List of hundreds of England and Wales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Most of the counties of England were divided into hundreds from the late Saxon period and these were, with a few exceptions, effectively abandoned as administrative divisions in the 19th century. in some areas, equivalent districts were known as "wapentakes".[1]

In Wales a similar Celtic system of division called cantrefi (a hundred farmsteads) had existed for centuries and was of particular importance in the administration of the Welsh law.


Hundreds of Bedfordshire, 1830


From The National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland (1868)


Until at least the time of the Domesday Survey in 1086 there were 18 hundreds in Buckinghamshire.[4] It has been suggested however that neighbouring hundreds had already become more closely associated in the 11th century so that by the end of the 14th century the original or ancient hundreds had been consolidated into 8 larger hundreds.[5]

Chiltern Hundreds[edit]


Cambridgeshire was divided into 17 hundreds, plus the borough of Cambridge. Each hundred had a separate council that met each month to rule on local judicial and taxation matters. In 1929 the hundreds contained the following parishes.[6][7]

Hundred Area (acres) Parishes
Armingford 29287 Abington Pigotts, Bassingbourn, Croydon, East Hatley, Guilden Morden, Litlington, Melbourn, Meldreth, Royston (part), Shingay, Steeple Morden, Tadlow, Wendy, Whaddon
Chesterton 15847 Chesterton, Childerley, Cottenham, Dry Drayton, Histon
Cheveley 12905 Ashley, Cheveley, Kirtling, Newmarket All Saints, Wood Ditton
Chilford 22364 Babraham, Bartlow, Castle Camps, Great Abington, Hildersham, Horseheath, Linton, Little Abington, Pampisford, Shudy Camps, West Wickham
Ely 42667 Downham, Littleport
Flendish 11906 Cherry Hinton, Fen Ditton, Fulbourn, Horningsea, Teversham
Longstow 25500 Bourn, Caldecote, Caxton, Croxton, Eltisley, Gamlingay, Great Eversden, Hardwick, Hatley St. George, Kingston, Little Eversden, Little Gransden, Longstowe, Toft
North Witchford 86275 Chatteris, Doddington, March, Whittlesey
Northstow 19651 Girton, Impington, Landbeach, Lolworth, Longstanton, Madingley, Milton, Oakington, Rampton, Waterbeach
Papworth 26923 Boxworth, Conington, Elsworth, Fen Drayton, Graveley, Knapwell, Over, Papworth St Agnes, Papworth Everard, Swavesey, Willingham
Radfield 23869 Balsham, Brinkley, Burrough Green, Carlton-cum-Willingham, Dullingham, Stetchworth, West Wratting, Westley Waterless, Weston Colville
South Witchford 37462 Coveney, Grunty Fen, Haddenham, Manea, Mepal, Sutton, Stretham and Thetford,[8] Welches Dam, Wentworth, Wilburton, Witcham, Witchford
Staine 18917 Bottisham, Great Wilbraham, Little Wilbraham, Swaffham Bulbeck, Swaffham Prior, Stow-cum-Quy
Staploe 40775 Burwell, Chippenham, Fordham, Isleham, Kennett, Landwade, Snailwell, Soham, Wicken
Thriplow 16160 Fowlmere, Foxton, Great Shelford, Harston, Hauxton, Little Shelford, Newton, Stapleford, Thriplow, Trumpington
Wetherley 16160 Arrington, Barrington, Barton, Comberton, Coton, Grantchester, Harlton, Haslingfield, Orwell, Shepreth, Wimpole
Whittlesford 11078 Duxford, Hinxton, Ickleton, Sawston, Whittlesford
Wisbech 61157 Elm, Leverington, Newton, Outwell, Parson Drove, Thorney, Tydd St. Giles, Upwell, Wisbech, Wisbech St. Mary


Hundreds of Cheshire in Domesday Book
The later hundreds of Cheshire
Main article: Hundreds of Cheshire

From Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-722761-9.

Domesday Hundreds[edit]

With some variations in the names, the Domesday hundreds were:

Later Hundreds[edit]

Atiscross and Exestan were lost to Wales, and a merging and amalgamation of the rest with a renaming led to the following hundreds:


Main article: Hundreds of Cornwall

In Cornwall, the name calqued cantrev

From GENUKI [4]

For some purposes, the Isles of Scilly were counted as a tenth hundred.


Map of Cumberland showing wards, 1824

Cumberland was divided into wards, analogous to hundreds. From the National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland [5]


The civil divisions of Derbyshire were anciently called wapentakes. In the Domesday Survey of 1086 are mentioned the wapentakes of Scarvedale, Hamestan, Morlestan, Walecross, and Apultre, and a district called Peche-fers.[9] Divided into hundreds by 1273. From GENUKI [6] (based on the 1868 Gazette):

  • High Peak—Hamestan wapentake and perhaps Peche-fers district in 1086; Peck wapentake by 1273.
  • Wirksworth—Called a wapentake as late as 1817.
  • Scarsdale
  • Morleston and Litchurch—Called in the Domesday Survey of 1086, Morlestan or Morleystone wapentake and Littlechurch wapentake,[10] and in the Hundred-Roll of 1273, Littlechirch; by 1300 combined as the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch.[11]
  • Appletree
  • Repton and Gresley—In 1274 formed the separate wapentakes of Repindon and Greselegh (owned by the King and the heirs of the Earl of Chester respectively); in 1086 the large Walecross wapentake.


Map of Devonshire and Exeter; by Benjamin Donn (1765)

In 1850 there were thirty-two hundreds in Devon according to White's History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Devonshire[12]


Dorset Hundreds in 1834

County Durham[edit]

County Durham was divided into wards, analogous to hundreds. From an 1840 map of County Durham [7].


Main article: Hundreds of Essex

According to [8] the 1841 census also recorded Harwich hundred, which the Victoria County History places within Tendring.


Gloucestershire Hundreds in 1832

The thirty-nine hundreds mentioned in the Domesday Survey and the thirty-one hundreds of the Hundred Rolls of 1274 differ very widely in name and extent both from each other and from the twenty-eight hundreds of the present day. From the National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland [9]

The Duchy of Lancaster (Gloucestershire) liberty was sometimes counted as a hundred.


Hampshire Hundreds in 1832


The hundreds mentioned in the Domesday Survey and the hundreds of the Hundred Rolls of 1274 differ very widely in name and extent both from each other and from the ten hundreds of the present day. Not included in the hundreds of Herefordshire at the time of Domesday, the sparsely populated Welch area of Archenfield included Ashe Ingen, Baysham and Kings Caple.[16]

From Domesday (1086):

From The National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland (1868) [10]


Hertfordshire Hundreds in 1832

(Danais & Tring added as per History of Hertfordshire)[28]



Kent Hundreds in 1832

From Kent Genealogy [12]. Kent was traditionally divided into East and West Kent, and into lathes and hundreds.

East Kent[edit]

Lathes: St. Augustine, Scraye, Shepway

plus Romney Marsh Liberty

West Kent[edit]

Lathe of Sutton at Hone

Lathe of Aylesford

plus the Lowey of Tonbridge

Lathe of Scraye (part)


Lancashire Hundreds in 1834


Leicestershire was originally divided into four wapentakes, but these were usually later described as hundreds. From the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica[29] after 1346 the six hundreds were:

In the Domesday Book, West Goscote and East Goscote made up just Goscote and Sparkenhoe did not yet exist. The division which brought East and West Goscote and Sparkenhoe into existence was made in 1346.


Lincolnshire was divided into three Parts, each of which was divided into wapentakes, analogous to hundreds.

In 1523, the wapentakes were named:[30]

Wraggoe wapentake
Gartree wapentake
Yarborough wapentake    
Walshcroft wapentake
        and Bradley wapentake
        and Haverstoe wapentake
        and Grimsby
Louthesk wapentake
        and Hill wapentake
        and Calcewath wapentake
        and Ludborough wapentake
Candleshoe wapentake
        and Horncastle soke
        and Bolingbroke soke
Manley wapentake
        and Aslacoe wapentake
        and Lawress wapentake 
        and Corringham wapentake
        and Well wapentake

From map on Lincolnshire County Council website [13]

North Riding of Lindsey
South Riding of Lindsey
West Riding of Lindsey



Main article: Hundreds of Norfolk



In 1086, there were 29 hundreds in the county. By the time of the 'Nomina Villarum' a survey carried out in the first half of the 12th Century, the Stoke Hundred had been absorbed into the Corby Hundred.[36] From the Northamptonshire Family History Society[37] the hundreds in the 1800s are:

The liberty and Soke of Peterborough was sometimes called Nassaburgh hundred.


Following the Harrying of the North and subsequent incursions from Scotland, the high sheriff of Northumberland was granted extraordinary powers. The county was subdivided into baronies, which were arranged in six wards and subdivided into constabularies.[39] The wards were analogous to hundreds. From the National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland (1868) [14]


Nottinghamshire Wapentakes in 1832

Nottinghamshire was divided into wapentakes, analogous to hundreds. From the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire [15]




Map of Rutland; by George Carrington Gray (1824)


Map of Shropshire; by Wenceslaus Hollar (17th century). (A more accurate map of the hundreds.)

Domesday Book[edit]

From Open Domesday[59]


The hundreds of Shropshire were greatly reformed during the 12th century.

From GENUKI[60]

† — including the Shropshire exclave of Halesowen

‡ The liberties of the borough of Shrewsbury and priory/borough of Wenlock were extensive and are usually considered as hundreds (Wenlock's sometimes described as the "franchise of Wenlock").[62]


From the National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland


Map of Staffordshire; by Wenceslaus Hollar (17th century)

From GENUKI[63]


Main article: Hundreds of Suffolk



Map of Surrey; by Wenceslaus Hollar (17th century)

There are thirteen hundreds and one half hundred:


Sussex Hundreds in 1834

Sussex was divided into rapes, and then hundreds.

Arundel Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Arundel

The Arundel Rape covered nearly all of what is now West Sussex until about 1250, when it was split into two rapes the Arundel Rape and the Chichester Rape.[65] In 1834 it contained five hundreds sub-divided into fifty six parishes.[66]

Bramber Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Bramber

The Bramber Rape lies between the Rape of Arundel in the west and Lewes in the east. In 1834 it contained 40 parishes[67] in the following hundreds:

as well as 3 half hundreds

  • East Easwrith
  • Fishersgate
  • Wyndham

Chichester Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Chichester

The combined Chichester and Arundel Rape covered nearly all of what is now West Sussex until about 1250, when it was split into two rapes the Arundel Rape and the Chichester Rape.[65] In 1834 it contained seven hundreds and seventy-four parishes.[68]

Hastings Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Hastings

Medieval sources talk of a group of people who were separate to that of the South Saxons they were known as the Haestingas. The area of Sussex they occupied became the Rape of Hastings.[69] The Rape of Hastings was on the easternmost part of Sussex, with the county of Kent to its east and the Rape of Pevensey to its west. In 1833 it had 13 hundreds giving a total of about 154,060 acres.[70]

Lewes Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Lewes

The Rape of Lewes is bounded by the Rape of Bramber on its west and the Rape of Pevensey on its east. Although it had the same amount of hundreds in 1833 as in the Domesday survey, there had been some cases of manors and parishes been taken from one and added to another hundred, and in other cases the hundreds had been divided and lost.[71]

Pevensey Rape[edit]

Main article: Rape of Pevensey

The Pevensey Rape lies between the Rapes of Lewes and Hastings. In 1833 it contained 19 hundreds and 52 parishes[72]


Warwickshire in 1832

Warwickshire was divided into four hundreds, with each hundred consisting of a number of divisions.

  • Barlinchway (also Barlichway)
    • Alcester
    • Henley
    • Snitterfield
    • Stratford
  • Hemlingford, formerly named Coleshill
    • Atherstone
    • Birmingham
    • Solihull
    • Tamworth
  • Kington (also Kineton)
    • Brailes
    • Burton Dassett
    • Kington
    • Warwick
  • Knightlow
    • Kenilworth
    • Kirby
    • Rugby
    • Southam


Westmorland was divided into four wards, analogous to hundreds. Pairs of wards made up the two Baronies. From Magna Britannica et Hibernia (1736) [16]

Barony of Kendal[edit]

The Barony of Kendal had two wards:

Barony of Westmorland[edit]

The Barony of Westmorland had two wards:


Hundreds in 1835 were:


Worcestershire in 1832

The ancient hundreds in 1086 at the time of the Domesday survey were:[73] Ash, Came, Celfledetorn, Clent, Cresslow, Cutestornes, Doddingtree, Dudstone, Fernecumbe, Fishborough, Greston, Ossulstone, Oswaldslow, Pershore, Plegelgete, Seisdon, Tewkesbury, Tibblestone, Wolfhay, Some of the parishes within these hundreds, such as Feckenham in Ash Hundred, Gloucester in Dudstone Hundred, may have partially been in other counties or were transferred between counties in the intervening years.

Over the centuries, some of the hundreds were amalgamated and appear in many useful statistical records. The hundreds that continued their courts until disuse include:


Yorkshire in 1832

Yorkshire has three Ridings,[78] East, North and West. Each of these was divided into wapentakes, analogous to hundreds.

The Ainsty wapentake, first associated with the West Riding, became associated in the fifteenth century with the City of York, outside the Riding system.

The hundreds of Amourdness and Lonsdale in Lancashire plus part of Westmorland were considered as part of Yorkshire in the Domesday Book.

East Riding of Yorkshire[edit]

From GENUKI [17]

The other division of the riding was Hullshire.

North Riding of Yorkshire[edit]

  • Allerton
  • Birdforth
  • Bulmer
  • Gilling East
  • Gilling West
  • Hallikeld
  • Hang East
  • Hang West
  • Langbaurgh (West and East divisions)
  • Pickering Lythe – Formed from the Domesday wapentake of Dic, and additionally by 1284–85 the parish of Sinnington and by (circa 15th-16th century) the parish of Kirkby Misperton, both from the Domesday wapentake of Maneshou.[79]
  • Ryedale – First mentioned by name in 1165–66, probably when its court was relocated there. Formed from the Domesday wapentake of Maneshou minus Sinnington and Kirkby Misperton parishes, plus the additional parish of Lastingham from the Domesday wapentake of Dic.[79] In the 19th century, Ryedale contained the parishes of Ampleforth; Appleton-Le-Street; Barton-Le-Street; Great Edston; Gilling; Helmsley; Hovingham; Kirkby Moorside; Kirkdale; Lastingham; New Malton, including the parishes of St. Leonard and St. Michael; Old Malton; Normanby; Nunnington; Oswaldkirk; Salton; Scawton; Slingsby; Stonegrave.[79]
  • Whitby Strand

West Riding of Yorkshire[edit]

From GENUKI [18]

The Cantrefi of Wales[edit]

Cantrefi of Medieval Wales
Main article: Cantref

Kingdom of Gwynedd[edit]

Main article: Kingdom of Gwynedd


The modern county of Anglesey was part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. It is divided into three cantrefi or hundreds,[80] and these into six cymydau, or commotes; the three districts are Cemais, Aberffraw cantref, and Rhosyr cantref; the six commotes are Llyfon, Maltraeth, Menai, Talybolion, Twrcelyn, and Tyndarthwy.[81]


Main article: Gwynedd


Main article: Caernarfonshire

Caernarvonshire was created under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 following Edward I of England's conquest of the Principality of Wales and included the cantrefi of: Llŷn, Arfon, Arllechwedd and the commote of Eifionydd (the northern portion of Dunoding).[82]

The county was divided into ten hundreds based on the existing Welsh commotes: Cymydmaen (anglicised as Commitmaen), Creuddyn, Dinllaen, Eifionydd (Evionydd), Cafflogion (Gaflogion), Llechwedd Isaf (...Isav), Llechwedd Uchaf (...Uchav), Nant Conwy (Nant-Conway), Is Gwyrfai (Isgorvai) and Uwch Gwyrfai (Uchgorvai).[83][84][85] Creuddyn, a commote of Cantref Rhos in the Kingdom of Gwynedd, later came into the boundary of Caernarvonshire.[86]


When Edward I of England conquered Wales in 1282, he divided it into counties. Cardiganshire was an Anglicisation of the name for the historic kingdom of Ceredigion. It was one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales. The hundreds of Cardiganshire were Genau'r-Glyn, Ilar, Moyddyn, Penarth and Troedyraur.[87][88]


From GENUKI [19]


From Vision of Britain [20]


From Vision of Britain [21].


From GENUKI [22]


From the National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland [23]


From Genuki [24]. All split into Upper and Lower divisions.


From GENUKI [25]


Main articles: Powys and Kingdom of Powys


From GENUKI [26]


Main article: Montgomeryshire


Main article: Radnorshire

From GENUKI [27].


  1. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1906). English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corporations Act: the parish and the county. London: Longmans Green and Company. pp. 284–285. 
  2. ^ British History Online: The Hundred of Faringdon
  3. ^ Open Domesday: Ripplesmere hd.
  4. ^ Open Domesday Online: Buckinghamshire
  5. ^ Genuki - History of Buckinghaham Hundreds Retrieved, May 21 2009
  6. ^ "Cambridgeshire Hundreds". rootsweb. 
  7. ^ Kelly (1929). Directory of Cambridgeshire, Norfolk & Suffolk. 
  8. ^ "'South Witchford Hundred: Stretham and Thetford', A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 4: City of Ely; Ely, N. and S. Witchford and Wisbech Hundreds (2002), pp. 151-159.". British History Online. 
  9. ^ Derbyshire 5, page xi.
  10. ^ Domesday Map Online: Litchurch
  11. ^ Craven, Maxwell: Derby Street by Street (Breedon Books, Derby, 2005) ISBN 1-85983-426-4
  12. ^ "The Hundreds of Devon". GENUKI. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  13. ^ "Alvredesberge Hundred was broken up after 1086 and contributed Cranborne, Boveridge, Edmondsham and Pentridge to the later Cranborne Hundred; Brockington to Knowlton Hundred and Wimborne St Giles (see Book of Fees, p. 92; and 10,3 Wimborne note) to the later Wimborne Hundred", quoted from: [1]
  14. ^ British History Online: Tewkesbury hundred (Upper division)
  15. ^
  16. ^ [2] History: the Hundreds.
  17. ^ Open Domesday Online: Castlery
  18. ^ Open Domesday Online: Cutestornes Hundred
  19. ^ Open Domesday Online: Dinedor Hundred
  20. ^ Open Domesday Online: Ewias Hundred
  21. ^ Open Domesday Online: Greytree Hundred
  22. ^ Open Domesday Online: Hezetre Hundred
  23. ^ Open Domesday Online: Plegelgete Hundred
  24. ^ Open Domesday Online: Radlow Hundred
  25. ^ Open Domesday Online: Stradel Hundred
  26. ^ Open Domesday Online: Tornelaus Hundred
  27. ^ Vision of Britain: Boundary Map of Webtree Hundred
  28. ^ Open Domesday Map: Hertfordshire
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ The National Archives of the United Kingdom: Auditor's book relating to the collection and auditing of the subsidy granted to Henry VIII in 1523.
  31. ^ Open Domesday Map: Elloe Wapentake
  32. ^ Open Domesday: Gartree (Lincolnshire wapentake)
  33. ^
  34. ^ "The hundred of Isleworth", A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 3, (1962), Date accessed: 6 January 2008.
  35. ^ William White (1845). History, gazetteer, and directory of Norfolk. 
  36. ^
  37. ^ About the County
  38. ^ Domesday: Guilsborough hundred
  39. ^ "The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge", Vol. 15-16, page 320.
  40. ^ Vision of Britain: Castle Ward Map
  41. ^ A list of the wards, divisions, parishes, and constableries, in the County of Northumberland: Glendale Ward
  42. ^ Vision of Britain website
  43. ^ Open Domesday: Bampton hundred
  44. ^ British History Online: Bampton hundred
  45. ^ Open Domesday: Binfield hundred
  46. ^ Open Domesday: Bloxham hundred
  47. ^ Open Domesday: Benson hundred
  48. ^ Open Domesday: Kirtlington hundred
  49. ^ Open Domesday: Lewknor hundred
  50. ^ Open Domesday: Pyrton hundred
  51. ^ British History Online: Ploughley hundred
  52. ^ British History Online: Wootten Hundred
  53. ^ British History Online: Wootten hundred
  54. ^ Open Domesday: Shipton hundred
  55. ^ Open Domesday: Wootten hundred
  56. ^ British History Online: Wootten hundred (Southern part)
  57. ^ BHO: Oxford City Introduction
  58. ^ Topographical Dictionary: Oxford
  59. ^ Open Domesday Shropshire
  60. ^ GENUKI Shropshire hundreds
  61. ^ British History Online: Bradford Hundred
  62. ^ British History Online The Liberty and Borough of Wenlock
  63. ^
  64. ^ William White (1844). History, gazetteer, and directory of Suffolk. p. 15. 
  65. ^ a b "'The rape of Chichester: Introduction', A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 4 (1953) pp. 1 - 2.". Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  66. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume II pp.105-184
  67. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume II pp.185-274
  68. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume II pp.1-104
  69. ^ Martin Welch. Early Anglo Saxon Sussex in Peter Brandon's. The South Saxons. pp. 33-34
  70. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume II pp.425-592
  71. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume I pp.103-268.
  72. ^ Horsfield. History of Sussex. Volume I pp.269-424
  73. ^ Open Domesday Map: Worcestershire
  74. ^ Open Domesday Map: Halfshire hundred
  75. ^ British History: Halfshire hundred
  76. ^ Open Domesday Map: Clent Hundred
  77. ^ Open Domesday Map: Cresslow Hundred
  78. ^ Room, Adrian (1986). A Dictionary of True Etymologies. London: Routledge. pp. 148–149. ISBN 0-415-03060-9.  - Riding is taken from the Old Norse thrithjung meaning thirdings one third of an equally important area.
  79. ^ a b c British History Online: The wapentake of Ryedale
  80. ^ P. B. Williams (1839). The Gwyneddion for 1832 (Essay on the Island of Anglesey by the late Rev P. B. Williams). H. Hughes. p. 1. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  81. ^ "The National Gazetteer (Anglesey)". 1868. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  82. ^ Waters, W. H., The Making of Caernarvonshire, Caernarvonshire Historical Society Transactions, 1942-43
  83. ^ Samuel Lewis (editor) (1849). "Carnarvonshire". A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. British History Online. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  84. ^ John Bartholomew (1887). "Carnarvonshire". Gazeteer of the British Isles. Vision of Britain. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  85. ^ National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland, Caernarvonshire
  86. ^ John Britton; et al. (1812). The Beauties of England and Wales Volume 17. Vernor and Hood. p. 503. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  87. ^ Margaret Escott (2009). "Cardiganshire; The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1820-1832, ed. D.R. Fisher". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  88. ^ Society for the Difussion of Useful Knowledge (1836). The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Difussion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight. p. 287. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h National Gazetteer of Britain and Ireland
  90. ^ Powys-land Club (1868). Collections, historical & archaeological relating to Montgomeryshire. J Russell Smith. p. 209. Retrieved 26 April 2012.