List of hybrid vehicles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid was the first gasoline-electric hybrid automobile.

This is a list of hybrid vehicles, including both regular hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in chronological order of first production:


Overview by decade[edit]

Year Company Name Type Comments
1899 Jacob Lohner & Co. Automobile
1900 Pieper of Belgium Automobile
1901 Jacob Lohner & Co. Lohner Porsche Automobile
1905 Fischer Motor Vehicle Co. Petrol-electric Omnibus Bus
1906 Auto-Mixte Automobile Pieper patent
1907 AL (French car) Automobile
1911 Tilling-Stevens TTA1 petrol-electric (in service on Thomas Tilling routes) Bus Petrol-electric transmission, but no storage battery and no propulsion except with the petrol engine running.
1915 Owen Magnetic Touring Car Automobile The 'Car of a Thousand Speeds'
1915 Woods Motor Vehicle Dual Power Model 44 Automobile
1951 Compagnie Normande d'Etudes Arbel Automobile A petrol-electric hybrid powered on the Lohner-Porsche principle. Very few made and most were prototypes. A nuclear power plant was proposed for the 1958 version.
1969 Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz OE 302 Bus
1969 General Motors General Motors XP-883 Automobile
1970 Lviv Bus Factory LAZ 360EM Bus First and last low floor soviet city bus with hybrid transmission, this bus was built as a concept bus, and was built in one exemplar.
1972 Towns Microdot Automobile
1979 Fiat Fiat 131 Ibrida[1] Automobile Fiat hybrid prototype, 903 cc engine mated to a 24 kW (33 PS; 32 hp) DC
1980 Daihatsu Motor Co. Daihatsu Charmant Hybrid Automobile This four-door, four-seater car was part of a series of EV prototypes constructed by Daihatsu in the seventies and eighties. It used a 550 cc two-cylinder engine which charged and was augmented by two DC electric motors during acceleration.[2]
1986 Twike Automobile The Twike HEHV designed by a group of Swiss students debuted at the 1986 World expo in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It remains in limited production and available in the United States (source: Neiman Marcus Christmas Book 2007, page 89).
1986 Honda Gaselle Automobile The Goldwing engine-based Gaselle hybrid gas/electric prototype built by Sarabjit Gandhi drove 8050 km in 16 days as part of the World Energy Autocross.
1988 Alfa Romeo 33 Ibrida [3][4] Automobile
1991 Hino Hino Blue Ribbon HIMR Bus
1992 Volvo Cars Volvo ECC Automobile Gas turbine-electric
1993 Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Star MBECS, first generation Bus
1993 Hino Model Unknown, medium duty, for sale in Japan only. First generation Truck
1995 Fiat Vanzic [5] Automobile Electric motor with the assistance of a thermal energy generator
1995 Nissan Nissan Diesel UA ERIP Bus
1996 Isuzu Isuzu Cubic CHASSE Bus
1996 Gillig Corporation Gillig Phantom Hybrid Bus
1997 Toyota Toyota Coaster Hybrid EV Bus first Japanese series hybrid bus
1997 Toyota Toyota Prius (Japanese market only) Automobile
1998 New Flyer Industries New Flyer H40LF (diesel-electric hybrid bus), 'H' later changed to 'DE' Bus
1999 Honda Honda Insight Automobile
1999 Orion International Orion VI Hybrid Bus
2000 Nissan Tino Hybrid Automobile 1.769L QG18DE 74kW petrol engine and EM29 17kW electric motor
2000 Fiat Multipla Hybrid Power [6] Automobile Thermal engine and electric motor
2000 Toyota Toyota Prius (introduced to US market) Automobile 1NZ-FXE 4cyl engine, 2001-2003 model
2001 Toyota Toyota Crown Automobile mild hybrid, Japan only
2001 Toyota Toyota Estima (Japan only) Automobile
2002 Honda Honda Civic Hybrid Automobile mild hybrid, 2003 model
2002? Mazda Mazda Demio e-4WD (Japanese market only, used for traction assistance) Automobile
2002 Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Star Nonstep HEV bus, second generation Bus
2002 Nova Bus Nova Bus RTS HEV bus (4 units built) Bus
2002 Motor Coach Industries MCI D4000 HEV (4 units built) Bus
2002 Wrightbus Wright Electrocity Bus
2002 New Flyer Industries New Flyer DE60LF Bus
2003 Hino Hino Ranger Hybrid, light-duty, for sale in Japan only. Fourth generation Truck
2003 Orion International Orion VII hybrid bus[7] Bus
2003 TransBus International TransBus Enviro200H Bus
2003 Suzuki Suzuki Twin Automobile
2003 Toyota Toyota Alphard hybrid (Japan only) Automobile
2003 Toyota Toyota Prius Automobile (5-seat midsize, 2004-2009 model, second generation Hybrid Synergy Drive 1,000,000 sold (as of May 15, 2008))
2003 Toyota Dyna Diesel Hybrid/Toyoace hybrid (commercial truck, Japan only, diesel hybrid) Automobile
2004 Chevrolet Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra Hybrid Automobile mild hybrid, w/no electrical motor for propulsion, electricity only used to power accessories
2004 Ford Ford Escape Hybrid (2005 model) SUV
2004 Honda Honda Accord Hybrid Automobile mild hybrid, 2005–2007 model, discontinued due to slow sales
2004 Toyota Hino Dutro/Toyota Dyna Hybrid, light-duty, for sale in Japan only. Fourth generation Truck
2004 New Flyer Industries New Flyer GE40LF (gasoline-electric hybrid bus) Bus
2004 Hino Hino S'elega R Hybrid Bus
2004 Hino Hino Blue Ribbon City Hybrid Bus
2004 Gillig Corporation Gillig Low Floor Hybrid Bus
2005 Honda Honda Civic Hybrid Automobile 2006 model, second generation
2005 Lexus Lexus RX 400h Automobile 2006 model, 3MZ-FE V6 engine
2005 Mercury automobile Mercury Mariner hybrid Automobile
2005 Toyota Toyota Highlander/Klueger Hybrid Automobile 2006-2007 model, 3MZ-FE V6 engine
2006 IC Corporation IC Corporation Hybrid School Bus Bus
2006 Nova Bus Nova Bus LFS HEV Bus
2006 Wrightbus Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV Bus
2006 New Flyer Industries New Flyer DE40LFR Bus
2006 Lexus Lexus GS 450h Automobile 2007 model, 2GR-FSE engine
2006 Saturn Corporation Saturn Vue Green Line Automobile BAS, mild hybrid, 2007 model
2006 Toyota Toyota Camry Hybrid Automobile 2007 model, 2AZ-FXE engine
2006 Toyota Toyota Estima hybrid (redesign, minivan, Japan only) Automobile It is claimed by Toyota to be the world's first hybrid minibus.
2006 Mitsubishi Fuso Truck & Bus Corporation Canter Eco Hybrid Truck
2006 International FTTS Truck
2007 Lexus Lexus LS600hL Automobile 2008 model, first V8 full hybrid, 2UR-FSE engine
2007 Mazda Mazda Tribute (2008 model) Automobile
2007 New Flyer Industries New Flyer DE60LFR Bus
2007 Nissan Nissan Altima (licensed Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive) Automobile
2007 Saturn Corporation Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid Automobile BAS, mild hybrid, 2008–2010 model
2007 Toyota Toyota Highlander/Kluger Hybrid Automobile 2008 vehicle redesign, mostly same 3MZ-FE V6 engine
2007 Hino Hybrid 6500 Medium, light-duty, available in Australia.[8] Truck
2007 E-One E-ONE[9] Hybrid Command Center Truck
2007 Eaton Corporation Medium-duty hybrid trucks fully commercialized in conjunction with FedEx Express and other partners[10] Truck
2007 Chevrolet Chevrolet Tahoe SUV
2007 Ford Ford Escape Hybrid SUV 2WD 36 mpg (city)/31 mpg (highway)
4WD 32 mpg (city)/29 mpg (highway)
2007 Lexus Lexus RX 400h SUV (AWD) 27 mpg (city)/25 mpg (highway)
2007 Mazda Mazda Tribute Hybrid SUV Twin of Ford Escape Hybrid
2007 Saturn Corporation Saturn "Green Line" Vue Hybrid SUV (2WD) 27 mpg (city)/32 mpg (highway)
2007 Mercury Mariner Hybrid SUV (4WD) 32 mpg (city)/29 mpg (highway)
2007 Toyota Toyota Highlander Hybrid SUV 2WD 33 mpg (city)/28 mpg (highway)
4WD 31 mpg (city)/27 mpg (highway)
2007 Honda Honda Accord Hybrid Car 25 mpg (city)/34 mpg (highway)
2007 Honda Honda Civic Hybrid Car 49 mpg (city)/51 mpg (highway)
2007 Lexus Lexus GS 450h Car 25 mpg (city)/28 mpg (highway)
2007 Toyota Toyota Camry Hybrid Car 40 mpg (city)/38 mpg (highway)
2007 Toyota Toyota Prius Car 48 mpg (city)/54 mpg (highway)
2007 Saturn Corporation Saturn "Green Line" Aura Hybrid Car 28 mpg (city)/35 mpg (highway)
2007 Nissan Motor Company Nissan Altima HEV Car 42 mpg (city)/36 mpg (highway)
2007 Chevrolet Chevy Silverado Classic 15 Hybrid Truck 2WD 18 mpg (city)/21 mpg (highway)
4WD 17 mpg (city)/19 mpg (highway)
2007 GMC (automobile) GMC Sierra Classic 15 Hybrid Truck 2WD 18 mpg (city)/21 mpg (highway)
4WD 17 mpg (city)/19 mpg (highway)
2008 Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis Enviro200H Bus
2008 Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis Enviro400H Bus
2008 Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis Enviro500H Bus
2008 Beiqi Foton/Eaton Corporation Beiqi Foton with Eaton Corp. diesel-electric hybrid powertrains [11] Bus
2008 Hino Hino S'elega Hybrid (second generation) Bus
2008 Optare Optare Tempo Bus
2008 Volvo Volvo B5L Hybrid Bus
2008 Wrightbus Wright Gemini 2 HEV Bus
2008 Cadillac Cadillac Escalade (Global Hybrid Cooperation, 2009 model) Automobile
2008 Chevrolet Chevrolet Malibu (BAS, mild hybrid, canceled in 2009) Automobile
2008 Chevrolet Chevrolet Tahoe (Global Hybrid Cooperation, 2008 model, SUV, RWD/AWD) Automobile
2008 Chevrolet Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid (Global Hybrid Cooperation, first full hybrid full-size pickup, 2009 model) Automobile
2008 Dodge Dodge Durango (Global Hybrid Cooperation, SUV, 2009 model) Automobile
2008 GMC GMC Sierra Hybrid (Global Hybrid Cooperation, 2009 model) Automobile
2008 GMC GMC Yukon Hybrid (Global Hybrid Cooperation, 2008 model) Automobile
2008 Saturn Corporation Saturn AURA Green Line (mild hybrid, 2008–2010 model Automobile
2008 Toyota Toyota Crown hybrid Automobile redesign, now a full hybrid, Japanese market
2008 BYD Auto BYD F3DM Plug-in hybrid, (China market) Automobile
2008 Komatsu Limited Komatsu PC200-8 Hybrid excavator Excavator
2009 BMW BMW X6 ActiveHybrid Automobile Global Hybrid Cooperation, BMW's first full hybrid, US market
2009 Ford Ford Fusion Hybrid (2010 model year, midsize car) Automobile
2009 Honda Honda Insight (2010 model year, second-generation model, now as a 5-door hatchback) Automobile
2009 Lexus Lexus RX 450h Automobile 2010 model, 2GR-FXE V6 engine, 2nd generation
2009 Lexus Lexus HS 250h/Toyota Sai Automobile 2AZ-FXE engine, similar to Camry hybrid
2009 Lincoln-Mercury Mercury Milan Hybrid (2010 model, midsize car) Automobile
2009 Mercedes-Benz Mercedes S400 BlueHybrid (Global Hybrid Cooperation, mild hybrid, first lithium-ion battery hybrid and first Mercedes hybrid) Automobile
2009 Toyota Toyota Prius Automobile 3rd generation, 2010 model year, 2ZR-FXE I4 engine
2009 Phoenix Motorcars Phoenix Motorcars Automobile Starts selling plug-in hybrid SUV & Truck in California 2009 (also available all-electric); Assembled in the United States; no projected release date outside California yet
2009 Hyundai Motor Company Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid Automobile first hybrid to adopt advanced lithium polymer (Li–Poly) batteries and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel; South Korean market only
2010 BMW BMW ActiveHybrid 7 (mild hybrid, lithium-ion battery) Automobile
2010 Fiat Fiat Panda hybrid fuel cell/battery Automobile
2010 Honda Honda CR-Z Automobile
2010 Honda Honda Fit Hybrid[12] Automobile
2010 Hyundai Hyundai Hybrid Automobile 2011 model, sales began end of 2010
2010 Toyota Toyota Auris Hybrid Automobile 2ZR-FXE I4 engine. similar to 3rd gen Prius powertrain
2010 Toyota Toyota Highland hybrid Automobile revised hybrid powertrain, similar to RX 450h, 2011 model
2010 Mazda Mazda Tribute Crossover
2010 Lincoln Lincoln MKZ Hybrid Automobile 2011 model
2010 Porsche Porsche Cayenne S Automobile 2011 model, sales began end of 2010
2010 Chevrolet Volt Automobile 2011 model
2010 Alexander Dennis Alexander Dennis Enviro350H Bus
2010 Optare Optare Versa Bus
2010 Porsche Porsche 918 Spyder Automobile 2014 Model. 4.6L V8 engine + 2 electric motors – 823 bhp (614 kW; 834 PS). Plug-in hybrid.
2011 Honda Honda Civic Hybrid Automobile 2011 redesign, 1.5L engine, lithium-ion batter
2011 Hyundai Kia Optima Hybrid Automobile 2011 model
2011 Infiniti Infiniti M35 Hybrid Automobile 2011 model
2011 Toyota Toyota Prius v/Toyota Prius α Automobile 2012 model. It will be called Prius + in Europe
2011 Toyota Toyota Camry Hybrid Automobile 2012 model
2011 Volkswagen VW Touareg Hybrid SUV 2012 model
2011 Fisker Automotive Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid Automobile 2012 model
2011 Lexus Lexus CT 200h hybrid Automobile similar to Prius powertrain, 2ZR-FXE I4 engine
2011 Peugeot Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 Automobile The world's first production diesel-electric hybrid
2011 Peugeot Peugeot 508 RXH Automobile diesel-electric hybrid
2011 Porsche Panamera S Hybrid Automobile 2012 Model
2011 Citroën Citroën DS5 HYbrid4 Automobile diesel-electric hybrid
2011 Mercedes-Benz E 300 Bluetec Hybrid, E 400 Hybrid Automobile 2012 - 2016 Model Years. E 300 Bluetec Hybrid is a diesel-electric hybrid.
2011 Toyota Toyota Aqua hybrid Automobile Japan only. Named Prius c in the rest of the world
2012 BYD Qin plug-in hybrid Automobile
2012 Toyota Toyota Prius c hybrid Automobile Several world markets except Europe
2012 Toyota Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Automobile It is based on the 2012 Prius third generation. Available in Japan, U.S. and Europe
2012 Toyota Toyota Yaris Hybrid Automobile Europe only. Available since June 2012.[13]
2012 Toyota Toyota Camry Hybrid 2nd generation Automobile 2012 model
2012 Honda Acura ILX Hybrid
2012 Toyota Lexus ES 300h Automobile 2012 model
2012 BMW BMW ActiveHybrid 5 2013 model
2012 BMW BMW ActiveHybrid 3 2013 model
2012 Ford Ford Fusion Hybrid 2nd generation Automobile 2013 model
2012 Ford Ford C-Max Hybrid Compact MPV 2013 model
2012 Ford Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid Compact MPV/SUV 2013 model
2012 Volvo Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (diesel) Wagon Scheduled for November 2012 (Europe only)
2012 Volkswagen Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid Automobile Scheduled for late 2012 as a 2013 model
2012 Toyota Toyota Avalon Hybrid Automobile 2013 model year
2013 Ford Ford Fusion Energi plug-in hybrid Automobile U.S. sales scheduled to begin by early 2013.
2013 Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV SUV Sales scheduled to begin in the Japanese market in the first half of 2013
2013 Honda Accord Hybrid Automobile 2014 Model Year
2013 Honda Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Automobile 2014 Model Year
2013 BMW BMW i3 REx Automobile This is the plug-in hybrid version of all-electric car scheduled for late 2013
2013 Fisker Fisker Surf Production is scheduled for 2013
2013 General Motors Cadillac ELR plug-in hybrid Automobile Scheduled for U.S. market launch by late 2013 as a 2014 model year.
2013 McLaren McLaren P1 Automobile 3.8L Twin-turbo V8 engine with KERS – 903 bhp (673 kW; 916 PS). Can run on battery alone.
2013 Ferrari LaFerrari Automobile 2014 Model Year. All Sold. 6.3L V12 engine with KERS – 963 bhp (718 kW; 976 PS).
2013 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid Automobile 2014 Model Year
2013 Roewe 550 PHEV Automobile
2014 Audi A3 Sportback e-tron Automobile
2014 BMW BMW i8 Automobile Retail deliveries began in June 2014
2014 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid SUV 2015 Model Year
2014 Volkswagen XL1 Automobile Limited run of 250 vehicles.
2014 Volkswagen Golf GTE Automobile
2015 BMW BMW 225xe iPerformance Automobile Retail deliveries began late 2015
2015 BMW X5 xDrive 40e iPerformance SUV 2016 Model Year
2015 BYD Tang SUV
2015 Chevrolet Volt Automobile 2016 Model Year
2015 Hyundai Sonata PHEV Automobile 2016 Model Year
2014 Audi Q7 e-tron SUV
2015 Mercedes-Benz C350e Automobile 2016 Model Year
2015 Mercedes-Benz GLC 350e SUV 2016 Model Year
2015 Mercedes-Benz GLE 550e SUV 2016 Model Year
2015 Mercedes-Benz S500e Automobile 2016 Model Year
2015 Mercedes-Benz C350e Automobile 2016 Model Year
2015 Toyota RAV4 SUV 2016 Model Year
2015 Volvo XC90 T8 SUV 2016 Model Year
2015 Volkswagen Passat GTE Automobile
2016 BMW BMW 330e iPerformance Automobile Retail deliveries began 2016
2016 BMW 740e iPerformance Automobile 2017 Model Year
2016 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid Van 2017 Model Year
2016 Ferrari LaFerrari Aperta Automobile 2016 Model Year.
2016 Hyundai Hyundai Ioniq Automobile Retail deliveries began 2016
2016 Kia Niro SUV 2017 Model Year
2016 Kia Optima PHEV Automobile 2017 Model Year
2016 Toyota Prius Prime Automobile 2017 Model Year
2016 Volvo S90 T8 Automobile 2017 Model Year
2016 Zinoro 60H Automobile
2017 Honda/Acura Honda NSX Automobile 2017 Model Year. Released March 14, 2016. 3.5L V6 engine – 573 bhp (427 kW; 581 PS).
2017 Honda Clarity Plug-in Hybrid Automobile 2017 Model Year.
2017 Mini Countryman S E ALL4 PHEV SUV 2018 Model Year.
2017 Volvo XC60 T8 SUV 2018 Model Year.
2017 Lexus LC500h Automobile 2018 Model Year and first car to employ a dual transmission (CVT and 4-speed automatic)
2017 Cadillac CT6 Plug-in Hybrid Automobile
2018 Land Rover Range Rover P400e SUV 2019 Model Year.
2018 Toyota Corolla Hybrid Automobile 2019 Model Year.
2020 Fiat 500 Hybrid Automobile mild hybrid
2020 Ford F-150 PowerBoost Truck 2021 Model Year.
2020 Toyota Sienna Van 2021 Model Year.
2020 Toyota Venza SUV 2021 Model Year.
2020 Toyota Corolla Cross Hybrid SUV 2021 Model Year.
2021 Opel Astra Hybrid Automobile 2022 Model Year.
2022 Toyota Urban Cruiser Hyryder Hybrid SUV 2022 Model Year
2022 Toyota Innova Zenix Hybrid MPV 2022 Model Year

Early designs: 1899-1917[edit]


Date unknown[edit]

Hybrid Volvo 7700H bus at the Czech Bus Fair 2011
Belkommunmash AKSM-4202K in Minsk, Belarus

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Fiat 131 ibrida: un'occasione mancata". Ruoteclassiche (in Italian). 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  2. ^ Lösch, Annamaria, ed. (1981), "Electric Cars", World Cars 1981, Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books: 44, ISBN 0-910714-13-4
  3. ^ Ago, Masterlukein #cars • 4 Years (2018-03-27). "Alfa Romeo 33 Hybrid, 10 years before the Prius!!". Steemit. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  4. ^ Licata, Matteo (2022-03-22). "5 Things You Didn't Know About The Alfa Romeo 33". Roadster Life. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  5. ^ Cars, Story (2021-11-05). "1995 Fiat Vanzic". Story Cars. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  6. ^ "L'occasion manquée". Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  7. ^ DaimlerChrysler Commercial Buses North America Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Hybrid - Hino Australia". Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  9. ^ "E-One: Rescues". Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
  10. ^ "Update on Eaton Medium-Duty Electric Hybrids". Green Car Congress.
  11. ^ "Eaton Corporation Introduces Its First Commercially Available Hybrid Power System in China with Beiqi Foton Bus Company and Guangzhou Yiqi Bus: (The following news release was also issued by Eaton in China on Jan. 14)". Archived from the original on 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  12. ^ "Honda to Begin Sales of Two More Hybrid Models in 2010" (Press release). Honda. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  13. ^ Philippe Crowe (2012-06-25). "France-Sourced Toyota Yaris US-Bound in 2013". Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  14. ^ Edelstein, Stephen. "Do hybrid or electric supercars still have to roar to be taken seriously?". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  15. ^ (in French) Les voitures hybrides dans l'histoire Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine on
  16. ^ History of Hybrid Vehicles | Hybrid Cars Archived 2009-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ a b "The 1899 Lohner Porsche, the first Hybrid Vehicle?".
  18. ^ Extract of A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Motor vehicles for business purposes; A practical handbook for those interested in the transport of passengers and goods, 1905
  19. ^ "CASTROSUA Fabricante de carrocer as de autobuses y autocares".
  20. ^ "Nothing found for Article Asp?indexid=996". Archived from the original on 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
  21. ^ "Autobus Ibridi – Trentino trasporti S.p.A." Retrieved 2016-12-01.
  22. ^ "Scania testing unique hybrid buses in Stockholm - Scania". Archived from the original on 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
  23. ^ "WPK » Kolejne solarisy w Sosnowcu".
  24. ^ "Solaris will supply first hybrid bus in Poland to MPK Poznan Transportweekly . Com".
  25. ^ AG, Regionalbus Lenzburg. "Hybrid-Gelenkbus Solaris U18 H2 « Fahrzeugpark « Zahlen und Fakten « Über uns « Regionalbus Lenzburg AG".
  26. ^ "Tecnobus – Autobus e minibus per il trasporto pubblico". Archived from the original on 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
  27. ^ "Hybrid - Hybrid : Volvo Buses". Archived from the original on 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
  28. ^ "China's New Hybrid Cars: Almost Affordable in China".
  29. ^ "Chang'an Motors - First Chinese Hybrid Car Manufacturer Continues Momentum - CleanCarTalk". Archived from the original on 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2012-10-09.

External links[edit]