List of hyperaccumulators

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article covers known hyperaccumulators, accumulators or species tolerant to the following: Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Naphthalene, Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn).

See also:

Hyperaccumulators table – 1[edit]

hyperaccumulators and contaminants : Al, Ag, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Mo, naphthalene, Pb, Se, Zn – accumulation rates
Contaminant Accumulation rates (in mg/kg dry weight) Binomial name English name H-Hyperaccumulator or A-Accumulator P-Precipitator T-Tolerant Notes Sources
Al A- Agrostis castellana highland bentgrass As(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin: Portugal. [1]: 898 
Al 1000 Hordeum vulgare Barley 25 records of plants. [1]: 891 [2]
Al Hydrangea spp. Hydrangea (a.k.a. Hortensia)
Al Aluminium concentrations in young leaves, mature leaves, old leaves, and roots were found to be 8.0, 9.2, 14.4, and 10.1 mg g1, respectively.[3] Melastoma malabathricum L. Blue Tongue, or Native Lassiandra P competes with Al and reduces uptake.[4]
Al Solidago hispida (Solidago canadensis L.) Hairy Goldenrod Origin Canada. [1]: 891 [2]
Al 100 Vicia faba Horse Bean [1]: 891 [2]
Ag 10-1200 Salix miyabeana Willow Ag(T) Seemed able to adapt to high AgNO3 concentrations on a long timeline [5]
Ag Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [1]: 19 [6]
Ag Salix spp. Osier spp. Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[1]: 19  Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [1]: 19 
Ag Amanita strobiliformis European Pine Cone Lepidella Ag(H) Macrofungi, Basidiomycete. Known from Europe, prefers calcareous areas [9]
Ag 10-1200 Brassica juncea Indian Mustard Ag(H) Can form alloys of silver-gold-copper [10]
As 100 Agrostis capillaris L. Common Bent Grass, Browntop. (= A. tenuris) Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) [1]: 891 
As H- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), Mn(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]: 898 
As 1000 Agrostis tenerrima Trin. Colonial bentgrass 4 records of plants [1]: 891 [11]
As 2-1300 Cyanoboletus pulverulentus Ink Stain Bolete contains dimethylarsinic acid Europe [12]
As 27,000 (fronds)[13] Pteris vittata L. Ladder brake fern or Chinese brake fern 26% of As in the soil removed after 20 weeks' plantation, about 90% As accumulated in fronds.[14] Root extracts reduce arsenate to arsenite.[15]
As 100-7000 Sarcosphaera coronaria pink crown, violet crown-cup, or violet star cup As(H) Ectomycorrhizal ascomycete, known from Europe [16][17]
Be No reports found for accumulation [1]: 891 
Cr Azolla spp. mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern [1]: 891 [18]
Cr H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1]: 898 [19]
Cr Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) Cultivated in agriculture. [1]: 19, 898 [20]
Cr Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [6][1]: 19 
Cr A- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]: 898 
Cr 1000 Dicoma niccolifera 35 records of plants [1]: 891 
Cr roots naturally absorb pollutants, some organic compounds believed to be carcinogenic,[21] in concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water.[22] Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cu(A), Hg(H),[21] Pb(H),[21] Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[21][23] and pesticides.[24] Pantropical/Subtropical. Plants sprayed with 2,4-D may accumulate lethal doses of nitrates.[25] 'The troublesome weed' – hence an excellent source of bioenergy.[21] [1]: 898 
Cr Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction and rhizofiltration [1]: 19, 898 
Cr A- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Hg(H), Pb(H) [1]: 898 
Cr Medicago sativa Alfalfa [1]: 891 [26]
Cr Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H), Cu(T) [1]: 891, 898 [27]
Cr Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[1]: 19  Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [1]: 19 
Cr Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) [1]: 891, 898 [28]
Cr Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1]: 891, 898 [28]
Cr 100 Jamesbrittenia fodina Hilliard
Sutera fodina Wild
[1]: 891 [29][30]
Cr A- Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. T. caerulescens may acidify its rhizosphere, which would affect metal uptake by increasing available metals[31] [1]: 19, 891, 898 [32][33][34]
Cu 9000 Aeolanthus biformifolius [35]
Cu Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Pb(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]: 898 
Cu A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Ni(A), Pb(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]: 898 
Cu H- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1]: 898 [19]
Cu Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) cultivated [1]: 19, 898 [20]
Cu H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]: 898 
Cu Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H), Pb(H), Zn(A), Also Cs, Sr, U,[23] and pesticides.[24] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]: 898 
Cu 1000 Haumaniastrum robertii
(Lamiaceae)
Copper flower 27 records of plants. Origin Africa. This species' phanerogam has the highest cobalt content. Its distribution could be governed by cobalt rather than copper.[36] [1]: 891 [33]
Cu Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction with rhizofiltration [1]: 898 [33]
Cu 1000 Larrea tridentata Creosote Bush 67 records of plants. Origin U.S. [1]: 891 [33]
Cu H- Lemna minor Duckweed Pb(H), Cd(H), Zn(A) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]: 898 
Cu Ocimum centraliafricanum Copper plant Cu(T), Ni(T) Origin Southern Africa [37]
Cu T- Pistia stratiotes Water Lettuce Cd(T), Hg(H), Cr(H) Pantropical. Origin South U.S.A. Aquatic herb. [1]: 898 
Cu Thlaspi caerulescens Alpine pennycress, Alpine Pennycress, Alpine Pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. Cu noticeably limits its growth.[34] [1]: 19, 891, 898 [31][32][33][34]
Mn A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(A), Pb(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]: 898 
Mn Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Pb(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]: 898 
Mn Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard [1]: 19 [20]
Mn 23,000 (maximum) 11,000 (average) leaf Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. & Sav.) C.B.Shang & J.Y.Huang koshiabura Origin Japan. Forest tree. [38]
Mn Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction and rhizofiltration [1]: 19 
Mn 1000 Macadamia neurophylla
(now Virotia neurophylla (Guillaumin) P. H. Weston & A. R. Mast)
28 records of plants [1]: 891 [39]
Mn 200 [1]: 891 
Hg A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A), Pb(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1]: 898 [19]
Hg Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Pb, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [1]: 19 [6]
Hg Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Pb(H), Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[23] and pesticides.[24] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]: 898 
Hg H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Pb(H) [1]: 898 
Hg 1000 Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce Cd(T), Cr(H), Cu(T) 35 records of plants [1]: 891, 898 [33][40][full citation needed]
Hg Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[1]: 19  Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalix);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [1]: 19 
Mo 1500 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(H) phytoextraction [1]: 19, 891, 898 [31][32][33][34]
Naphthalene Festuca arundinacea Tall Fescue Increases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [41]
Naphthalene Trifolium hirtum Pink clover, rose clover Decreases catabolic genes and the mineralization of naphthalene. [41]
Pb A- Agrostis castellana 'Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Zn(A) Origin Portugal. [1]: 898 
Pb Ambrosia artemisiifolia Ragweed [6]
Pb Armeria maritima Seapink Thrift [6]
Pb Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Zn(H) Origin Japan. [1]: 898 
Pb A- Azolla filiculoides Pacific mosquitofern Cu(A), Ni(A), Mn(A) Origin Africa. Floating plant. [1]: 898 
Pb A- Bacopa monnieri Smooth Water Hyssop, Water hyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola Cd(H), Cr(H), Cu(H), Hg(A) Origin India. Aquatic emergent species. [1]: 898 [19]
Pb H- Brassica juncea Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A), Zn(H) 79 recorded plants. Phytoextraction [1]: 19, 891, 898 [6][20][31][33][34][42]
Pb Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, Zn Phytoextraction [1]: 19 [6]
Pb Brassica oleracea Ornemental Kale and Cabbage, Broccoli [6]
Pb H- Vallisneria americana Tape Grass Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(H) Native to Europe and North Africa. Widely cultivated in the aquarium trade. [1]: 898 
Pb Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Zn(A). Also Cs, Sr, U,[23] and pesticides.[24] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]: 898 
Pb Festuca ovina Blue Sheep Fescue [6]
Pb Imopoea trifida Morning glory Phytoextraction and rhizofiltration [1]: 19, 898 [6][7][42]
Pb H- Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Cd(H), Cr(A), Hg(H) [1]: 898 
Pb H- Lemna minor Duckweed Cd(H), Cu(H), Zn(H) Native to North America and widespread worldwide. [1]: 898 
Pb Salix viminalis Common Osier Cd, U, Zn,[7] Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products (S. spp.);[1]: 19  Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes) [7]
Pb H- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]: 898 
Pb Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Zn(A) Native to North America. [1]: 891, 898 [28]
Pb Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress, Alpine pennygrass Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo(H), Ni(H), Zn(H) Phytoextraction. [1]: 19, 891, 898 [31][32][33][34]
Pb Thlaspi rotundifolium Round-leaved Pennycress [6]
Pb Triticum aestivum Common Wheat [6]
Se .012-20 Amanita muscaria Fly agaric Cap contains higher concentrations than stalks[43]
Se Brassica juncea Indian mustard Rhizosphere bacteria enhance accumulation.[44] [1]: 19 
Se Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn Phytoextraction. [1]: 19 [6]
Se Low rates of selenium volatilization from selenate-supplied Muskgrass (10-fold less than from selenite) may be due to a major rate limitation in the reduction of selenate to organic forms of selenium in Muskgrass. Chara canescens Desv. & Lois Muskgrass Muskgrass treated with selenite contains 91% of the total Se in organic forms (selenoethers and diselenides), compared with 47% in Muskgrass treated with selenate.[45] 1.9% of the total Se input is accumulated in its tissues; 0.5% is removed via biological volatilization.[46] [47]
Se Bassia scoparia
(a.k.a. Kochia scoparia)
burningbush, ragweed, summer cypress, fireball, belvedere and Mexican firebrush, Mexican fireweed U,[7] Cr, Pb, Hg, Ag, Zn Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). Phytoextraction. [1]: 19, 898 
Se Salix spp. Osier spp. Ag, Cr, Hg, petroleum hydrocarbures, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[1]: 19  Cd, Pb, U, Zn (S. viminalis);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [1]: 19 
Zn A- Agrostis castellana Highland Bent Grass Al(A), As(H), Mn(A), Pb(A) Origin Portugal. [1]: 898 
Zn Athyrium yokoscense (Japanese false spleenwort?) Cd(A), Cu(H), Pb(H) Origin Japan. [1]: 898 
Zn Brassicaceae Mustards, mustard flowers, crucifers or cabbage family Cd(H), Cs(H), Ni(H), Sr(H) Phytoextraction [1]: 19 
Zn Brassica juncea L. Indian mustard Cd(A), Cr(A), Cu(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Pb(P), U(A). Larvae of Pieris brassicae do not even sample its high-Zn leaves. (Pollard and Baker, 1997) [1]: 19, 898 [20]
Zn Brassica napus Rapeseed plant Ag, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se Phytoextraction [1]: 19 [6]
Zn Helianthus annuus Sunflower Phytoextraction and rhizofiltration [1]: 19 [7]
Zn Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Cd(H), Cr(A), Cu(A), Hg(H), Pb(H). Also Cs, Sr, U,[23] and pesticides.[24] Pantropical/Subtropical, 'the troublesome weed'. [1]: 898 
Zn Salix viminalis Common Osier Ag, Cr, Hg, Se, petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents, MTBE, TCE and by-products;[1]: 19  Cd, Pb, U (S. viminalis);[7] Potassium ferrocyanide (S. babylonica L.)[8] Phytoextraction. Perchlorate (wetland halophytes). [7]
Zn A- Salvinia molesta Kariba weeds or water ferns Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H), Zn(A) Origin India. [1]: 898 
Zn 1400 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) Bladder campion Ernst et al. (1990)
Zn Spirodela polyrhiza Giant Duckweed Cd(H), Cr(H), Ni(H), Pb(H) Native to North America. [1]: 891, 898 [28]
Zn H-10,000 Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) Alpine pennycress Cd(H), Cr(A), Co(H), Cu(H), Mo, Ni(H), Pb(H) 48 records of plants. May acidify its own rhizosphere, which would facilitate absorption by solubilization of the metal[31] [1]: 19, 891, 898 [32][33][34][42]
Zn Trifolium pratense Red Clover Nonmetal accumulator. Its rhizosphere is denser in bacteria than that of Thlaspi caerulescens, but T. caerulescens has relatively more metal-resistant bacteria.[31]

Cs-137 activity was much smaller in leaves of larch and sycamore maple than of spruce: spruce > larch > sycamore maple.

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