert F. Overmyer (1)
United States Joseph P. Allen (1)
United States William B. Lenoir
11 November 1982
United States STS-5, Columbia
16 November 1982
United States STS-5, Columbia
Launched commercial ANIK C-3 and SBS-C communications satellites. Planned EVA cancelled due to space suit malfunction.
91 United States Paul J. Weitz (2)
United States Karol J. Bobko (1)
United States Donald H. Peterson
United States F. Story Musgrave (1)
4 April 1983
United States STS-6, Challenger
9 April 1983
United States STS-6, Challenger
First Space Shuttle EVA (Peterson and Musgrave). Deployment of first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-1). Miscellaneous science experiments.
92 Soviet Union Vladimir Titov (1)
Soviet Union Gennadi Strekalov (2)
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov (2)
20 April 1983
Soviet Union Soyuz T-8
22 April 1983
Soviet Union Soyuz T-8
Failed to dock with Salyut 7.
93 United States Robert L. Crippen (2)
United States Frederick H. Hauck (1)
United States John M. Fabian (1)
United States Sally K. Ride (1)
United States Norman E. Thagard (1)
18 June 1983
United States STS-7, Challenger
24 June 1983
United States STS-7, Challenger
Two communications satellites launched. First American woman in space (Ride). Investigation into behavior of ant colony in zero gravity. Various microgravity experiments.
94 Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov (2)
Soviet Union Aleksandr Aleksandrov (1)
26 June 1983
Soviet Union Soyuz T-9
Salyut 7 23 November 1983
Soviet Union Soyuz T-9
95 United States Richard H. Truly (2)
United States Daniel C. Brandenstein (1)
United States Dale A. Gardner (1)
United States Guion Bluford (1)
United States William E. Thornton (1)
30 August 1983
United States STS-8, Challenger
5 September 1983
United States STS-8, Challenger
First African-American in space (Bluford). First night launch and landing. Deployed INSAT-1B satellite for India. Observation of behavior of rats in space.
Soviet Union Vladimir Titov
Soviet Union Gennady Strekalov
26 September 1983
Soviet Union Soyuz T-10-1
Launch failed due to fire. Crew ejected.
96 United States John W. Young (6)
United States Brewster H. Shaw (1)
United States Owen K. Garriott (2)
United States Robert A. Parker (1)
United States Byron K. Lichtenberg (1)
Germany Ulf Merbold (1)
28 November 1983
United States STS-9, Columbia
8 December 1983
United States STS-9, Columbia
First Spacelab (orbital laboratory) mission. First ESA astronaut, first West German astronaut and first non-American on US flight (Merbold).
97 United States Vance D. Brand (3)
United States Robert L. Gibson (1)
United States Bruce McCandless II (1)
United States Ronald E. McNair (1)
United States Robert L. Stewart (1)
3 February 1984
United States STS-41-B,
Challenger
11 February 1984
United States STS-41-B,
Challenger
First untethered spacewalk (McCandless and Stewart). WESTAR-VI and PALAPA-B2 satellites deployed but failed to attain correct orbits.
98 Soviet Union Leonid Kizim (2)
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov (1)
Soviet Union Oleg Atkov
4 February 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-10
Salyut 7 2 October 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-11
99 Soviet Union Yury Malyshev (2)
Soviet Union Gennadi Strekalov (3)
India Rakesh Sharma
3 April 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-11
Salyut 7 11 April 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-10
First Indian in space (Sharma). Earth observation program. Life sciences and materials processing experiments.
100 United States Robert L. Crippen (3)
United States Francis R. Scobee (1)
United States George D. Nelson (1)
United States James D. A. van Hoften (1)
United States Terry J. Hart
6 April 1984
United States STS-41-C,
Challenger
13 April 1984
United States STS-41-C,
Challenger
LDEF deployed for later retrieval. Capture, repair and redeployment of malfunctioning Solar Maximum Mission satellite.
101 Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov (4)
Soviet Union Igor Volk
Soviet Union Svetlana Savitskaya (2)
17 July 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-12
Salyut 7 29 July 1984
Soviet Union Soyuz T-12
First EVA by a female astronaut (Savitskaya).
102 United States Henry W. Hartsfield (2)
United States Michael L. Coats (1)
United States Judith A. Resnik (1)
United States Steven A. Hawley (1)
United States Richard M. Mullane (1)
United States Charles D. Walker (1)
30 August 1984
United States STS-41-D,
Discovery
5 September 1984
United States STS-41-D,
Discovery
Testing of experimental solar arrays. Three satellites deployed.
103 United States Robert L. Crippen (4)
United States Jon A. McBride (1)
United States Kathryn D. Sullivan (1)
United States Sally K. Ride (2)
United States David C. Leestma (1)
Canada Marc Garneau (1)
United States Paul D. Scully-Power
5 October 1984
United States STS-41-G,
Challenger
13 October 1984
United States STS-41-G,
Challenger
ERBS satellite deployed. Radar imaging. First EVA by an American woman (Sullivan). First Canadian in space (Garneau). First flight including two women.
104 United States Frederick H. Hauck (2)
United States David M. Walker (1)
United States Anna L. Fisher
United States Dale A. Gardner (2)
United States Joseph P. Allen (2)
8 November 1984
United States STS-51-A,
Discovery
16 November 1984
United States STS-51-A,
Discovery
Deployed two communications satellites. Retrieved two malfunctioning satellites.
105 United States Thomas K. Mattingly (3)
United States Loren J. Shriver (1)
United States Ellison S. Onizuka (1)
United States James F. Buchli (1)
United States Gary E. Payton
24 January 1985
United States STS-51-C,
Discovery
27 January 1985
United States STS-51-C,
Discovery
First mission for the U.S. Department of Defense. Classified payload, possibly intelligence-gathering satellite.
106 United States Karol J. Bobko (2)
United States Donald E. Williams (1)
United States M. Rhea Seddon (1)
United States Jeffrey A. Hoffman (1)
United States S. David Griggs
United States Charles D. Walker (2)
United States E. Jake Garn
12 April 1985
United States STS-51-D,
Discovery
19 April 1985
United States STS-51-D,
Discovery
Communications satellite deployed. Miscellaneous scientific experiments. First senator in space (Garn).
107 United States Robert F. Overmyer (2)
United States Frederick D. Gregory (1)
United States Don L. Lind
United States Norman E. Thagard (2)
United States William E. Thornton (2)
United States Lodewijk van den Berg
United States Taylor G. Wang
29 April 1985
United States STS-51-B,
Challenger
6 May 1985
United States STS-51-B,
Challenger
Second Spacelab mission; microgravity experiments. Observation of behaviour of monkeys and rodents in space.
108 Soviet Union Vladimir Dzhanibekov (5) 5 June 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-13
Salyut 7 26 September 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-13
Repair of crippled Salyut 7 station.
Soviet Union Viktor Savinykh (2) 21 November 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-14
109 United States Daniel C. Brandenstein (2)
United States John O. Creighton (1)
United States Shannon W. Lucid (1)
United States Steven R. Nagel (1)
United States John M. Fabian (2)
France Patrick Baudry
Saudi Arabia Sultan Salman Al Saud
17 June 1985
United States STS-51-G,
Discovery
24 June 1985
United States STS-51-G,
Discovery
Three communications satellites deployed. Miscellaneous scientific experiments. First Saudi and the first Arab in space (Al-Saud).
110 United States C. Gordon Fullerton (2)
United States Roy D. Bridges
United States F. Story Musgrave (2)
United States Anthony W. England
United States Karl G. Henize
United States Loren W. Acton
United States John-David F. Bartoe
29 July 1985
United States STS-51-F,
Challenger
6 August 1985
United States STS-51-F,
Challenger
Spacelab-2 mission. Miscellaneous science experiments. Three communications satellites deployed.
111 United States Joseph H. Engle (2)
United States Richard O. Covey (1)
United States James D.A. van Hoften (2)
United States John M. Lounge (1)
United States William F. Fisher
27 August 1985
United States STS-51-I,
Discovery
3 September 1985
United States STS-51-I,
Discovery
Three communications satellites deployed. Retrieval, repair and redeployment of LEASAT-3 satellite.
112 Soviet Union Vladimir Vasyutin
Soviet Union Aleksandr Volkov (1)
17 September 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-14
Salyut 7 21 November 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-14
Soviet Union Georgi Grechko (3) 26 September 1985
Soviet Union Soyuz T-13
113 United States Karol J. Bobko (3)
United States Ronald J. Grabe (1)
United States David C. Hilmers (1)
United States Robert L. Stewart (2)
United States William A. Pailes
3 October 1985
United States STS-51-J,
Atlantis
7 October 1985
United States STS-51-J,
Atlantis
Second U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, believed to be two communications satellites.
114 United States Henry W. Hartsfield (3)
United States Steven R. Nagel (1)
United States James F. Buchli (2)
United States Guion Bluford (2)
United States Bonnie J. Dunbar (1)
Germany Reinhard Furrer
Germany Ernst Messerschmid
Netherlands Wubbo J. Ockels
30 October 1985
United States STS-61-A,
Challenger
6 November 1985
United States STS-61-A,
Challenger
German-sponsored Spacelab mission. Microgravity experiments. First Dutchman in space (Ockels).
115 United States Brewster H. Shaw (2)
United States Bryan D. O'Connor (1)
United States Mary L. Cleave (1)
United States Sherwood C. Spring
United States Jerry L. Ross (1)
Mexico Rodolfo Neri Vela
United States Charles D. Walker (3)
26 November 1985
United States STS-61-B,
Atlantis
3 December 1985
United States STS-61-B,
Atlantis
Three communications satellites deployed. Demonstration of in-orbit construction techniques. First Mexican in space (Neri Vela).
116 United States Robert L. Gibson (2)
United States Charles F. Bolden (1)
United States Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (1)
United States Steven A. Hawley (2)
United States George D. Nelson (2)
United States Robert J. Cenker
United States Clarence W. Nelson
12 January 1986
United States STS-61-C,
Columbia
18 January 1986
United States STS-61-C,
Columbia
Deployment of communications satellite. Miscellaneous science experiments.
United States Francis R. Scobee (2)
United States Michael J. Smith
United States Judith A. Resnik (2)
United States Ellison S. Onizuka (2)
United States Ronald E. McNair (2)
United States Gregory B. Jarvis
United States S. Christa McAuliffe
28 January 1986
United States STS-51-L, Challenger
Disintegrated 73 seconds after launch with loss of all crew.
117 Soviet Union Leonid Kizim (3)
Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov (2)
13 March 1986
Soviet Union Soyuz T-15
Mir
Salyut 7
Mir
16 July 1986
Soviet Union Soyuz T-15
First expedition to Mir. Last expedition to Salyut 7.
118 Soviet Union Alexander Laveykin 7 February 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-2
Mir 30 July 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-2
Mir crew rotation and maintenance.
Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko (3) 29 December 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-3
119 Soviet Union Aleksandr Viktorenko (1)
Syria Mohammed Faris
22 July 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-3
Mir 30 July 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-2
Mir crew rotation. First Syrian in space (Faris).
Soviet Union Aleksandr Aleksandrov (2) 29 December 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-3
120 Soviet Union Anatoli Levchenko 21 December 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-4
Mir 29 December 1987
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-3
Mir crew rotation. Biological experiments and astronomical observations.
Soviet Union Vladimir Titov (2)
Soviet Union Musa Manarov (1)
21 December 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-6
121 Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev (1)
Soviet Union Victor Savinykh (3)
Bulgaria Aleksandr Aleksandrov
7 June 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-5
Mir 17 June 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-4
122 Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov (3)
Afghanistan Abdul Ahad Mohmand
29 August 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-6
Mir 7 September 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-5
Mir crew rotation. First Afghan in space (Mohmand).
Soviet Union Valeri Polyakov (1) 27 April 1989
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-7
123 United States Frederick H. Hauck (3)
United States Richard O. Covey (2)
United States John M. Lounge (2)
United States George D. Nelson (3)
United States David C. Hilmers (2)
28 September 1988
United States STS-26, Discovery
3 October 1988
United States STS-26, Discovery
First "Return to Flight" Space Shuttle mission after Challenger Disaster. Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-3 (TDRS-3).
124 Soviet Union Aleksandr Volkov (2)
Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev (1)
26 November 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-7
Mir 27 April 1989
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-7
Mir crew rotation. Technology experiments. First European EVA (Chrétien).
France Jean-Loup Chrétien (2) 21 December 1988
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-6
125 United States Robert L. Gibson (3)
United States Guy S. Gardner (1)
United States Richard M. Mullane (2)
United States Jerry L. Ross (2)
United States William M. Shepherd (1)
2 December 1988
United States STS-27, Atlantis
6 December 1988
United States STS-27, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly Lacrosse 1 radar reconnaissance satellite.
126 United States Michael L. Coats (2)
United States John E. Blaha (1)
United States James P. Bagian (1)
United States James F. Buchli (3)
United States Robert C. Springer (1)
13 March 1989
United States STS-29, Discovery
18 March 1989
United States STS-29, Discovery
Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-4 (TDRS-4). Miscellaneous science experiments.
127 United States David M. Walker (2)
United States Ronald J. Grabe (2)
United States Norman E. Thagard (3)
United States Mary L. Cleave (2)
United States Mark C. Lee (1)
4 May 1989
United States STS-30, Atlantis
8 May 1989
United States STS-30, Atlantis
Magellan probe deployed.
128 United States Brewster H. Shaw (3)
United States Richard N. Richards (1)
United States James C. Adamson (1)
United States David C. Leestma (2)
United States Mark N. Brown (1)
8 August 1989
United States STS-28, Columbia
13 August 1989
United States STS-28, Columbia
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly military communications and reconnaissance satellites.
129 Soviet Union Alexander Viktorenko (2)
Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov (3)
5 September 1989
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-8
Mir 19 February 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-8
Mir equipment installation.
130 United States Donald E. Williams (2)
United States Michael J. McCulley
United States Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (2)
United States Shannon W. Lucid (2)
United States Ellen S. Baker (1)
18 October 1989
United States STS-34, Atlantis
23 October 1989
United States STS-34, Atlantis
Galileo probe deployed.
131 United States Frederick D. Gregory (2)
United States John E. Blaha (2)
United States F. Story Musgrave (3)
United States Manley L. Carter
United States Kathryn C. Thornton (1)
22 November 1989
United States STS-33, Discovery
27 November 1989
United States STS-33, Discovery
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly reconnaissance satellite. First African-American Shuttle Commander.
132 United States Daniel C. Brandenstein (3)
United States James D. Wetherbee (1)
United States Bonnie J. Dunbar (2)
United States G. David Low (1)
United States Marsha S. Ivins (1)
9 January 1990
United States STS-32, Columbia
20 January 1990
United States STS-32, Columbia
Deployment of defense communications satellite. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) retrieval.
133 Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev (2)
Soviet Union Alexander Balandin
11 February 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-9
Mir 17 July 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-9
134 United States John O. Creighton (2)
United States John H. Casper (1)
United States Richard M. Mullane (3)
United States David C. Hilmers (3)
United States Pierre J. Thuot (1)
28 February 1990
United States STS-36, Atlantis
4 March 1990
United States STS-36, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedlyreconnaissance satellite.
135 United States Loren J. Shriver (2)
United States Charles F. Bolden (2)
United States Steven A. Hawley (3)
United States Bruce McCandless II (2)
United States Kathryn D. Sullivan (2)
24 April 1990
United States STS-31, Discovery
29 April 1990
United States STS-31, Discovery
Hubble Space Telescope deployed.
136 Soviet Union Gennadi Strekalov (4)
Soviet Union Gennadi Manakov (1)
3 August 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-10
Mir 10 December 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-10
137 United States Richard N. Richards (2)
United States Robert D. Cabana (1)
United States William M. Shepherd (2)
United States Bruce E. Melnick (1)
United States Thomas D. Akers (1)
6 October 1990
United States STS-41, Discovery
10 October 1990
United States STS-41, Discovery
Ulysses probe deployed. Miscellaneous science experiments.
138 United States Richard O. Covey (3)
United States Frank L. Culbertson (1)
United States Robert C. Springer (2)
United States Carl J. Meade (1)
United States Charles D. Gemar (1)
15 November 1990
United States STS-38, Atlantis
20 November 1990
United States STS-38, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly reconnaissance satellite.
139 United States Vance D. Brand (4)
United States Guy S. Gardner (1)
United States Jeffrey A. Hoffman (2)
United States John M. Lounge (3)
United States Robert A. Parker (2)
United States Samuel T. Durrance (1)
United States Ronald A. Parise (1)
2 December 1990
United States STS-35, Columbia
10 December 1990
United States STS-35, Columbia
Ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy (ASTRO-1 observatory).
140 Soviet Union Viktor Afanasyev (1)
Soviet Union Musa Manarov (2)
2 December 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-11
Mir 26 May 1991
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-11
Mir crew rotation. First Japanese in space (Akiyama).
Japan Toyohiro Akiyama 10 December 1990
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-10

See also[edit]

References[edit]